Warning System (EWS) refers to the strategic defense on a par with anti-missile defense systems, space control and space defense. Currently, the early warning system are part of the troops aerospace defense as the following units - missile defense division (consisting of Command and missile defense), Main Center for Missile Attack Warning and Main Space Intelligence Center (as part of Space Command).
The EWS of Russia consists of:
- the first (cosmic) echelon - a group of spacecraft designed to detect BR launches from anywhere on the planet;
- the second echelon, consisting of a network of ground-based radar long-range (up to 6000km.) detection, including the missile defense radar of Moscow.
Located on the space orbit satellites continuously warning system are monitoring the earth's surface using infrared matrix with low sensitivity is fixed at the start of each IDB emitted torch and immediately transmit information to EWS KP.
Currently, there is no reliable data on the composition of the Russian satellite constellation in the open source.
As of 23 in October 2007, the orbital constellation SPRN consisted of three satellites. Geostationary orbit was a US-KMO (Cosmos-2379 24.08.2001 launched on the year) and two US-KS on highly elliptical orbit (space-2422 21.07.2006 put into orbit, the Space-2430 23.10.2007 launched on the year).
27 June 2008 was launched by Cosmos-2440. 30 March 2012, another satellite of the Cosmos-2479 series was launched into orbit.
Russian early warning system satellites are considered to be very outdated and do not fully meet modern requirements. Back in 2005, high-ranking military did not hesitate to criticize both the satellites of this type and the system as a whole. The then deputy commander of the Space Forces armament General Oleg Gromov, speaking in the Federation Council, said: "We can not even rebuild in orbit minimum required composition of warning devices of the missile attack at the expense of launching hopelessly outdated and 71H6 73D6 satellites."
Now in service with the Russian Federation are a number of early warning systems, which are controlled from the headquarters in Solnechnogorsk. There are also two KPs in the Kaluga region, not far from the village of Rogovo and not far from Komsomolsk-on-Amur on the shore of Lake Hummi.
Satellite image of Google Earth: the main SPRN KPU in the Kaluga region
Established here in radio transparent domes 300-ton antenna continuously monitored group of military satellites in HEO and geosynchronous orbits.
Satellite image of Google Earth: spare CPRMS near Komsomolsk
At the SPRN, the continuous processing of information obtained from spacecraft and ground stations is carried out, with its subsequent transfer to the headquarters in Solnechnogorsk.
View of the reserve control room SPRN from the side of Lake Hummi
Directly on the territory of Russia there were three radar stations: Dnepr-Daugava in the city of Olenegorsk, Dnepr-Dniester-M in Michelevka and the Daryal station in Pechora. In Ukraine, the Dnipro remained in Sevastopol and Mukachevo, which the Russian Federation refused to use because of the too high cost of rent and the technical obsolescence of the radar station. It was also decided to abandon the operation of the Gabala radar station in Azerbaijan. Here, the stumbling block was the blackmail attempt by Azerbaijan and the multiple increase in the cost of rent. This decision of the Russian side caused a shock in Azerbaijan. For the budget of this country the rent was no small help. The job of providing radar operations was the only source of income for many local residents.
Google Earth Satellite Image: Gabala Radar Station in Azerbaijan
The position of the Republic of Belarus is directly opposite, the Volga radar is provided by the Russian Federation for 25 years of free use. In addition, there is a “Window” node in Tajikistan (part of the “Nurek” complex).
A notable addition of the EWS at the end of 90 was the construction and commissioning (1989) of the Don-2Н radar in Pushkin, situated near Moscow, replacing Danube-type stations.
Being a missile defense station, it is simultaneously actively used in the missile attack warning system. The station is a truncated regular pyramid, on all four sides of which are placed round HEADLIGHTS with a diameter of 16 m to track targets and antimissiles and square (10.4х10.4 m) HEADLIGHT for transmitting commands to board the antimissiles. When reflecting the impacts of ballistic missiles, the radar is capable of conducting combat work in an autonomous mode, regardless of the external situation, and in peacetime conditions - in the mode of low radiated power for detecting objects in space.
Satellite image of Google Earth: Moscow PRO "Don-2Н" radar
The ground component of the Missile Attack Warning System (EWS) are radars controlling outer space. Daryal-type detection radar is an over-the-horizon radar missile attack warning system (SPRN).
The development was carried out from 1970-s, in 1984, the station was commissioned.
Satellite image of Google Earth: Daryal radar
The Daryal-type stations should be replaced by a new generation of Voronezh radar stations, which are being built in a year and a half (previously it took from 5 to 10 years).
The newest Russian radar of the Voronezh family is capable of detecting ballistic, space and aerodynamic objects. There are options that operate in the range of meter and decimeter waves. The basis of the radar is a phased array antenna, a fast-assembled module for personnel and several containers with radio-electronic equipment, which makes it possible to modernize the station quickly and at low cost during operation.
PAR Radar Voronezh
Adoption of "Voronezh" allows not only to significantly expand the capabilities of the rocket and space defense, but also to focus the ground grouping of the missile attack warning system on the territory of the Russian Federation.
Google Earth Satellite Image: Voronezh-M Radar Station, Lekhtusi Village, Leningrad Region (4524 object, 73845 military unit)
The high degree of prefabrication and the modular construction of the Voronezh radar made it possible to abandon multi-storey structures and build it within 12-18 months (the previous generation radars entered service in 5-9 years). All the equipment of the station in the container version from the manufacturers is delivered to the places of the subsequent assembly at the pre-concreted site. When installing the Voronezh station, 23-30 units of technological equipment are used (Daryal radar - more than 4000), it consumes 0,7 MW of electricity (Dnepr - 2 MW, Daryal in Azerbaijan - 50 MW), and the number of staff no more than 15 people.
To cover the areas potentially dangerous in terms of a rocket attack, it is planned to put the entire 12 radar of this type on combat duty. The new radar stations will operate both in the meter and in the decimeter range, which will expand the capabilities of the Russian missile attack warning system. The Russian Defense Ministry intends to completely replace all Soviet radars for the early detection of missile launches as part of the state armament program before 2020.
For tracking objects in space, the ships of the measuring complex (CIC) of the 1914 project are intended.
CIC "Marshal Krylov"
Originally planned to build 3 ships, but in the composition fleet only two entered - KIK "Marshal Nedelin" and KIK "Marshal Krylov" (built according to the amended project 1914.1). The third ship, the Marshal of Turquoises, was dismantled on a slipway. Ships were actively used, both to support ICBM tests and to accompany space objects. CFC "Marshal Nedelin" in 1998 was withdrawn from the fleet and disassembled for metal. KIC “Marshal Krylov” is currently in the fleet and is used for its intended purpose, based on Kamchatka in the village of Vilyuchinsk.
Google Earth Satellite Image: Marshal Krylov CIC in Vilyuchinsk
With the advent of military satellites capable of performing many roles, the need arose for their detection and control systems. Such complex systems were necessary for identifying foreign satellites, as well as providing accurate orbital parametric data for the use of weapons systems. For this purpose, the “Window” and “Crohn” systems are used.
The Window system is a fully automated optical tracking station. Optical telescopes scan the night sky, while computer systems analyze the results and filter the stars based on analysis and comparison of speeds, luminosity and trajectories. Then the satellite orbit parameters are calculated, tracked and recorded. The Window can detect and track satellites in Earth orbit at altitudes from 2000 to 40000 kilometers. This, in conjunction with radar systems, has increased space observation capabilities. Radar type "Dniester" were not able to track satellites in high geostationary orbits.
The development of the Window system began at the end of the 1960s. By the end of 1971, prototypes of optical systems intended for use in the “Window” complex were tested at an observatory in Armenia. Preliminary design work was completed in 1976. The construction of the “Window” system near the town of Nurek (Tajikistan) in the area of the Khodzharki village began in 1980 year. By the middle of 1992, the installation of electronic systems and parts of optical sensors was completed. Unfortunately, the civil war in Tajikistan interrupted these works. They resumed in 1994. The system passed operational tests at the end of the 1999 of the year and was put on alert in July of the 2002 of the year.
The main object of the “Window” system consists of ten telescopes covered by large folding domes. Telescopes are divided into two stations, with a detection complex containing six telescopes. Each station has its own control center. Also present is the eleventh smaller dome. In open sources, his role is not disclosed. It may contain some measuring equipment used to assess the atmospheric conditions prior to the activation of the system.
Satellite image of Google Earth: elements of the window complex near the city of Nurek, Tajikistan
It envisaged the construction of four “Window” complexes in various places throughout the USSR and in friendly countries, such as Cuba. In practice, the “Window” complex was implemented only in Nurek. There were also plans to build auxiliary complexes "Window-S" in Ukraine and the eastern part of Russia. In the end, work began only on the eastern "Window-C", which should be located in the Primorsky Territory.
Satellite image of Google Earth: elements of the Window-S complex in Primorye
Window-S is a high-rise optical surveillance system. The Window-S complex is designed to monitor at an altitude between 30 000 and 40 000 kilometers, which allows you to detect and monitor geostationary satellites that are located over a wider area. Work on the Window-S complex began at the beginning of the 1980s. It is not known whether this system was completed, and brought to alert.
The Krona system consists of an early warning radar and an optical tracking system. It is designed to identify and track satellites. The Krona system is able to classify satellites by type. The system consists of three main components:
- Decimeter radar with phased antenna array for target identification
-RLS centimeter range with a parabolic antenna for the target classification
- The optical system combining an optical telescope with a laser system
The krone system has a range of 3200 kilometers and can detect targets in orbit at altitudes up to 40000 kilometers.
The development of the Krona system began in 1974, when it was established that the current spatial tracking systems could not accurately determine the type of satellite being tracked.
The centimeter range radar system is designed for precise orientation and guidance of an optical laser system. The laser system was designed to provide illumination for an optical system that captures images of tracked satellites at night or in clear weather.
The location for the object “Krona” in Karachay-Cherkessia was chosen taking into account favorable meteorological factors and low atmospheric dustiness in the area.
Construction of the Krona facility began in 1979, near the village of Watchtower in southwest Russia. The object was originally planned to be placed together with the observatory in the Zelenchukskaya stanitsa, but concerns about creating mutual interference with such close location of the facilities led to the resettlement of the Krona complex to the area of the Storozhnaya stanitsa.
The erection of capital facilities for the Krona complex in this area was completed in 1984, but factory and state testing was delayed until 1992.
Before the collapse of the USSR, it was planned to use MiG-31D fighter-interceptors armed with 79М6 “Contact” missiles (with a kinetic warhead) to destroy enemy satellites in orbit as part of the Krona complex. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the 3 fighter MiG-31D went to Kazakhstan.
Google Earth satellite image: centimeter radar and optical-laser part of the Krona complex
State acceptance tests were completed by January 1994. Due to financial difficulties, the system was put into trial operation only in November 1999. As of 2003, the work on the optical - laser system was not fully completed due to financial difficulties, but in 2007, it was announced that "Krona" was on duty duty.
Satellite image of Google Earth: decimeter radar with a phased antenna array of the Krona complex
Initially, during the Soviet era, it was planned to build three Krona complexes. The second complex “Krona” was supposed to be located near the “Window” complex in Tajikistan. The third complex began to be built near Nakhodka in the Far East. Due to the collapse of the USSR, work on the second and third complexes was suspended. Later, work in the Nakhodka area was resumed; this system was completed in a simplified version. The system in the Nakhodka region is sometimes called the “Krona-N”, it is represented only by a UHF radar with a phased antenna array. Work on the construction of the complex “Krona” in Tajikistan was not resumed.
The radar stations of the missile attack warning system, the Window and the Krona complexes allow our country to conduct operational monitoring of outer space, timely detect and fend off possible threats, and give a timely and adequate response in case of possible aggression. These systems are used to perform various military and civilian missions, including collecting information about space debris and calculating the safe orbits of operating spacecraft. The functioning of the space monitoring systems Okna and Krona plays an important role in the field of national defense and the international exploration of outer space.
The article presents materials obtained from open sources, a list of which is listed. All satellite images courtesy of Google Earth.