Military Review

Container radar: improvement of the head and plans for the construction of new

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December, 2 December, the latest radar station 29B6 "Container" has put in on test combat duty. This station is designed to detect and determine the coordinates of various air targets at a distance of more than 3000 kilometers. According to the plans of the Ministry of Defense, over the coming years, more than a dozen Container radars will be built in different parts of the country, which will allow us to observe the airspace around Russia in a wide range of distances and altitudes.


Container radar: improvement of the head and plans for the construction of new
Reception part of the radar ZGO 29B6 "Container", Kovylkino, Mordovia, November-December 2013


The main station "Container", built near the town of Kovylkino (Mordovia), will carry out combat duty in the coming months. This is due to the fact that the latest electronics should be tested and, if the need arises, be refined. Only after some time has elapsed, the station will begin combat duty in normal mode. Exact information about the timing of setting the 29B6 “Container” radar for combat duty is not available.

A week after the start of the experimental combat duty of the new station, December 9, the Minister of Defense of Russia S. Shoigu demanded with all responsibility to treat the work to improve it. He instructed the responsible persons to complete the equipping of the new “Container” station with all the necessary equipment in exact accordance with the existing schedules. According to the minister, a new type of radar can significantly expand the horizons of control and monitoring in the western direction. This is the main reason for meeting the deadlines.

The construction and improvement of the 29B6 “Container” over-the-horizon radar detection station is an important project that can have a major impact on the country's defense capability. The priority of construction is due to the high performance of the new stations. First of all, this is the range and height of detection. According to reports, the radar "Container" can find targets at a distance of more than 3000 kilometers and at an altitude of 100 km. At the same time, the station is able to accurately determine the coordinates of the detected object. In addition, the radar has a viewing sector width 180 °, which accordingly affects the size of the zone, which it can control.

The construction of new radar over-the-horizon detection will be relatively simple and fast. All units of the Container station are made in the form of quickly installed modules and, according to some sources, do not require the construction of any complex structures. Thus, for the installation of the new station, it will be necessary to clear and prepare the site, as well as to place all the necessary blocks, connect them together and tune them. All these procedures will be less time consuming compared to the construction of similar-purpose radars for older models.


Antenna system of the transmitting part of the radar ZGO 29B6 "Container"


The complex built in Mordovia consists of a large number of towers with antennas placed on them, as well as several modules with signal processing equipment. It should be noted that only the receiving complex is located near the town of Kovylkino. The 29B6 radar transmitter is located more than 300 kilometers from it, in the Nizhny Novgorod region, not far from the city of Gorodets.

According to some reports, Container Station uses short radio waves, which are most effective in over-the-horizon radar. The signal with a frequency of 3-30 MHz allows to achieve high accuracy in determining the coordinates of the detected object, as well as to reduce losses in reflection from the ionosphere. The work of over-the-horizon radar detection involves the use of a radio signal reflected from the ionosphere. Station emitter sends a signal up, at some angle to the horizon. Reflecting from the upper atmosphere, the signal returns to the ground and hits any objects, including enemy aircraft or missiles. The signal reflected from the object is returned to the ionosphere, and then falls on the receiving radar antennas.

The main task in the development of such systems is to create algorithms for processing the received signal, allowing it to isolate the necessary part of it, because an extremely weak signal is returned to receiving antennas, which can also be distorted by various disturbances in the ionosphere or the operation of electronic warfare agents. It is worth noting that this is why the Duga radar, built several decades ago, could not locate the detected object with high accuracy.


Diagram of the receiving antenna system of the radar ZGO 29B6 "Container"


The development of old projects and the application of new technologies allowed us to improve the processing algorithms for the received signal. The result was a significant increase in the accuracy of determining the coordinates of the detected object. Accurate information about similar characteristics of the 29B6 “Container” radar has not yet been announced - only superiority to previous systems of a similar purpose is mentioned.

The main container radar "Container", which took up experimental combat duty in early December, will monitor the western regions of the country and the near abroad. Recently, preparations for the construction of the first serial “Container” station began in the Far East. In the future, it is planned to build several more radars of the new model, which will increase the "field of view" of the aerospace defense forces and thereby increase their potential.


On the materials of the sites:
http://function.mil.ru/
http://ria.ru/
http://vesti.ru/
http://odnako.org/
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  1. os9165
    os9165 11 December 2013 07: 47 New
    +5
    Very good news - a decent complex. Probably a typo - a single-hop ZG “Container” type radar can find moving targets at a range of up to 3000 kilometers.
    1. Thunderbolt
      Thunderbolt 11 December 2013 08: 49 New
      +8
      The general designer of the enterprise, Sergei Saprykin, told reporters: "Such radars detect any aircraft, everything that moves, starting from acceleration along the runway and further throughout the airspace at the distance of the first over-the-horizon jump at a distance to 3000 kilometers".
      According to him, the capabilities of the "Container" radar make it possible to track even small aircraft. "I myself, sitting in the receiving position of such a station in Mordovia, observed how Dutch pilots learn to fly on small sports planes," he said.
      t_sposobnykh_dostat_do_gollandii / 1-1-0-16707
      1. Russ69
        Russ69 11 December 2013 12: 02 New
        +2
        Quote: Thunderbolt
        General designer of the enterprise Sergei Saprykin told reporters: "Such radars detect any aircraft, everything that moves, starting from acceleration along the runway and further in the entire airspace at the distance of the first over-the-horizon jump at a distance of up to 3000 kilometers."

        Back in the spring, in an interview, he said that during the tests, they watched flights of small aircraft in the Netherlands without any problems. From take-off to landing.
      2. AVV
        AVV 11 December 2013 23: 20 New
        0
        When we install such stations throughout the country, then it would be nice to build both Cuba and Venezuela !!! As opposed to the Americans in Western Europe !!! Listen to the Yankees sprinkle with saliva, all kinds of Kerry and Nunlad !!!! !!
  2. gispanec
    gispanec 11 December 2013 08: 19 New
    0
    If a new one was built under Mordovia ... what do we have under Gorodets ?? .. has been standing for 2-3 years ..... looks very much like the one in the picture. Who knows, enlighten .....
    1. Thunderbolt
      Thunderbolt 11 December 2013 08: 57 New
      +2
      In Mordovia, the receiver, you have a transmitter.
  3. albert
    albert 11 December 2013 08: 33 New
    0
    I look at these antennas and the question arises, are they really so different from the American HAARPA? recourse The same kind of thing.
    1. avt
      avt 11 December 2013 10: 01 New
      +3
      Quote: albert
      I look at these antennas and the question arises, are they really so different from the American HAARPA?

      But let the Americans fear and scratch their turnips when the tornado goes. bully Good news +
    2. ultra
      ultra 11 December 2013 14: 34 New
      +3
      Quote: albert
      I look at these antennas and the question arises, are they really so different from the American HAARPA? recourse The same kind of thing.
      The laws of physics are the same for everyone, that's why "it looks the same thing."
  4. jjj
    jjj 11 December 2013 08: 37 New
    +9
    More good and different radars
    1. ramzes1776
      ramzes1776 12 December 2013 22: 58 New
      +2
      God grant that over time, the entire airspace of Russia is protected as well as during the Soviet Union !!!
  5. umah
    umah 11 December 2013 09: 21 New
    +3
    Cool! Radar is cool! And the fact that our engineers create is in general masterpieces!
  6. Bongo
    Bongo 11 December 2013 09: 42 New
    +2
    Similar radar systems are peacetime systems. In addition, their noise immunity leaves much to be desired. The performance is very much equal to the state of the atmosphere.
    1. tilovaykrisa
      tilovaykrisa 11 December 2013 10: 21 New
      +3
      This is not a peace time system, but a first strike anticipation.
      1. Bongo
        Bongo 11 December 2013 10: 40 New
        +2
        The systems for the prevention of the first strike are radar SPRN. This radar operates mainly on air targets, besides clogged interference it is very easy.
        1. Ascetic
          Ascetic 11 December 2013 15: 32 New
          11
          Quote: Bongo
          The systems for the prevention of the first strike are radar SPRN. This radar operates mainly on air targets, besides clogged interference it is very easy.

          As in the Soviet "Dugs" there are two antenna arrays for two sub-bands - high-frequency and low-frequency.
          The principle of operation is briefly: the radiation of the antenna reaches the irradiated target not in a straight line but along a broken line of signal re-reflections from the earth's ionosphere and the underlying surface. "multi-hop" over-the-horizon radar is used, in which the radio signal is reflected several times from the ionosphere and the ground. It is planned to build 10-12 such stations, mainly in the European part of Russia.
          Thus, in the SPRN system, one can observe gradual construction of a continuous multi-range field: for example, the northwest “corridor” is closed by stations of meter and decimeter ranges, to which the long meters of “Containers” will soon be added, which is quite logical. That was exactly what was planned in the Union, when the “Volga” decimeter was supposed to be between the “Daryal”, and also the X-bands should be connected to the MARS centimeter range locators in the system, but this is when the long-suffering S-500 becomes. Plus for this you need a single information the warning and combat control field, the country’s missile defense systems are closely linked to the KKP and missile defense systems, all of them are developed as part of a single whole.
          And when everything will be five stars. The mosquito will not fly unnoticed.
    2. Boa kaa
      Boa kaa 11 December 2013 18: 34 New
      +1
      Quote: Bongo
      Efficiency is very much dependent on the state of the atmosphere.

      Probably still the ionosphere. Therefore, will they see a question after a high-altitude nuclear explosive. But then it’s kapets, the war is complete! And so they apparently embodied the idea of ​​a separated transmitter and receiver, plus the Doppler effect (a shift in moving targets), so the stealth will get here, because he will have to reflect p / waves with the upper projection of the glider, and this is already a significant EPR. Maybe I'm wrong, experts will correct. IMHO.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. Andrey57
        Andrey57 11 December 2013 23: 27 New
        +1
        In a high-altitude nuclear explosion, with maximum impact on the ionosphere, all combat electronics will also go to the mattresses and all their vaunted raptors will instantly go blind and deaf, but the remaining un-upgraded MiG-31 will fly quietly hi
      3. Bongo
        Bongo 12 December 2013 01: 42 New
        +2
        And what is the ionosphere is not part of the atmosphere?
  7. lotar
    lotar 11 December 2013 10: 47 New
    0
    All active surveillance systems have one drawback: they are easy to detect and, therefore, it is necessary to strengthen and protect them in the form of appropriate infrastructure and mobile installations. In my opinion, of course, it’s good that more and more new systems are put into operation, but think about passive types of observation.
    1. Boa kaa
      Boa kaa 11 December 2013 18: 46 New
      +2
      Quote: lotar
      it is worth thinking about passive types of observation.

      I didn’t find it myself, but the aksakals said that at one time in Cuba a transmitter (emitter) was deployed and we had reception stations. which reacted to the disturbance of the received signal when crossing the field with foreign objects. In fact, it was a large E / M frame. It was listed on the department of SPRN. I don’t know, they can lie, as usual.
  8. Bongo
    Bongo 11 December 2013 10: 48 New
    +1
    Quote: lotar
    but it is worth thinking about passive forms of observation

    On what physical principles?
    1. lotar
      lotar 11 December 2013 15: 03 New
      +2
      Passive radar is based on the reception of their own radio emission targets, mainly millimeter and centimeter ranges. Passive radar uses electromagnetic radiation from observable objects, it can be thermal radiation characteristic of all objects, active radiation generated by the technical means of the object, or spurious radiation generated by any objects with working electrical devices.
      -radiolocators
      -heat locators
      and etc.
      1. Bongo
        Bongo 12 December 2013 01: 45 New
        +2
        Thermoplangers are effective in direct line of sight. If the target is in the "radio silence" mode, passive radio direction finding is powerless.
  9. albai
    albai 11 December 2013 11: 06 New
    0
    Cool radar will probably be cool if it’s also installed in our mountains, at heights of 3-4-5 thousand, they can specifically penetrate Turkey, Pakistan, etc.
    1. Cpa
      Cpa 12 December 2013 05: 06 New
      +1
      If you manage to drag the antenna fields into the mountains, then you can break through Australia. laughing Although with a certain inclination of the radiation pattern to the horizon, the HF wave is able to go around the entire globe, but this is not guaranteed, therefore, much shorter ranges are written in the performance characteristics.
  10. Starover_Z
    Starover_Z 11 December 2013 13: 29 New
    0
    If it works as promised, then that's just fine! Such stations would cover the northern direction, and not only it, as missile-hazardous from "friendly"-minded partners!
    1. Boa kaa
      Boa kaa 11 December 2013 18: 53 New
      +3
      Quote: Starover_Z
      Such stations would cover the northern direction, and not only it,

      Didn't you serve in the North? Didn't you admire the northern lights, crimson, at minus 41 degrees Celsius? And these are all disturbances of the ionosphere, from which the signal should be reflected. It seems to me that a specialized machine (computer) will be tortured in such conditions to select a useful signal. Therefore, the "Containers" and look to the West and East. IMHO.
    2. Onyx
      Onyx 11 December 2013 21: 22 New
      0
      Quote: Starover_Z
      Such stations would cover the northern direction, and not only it, as missile-dangerous from "friendly"-minded partners!

      In my opinion, the most missile-dangerous direction now is Europe. I think the construction and commissioning of ZGRLS is primarily connected with the need to control the launches of low-flying cruise missiles. Overhead radar SPRN can not control the launches and flight of such missiles. And the fact that, first of all, they were preoccupied with the control of Europe, is connected with the US missile defense system, which is not a missile defense system at all, but an attack system (most likely, cruise missiles will be placed there).
  11. Leshka
    Leshka 11 December 2013 14: 36 New
    0
    deputy date
  12. xtur
    xtur 11 December 2013 15: 30 New
    +2
    a fleet of ships with such ZGRL is needed, and then all the flying targets of the planet will be under control.
    Let missile cruisers and submarines be with them to protect and spread democracy. And then no AUGs are needed :-)
  13. 11 black
    11 black 11 December 2013 15: 56 New
    +4
    I'm wondering - is it possible to detect a small-sized low-flying target with a reflected signal?
    If yes, and the container really knows how to, then our engineers again got ahead of everyone by light years !!! Well, you can create a single coverage area throughout Russia (even the planned 12 with a range of 3000 km will cover a huge area) and if we can to pinpoint everything - from a cruise missile to an ICBM - I just take off my hat ... good
    1. alean245
      alean245 11 December 2013 19: 34 New
      +2
      Such stations operate in the decameter range (i.e., a wavelength of about 10 meters). An ESR of a fighter type target with such a ratio of wavelength and linear dimensions will be in the resonant frequency domain, i.e. it will be possible to detect planes (even made using steath technology) without any problems (however, the accuracy and resolution of such stations leave much to be desired). Here objects with linear dimensions of the order of a meter or less will be problematic to detect. Such a station should also normally detect low-flying targets, in the end it is difficult to hide in the folds of the area from a ray reflected from the ionosphere and coming from above.
    2. vadson
      vadson 11 December 2013 19: 47 New
      0
      if you have a tomahawk, then this is such a small problem :-) to experience it, you either need to launch an ax from the territory of a foreign country, if you don’t see a scoop in the article and you see the radar station over 3000 km and not before, or build it for testing separately with a look to your territory. Well, IMHO, of course
      1. Cpa
        Cpa 12 December 2013 05: 12 New
        0
        There are directors in the antenna field with different angles to the horizon and different frequency ranges, so what about
        Quote: vadson
        the radar sees beyond 3000 km and not BEFORE

        You are mistaken.
    3. poquello
      poquello 11 December 2013 21: 49 New
      +1
      Quote: 11 black
      I'm wondering - is it possible to detect a small-sized low-flying target with a reflected signal?
      If yes, and the container really knows how, then our engineers again were ahead of everyone by light years !!! ...

      Even Moscow-1 Motor Base is replacing, brave network-centric infantrymen did not believe that behind a transmitted packet a shell could fly into the head, but in vain.
    4. The comment was deleted.
  14. crambol
    crambol 11 December 2013 16: 29 New
    +1
    The latest over-the-horizon radar station 29B6 “Container” took up pilot combat duty.

    I am delighted! A bunch of pluses for the article, designers, manufacturers, installers and so on. !!
  15. saag
    saag 11 December 2013 19: 36 New
    +2
    Quote: lotar
    Passive radar is based on the reception of their own radio emission targets, mainly millimeter and centimeter ranges. Passive radar uses electromagnetic radiation from observable objects, it can be thermal radiation characteristic of all objects, active radiation generated by the technical means of the object, or spurious radiation generated by any objects with working electrical devices.
    -radiolocators
    -heat locators
    and etc.

    And how do you think to track the target in these wavelength ranges, if the target is beyond the radio horizon, take into account the radio waves in this range propagate linearly, are not reflected from the ionosphere, the millimeter range is so quickly dissipated and absorbed by atmospheric moisture
  16. Prapor-527
    Prapor-527 11 December 2013 20: 09 New
    0
    [b] [b] [quote = Ascetic] Plus, for this all you need a single information field for warning and combat control, the country's SPRN are closely linked with the means of the KKP and missile defense, they are all developed as part of a single whole. [/ b]
    The Russian Ministry of Defense will begin construction of the National Center for State Defense Management on January 1, 2014, said the head of the military department, Army General Sergei Shoigu, at an expanded board of the Ministry of Defense with the participation of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of Russia, Vladimir Putin.

    “From January 1, we are ready to begin the practical implementation of this decree and the construction of this center. As a result, we will get a unified management system for the entire military organization, ”said Shoigu, ITAR-TASS reports.
  17. voliador
    voliador 11 December 2013 22: 17 New
    +1
    This is good. A continuous radar field is the key to timely detection and response.
  18. uzer 13
    uzer 13 11 December 2013 23: 33 New
    +1
    The principle of short-wave communication with multiple reflection of the radio signal from the ionosphere was discovered by radio amateurs in the 20s of the last century and has since been widely applied in practice. In radar, the whole focus is to highlight a useful reflected signal. If you use an antenna and an electronic amplifier, then the sensitivity such a system will be limited by the internal noise of the first stage of the radio channel amplifier. A large number of dipole antennas installed in one plane allows amplifying weak signals, having The overall signal-to-noise ratio (if the phasing is correct) .Only the viewing angle of 180 degrees causes some doubts. The directional diagram of the dipole antenna is wider, of course, than that of wave-channel type antennas, but not so much as to capture half the horizon. in fact, no less than a dozen have to be built in order to provide a complete all-round view. Antenna systems, initially oriented towards reception, can act on the ionosphere in the presence of powerful generators and energy sources.
    1. Cpa
      Cpa 12 December 2013 05: 43 New
      +1
      Quote: uzer 13
      In radar, the whole trick is to highlight the useful reflected signal. If you use an antenna and an electronic amplifier, the sensitivity of such a system will be limited by the internal noise of the first stage of the radio channel amplifier. A large number of dipole antennas installed in one plane can amplify weak signals, having good signal to noise ratio (if you make the correct phasing)

      There are principles of code separation of the signal from interference, such as CDMA and phase separation (I forgot it in English), which allow us to receive a useful signal below the interference level. If the frequency of several transceivers is different, the task is made even easier. Judging by the reception The antenna field of the radar operates in three frequency ranges.
      Quote: uzer 13
      However, the viewing angle of 180 degrees raises some doubts. The directional diagram of a dipole antenna is wider, of course, than that of wave channel type antennas, but not so much as to capture half the horizon.

      Well, you can use antennas with a switchable radiation pattern, now it is quite feasible, given the diversity of reception and transmission on 300 km.
  19. Manul
    Manul 12 December 2013 12: 00 New
    0
    Can anyone explain why "Container" is better or worse than "Voronezh-M", and how they can complement each other? And I heard that they want to build "Voronezh" .. And now "Containers" ... I'm confused - which is preferable and has higher priority ..?
    1. Bongo
      Bongo 12 December 2013 12: 22 New
      +3
      Radar "Container" is intended mainly for tracking air targets at altitudes of 1000 meters and above. Radar "Voronezh" is a missile attack warning station. Yesterday there was an article about space controls.
  20. hunt1
    hunt1 18 May 2016 15: 09 New
    0
    Putin probably felt the heat in 2010 on his own skin and drew conclusions! such stations are not as simple as it seems all work on the study of the "polar lights" marked p-dr closed and it can still be assumed that thanks to a breakthrough in this area, CRET hinted a lot before it seemed fiction and not only for the sake of radar can be used.