“Military Industrial Courier” continues to publish materials on the problems of the construction of aerospace defense (WKO) of Russia. In the issue of 47, in the article “Zigzags in the Implementation of the EKO Concept”, Kirill Makarov, Doctor of Military Sciences, and Sergey Yagolnikov, Doctor of Technical Sciences, analyzed the existing experience and prospects for the development of this kind of troops. "MIC" is now offering to the attention of readers an article on the rational separation and combination of the operational and administrative functions of directing the strategic actions of the Armed Forces to ensure military security and defense against aerospace attack.
Many military experts and scientists quite rightly point out that one of the fundamental problems of the military security of the Russian Federation and its allies in the aerospace sphere is still that the events held, to put it mildly, do not quite correspond to the content and objective necessity given the development prospects and aerospace weapons confrontation worldwide.
This is largely due to the fact that in our country almost until the end of the 2000s, many of the leaders, organizers and implementers of the military reform carried out at that time, including representatives of the military space forces, actively opposed the concept of "EKO".
At first glance, the truth triumphed, the term "EKO" received official recognition today. However, after careful consideration it turns out that, at the same time, the understanding and interpretation of the concept still remain ambiguous. Unfortunately, it is perceived differently even by those on whom the organization of the aerospace defense of the Russian Federation itself currently depends, as evidenced by numerous publications and conferences.
Historically, in our country, the Armed Forces were built and continue to be built on the basis of a species approach in such a way that the management of each type and branch of the military was exercised by the respective main command. It combines operational and administrative functions into a single unit at all hierarchical levels - from the Minister of Defense to the private.
In the perestroika 90s, civil servants began to appear in the leadership of the Russian Defense Ministry. Many military specialists and scientists in the field of defense against an aerospace attack (WCS) insisted that the organization of aerospace defense is possible, and most importantly, must be carried out simultaneously and in unified design with measures to reorganize the Armed Forces in the framework of military reform. They are convinced that the transformation is aimed at strengthening the main components of the military security of the Russian Federation, especially in the aerospace sphere.
To the surprise of many, the military reform did not begin with strengthening, but on the contrary, with the barbaric destruction of the country's unified air defense system and the Armed Forces, which then formed the basis of the East Kazakhstan region. Only now we have returned to the idea of creating the aerospace defense in a single plan with the general reform of the Armed Forces and the entire military organization of the state. But we do it, I think, not in the way that military science and practice originally proposed and as required in a changed international and domestic situation.
The fact is that from the point of view of military science, the aerospace defense of Russia is a category of theory and practice of military art and military construction. It defines the process of joint activities of all components of a military organization aimed at accomplishing military-strategic tasks in the interests of solving the most important military-political problems of state importance.
This refers to the specific problems associated with ensuring the military, state and public security of the Russian Federation and its allies in the aerospace sphere and deterring from unleashing a large-scale or even world war using weapons as a mass destruction (WMD), and the usual.
According to the National Security Strategy and the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation, the military organization includes the military and special forces of the state - the Armed Forces, other troops, military formations and special services agencies. They are designed to ensure national security, as well as the security of military-industrial complex enterprises, military authorities, and the relevant part of government agencies (see the newspaper “Military-Industrial Complex”, No. 42).
The military-strategic tasks of the country's aerospace defense are so complex that it is impossible to accomplish them with the efforts of a new type of military force created in 2011 in the year under the leadership of the East Kazakhstani Army command. Even though it combines both operational and administrative functions.
This is obvious because the Armed Forces armies as the successor to the Air Defense Forces are essentially defensive aerospace forces (from the strategic and general-purpose forces) of the RF Armed Forces, designed to detect and repel the VKN of a potential enemy.
However, it is necessary to emphasize once again that the concept of "aerospace defense" refers to a process that is broader than simply detecting and repelling an aerospace attack. This means that the status of command of the Armed Forces armies does not correspond to the level, volume and importance of the tasks of the aerospace defense of the Russian Federation.
The main ones are:
Today, the media are considering two ways to further organize the aerospace defense of the Russian Federation. The first is the traditional one, which does not allow separation of the operational and administrative functions of control at all levels of military leadership. In fact, he returns us to those times when the state had the most powerful strategic grouping of defensive aerospace forces in the form of the country's Air Defense Forces with the main task - to warn about the beginning of an aerospace attack and repel it.
This path provides for the further development of the aerospace defense as a branch of the armed forces and its transformation into a form of the Armed Forces. In terms of tasks, composition, structure and operational construction, it is completely identical to the Air Defense Forces of the country. Obviously, by the same analogy, the strategic operation to repel WCS will again be considered the highest form of strategic action in aerospace defense.
This operation, as before, should be planned and carried out under the general guidance of the General Staff and the Ministry of Defense of Russia, under the direct control of the commander-in-chief of the EKO armies (that is, defensive forces), while interacting with other types of armed forces and combat arms (that is, offensive, supporting and special forces). ).
However, in accordance with the Fundamentals of the state policy on the construction and development of the military organization of the Russian Federation, the regulatory legal acts of the Ministry of Defense determined that in modern conditions and in the future, the highest form of strategic actions of the military and special forces of the Russian Federation in the aerospace defense is a strategic defensive aerospace operation of the Armed Forces and other troops , military formations and bodies. It is carried out simultaneously or sequentially in several strategic areas. The operation should be prepared in advance and carried out under the general direction of the Supreme Command (Supreme Command), whose working body is the Armed Forces General Headquarters (Supreme Command Headquarters).
In this regard, a second path is proposed, providing for a rational division and combination of the operational and administrative functions of the military leadership in varying degrees, corresponding to the hierarchical level of the command and control system of the troops involved, forces and assets.
So, it is proposed now to create a new type of air force at the Air Force base - the Aerospace Forces or forces (abbreviated - GVH) with administrative functions. Along with the air force associations, they can include the forces and facilities of the East Kazakhstan region and the Strategic Missile Forces (RVSN). It is assumed that the leadership of the Air and Space Forces will be carried out not by the main (operational) command, but the main (administrative) control of the development of weapons, support and training of combat crews.
It is proposed to transfer the operational functions of the Air Force, Armed Forces and the Strategic Missile Forces commands to a higher level by analogy with the main commands in strategic areas (TVD), that is, to the newly created Main Aerospace Command (ISC).
In this case, unity of responsibility, rights and opportunities for the organization of the country's aerospace defense in peacetime, as well as for the advance preparation and conduct of any (defensive, offensive or counteroffensive) strategic operation under the direct control of the Main Aerospace Command will be ensured. Under it will be all the participating and operational subordinate troops, forces, means and organs of the state’s military organization.
I believe that the basis of the WCC should be the so-called Main Directorate of the use of military and special forces in various forms of strategic actions to combat the aerospace enemy, which is being created and is constantly operating in peacetime. This body should be in the Main Operational Directorate (GOU) of the General Staff. Or, at first, the strategic staff command (operational control) of the use of the Armed Forces in various forms of strategic actions to combat the aerospace enemy. In the same GOU General Staff (see diagram).
Considering the crucial role of aerospace defense in ensuring global stability on the planet and the military security of the Russian Federation, the high transience and extreme consequences of the confrontation in the aerospace sphere, the organization of the East Kazakhstan region must be carried out well in advance and be carried out immediately in full. Even in peacetime, it is required daily to continuously perform combat missions during constant combat duty.
The organization of the country's aerospace defense must begin with the correct formation of its leadership bodies at all levels, from top to bottom. This refers to the triune system of ensuring the military, state and public security of the Russian Federation and the defense as a whole (see the newspaper "MIC", No. 42).
In turn, in the system for ensuring military security, it is necessary to create VKO control bodies within the General Staff, then supplement the system of the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces in strategic areas (in military districts) with the creation of a strategic Main Aerospace Command. All the shock, defensive, special and supporting aerospace forces and means of the Armed Forces will be subordinate to him, including, as a defensive component, the operational command of the defensive Aerospace Forces, forces and means, or command (see diagram).
Further work on the organization of the aerospace defense of the Russian Federation and full responsibility for it are proposed to be entrusted to the Main Aeronautical Command (ISC) and the Main Directorate of the Aerospace Forces (IHC), which was created primarily.
Considering that the GVH is the basis of the CWC and in its tasks as a whole are constantly under its operational subordination, the head of the Main Aerospace Command, rationally combining operational and administrative functions, can rightfully be called the commander-in-chief of the CWC - the head of the GVH.
This should be according to military science, the practice of modern wars of various scales and the prospects for the development of forces, means, forms and methods of aerospace attack and defense in the developed countries of the world. Russia is still lagging behind the world process and is in a state of confusion and vacillation.
The situation can be rectified if the reform of the military organization of the Russian Federation is carried out not by trial and error, but on the basis of the recommendations of professionals, taking into account practical experience, historical analysis and conclusions of military science regarding the organization and conduct of confrontation with promising means of aerospace attack.