Military Review

"Mountain Katyusha"

17
Summer xnum th. The Red Army, with heavy fighting, retreats to the foothills of the North Caucasus. The absence of mountain artillery among the troops and, conversely, the presence of a powerful base for the production of M-1942 rockets in Baku allowed the design and production of mountain rocket launchers for these shells to begin.


The idea of ​​creating the mountain installations belonged to the head of the PRM-6 mobile repair shop of the Operational Group of the Guards mortar units (hereinafter - OG GMCh) of the Black Sea Group of the North-Caucasian Front military engineer of the 3-rank Rank Alexander Fomich Alferov. Colonel A. I. Nesterenko, Commander of the OG GMC, endorsed the idea and gave to help the head of PRM-6 two technicians from the 14 Guards mortar division of seamen, X. J. Sulyaev and L. R. Rips, who developed the design of the new M 8 in the portable (on the machine) and transportable (on a two-wheeled cart) options.

The tactical and technical requirements for the development of both versions of the installations were developed jointly by the command and the command and commanding personnel of the units of the GMGMG. The prototypes of the installations were made within a week by the forces of the PRM-6 personnel near the village of Volkovka in the Dagomys gorge. With the release of the first installations were used water pipes from the resorts of the Caucasus and guides, removed from the M-8 installation that was under repair.

The mountain-packer installation M-8 had a total weight of 68 kg and consisted of 3 basic units - a package, a farm and a carriage. Each node weighed 22 - 23 kg. The package had guides for 8 projectiles (at 4 above and below). The farm on which the package was fixed was supplied with a turning circle. The carriage was a strong support circle with a cross in the center and 4 folding legs like a spider. At the ends of the legs, there were supporting legs with holes in which metal pins were hammered for firm fastening on the ground. For aiming installation used simple mechanical devices. Vertical pickup angle was 45 °, horizontal - 360 °. A salvo launch was made in 1 – 2 with, the firing range reached 5,5 km. The installation was simple and reliable in operation, easily understood on the 3 of the pack and quickly transferred to the combat position. Plant prototypes were tested by shooting from Sochi's Riviera Park towards the sea.

The installations were reported to the commander of the forces of the North Caucasus Front, Marshal of the Soviet Union S. M. Budyonny, who at the end of August 1942 personally examined them and was present at the shooting in the Georgievskoye gorge near Tuapse. Installations made two full salvo on targets at a distance of about 1,5 km. As a result of the shooting, Budyonny immediately decided to organize the production of only mountain-pack installations in the city of Sochi and to form 12 mountain pack-pack batteries mounted on horse-thrust, as well as to equip such installations for the protection of the coast with such 4 installations.

5 September 1942, the draft design of a PC mining installation in 2 variants was sent to the command of the GMC, which was assisted by sending specialists from the General Directorate of Armament of the GMC (military engineer of the 3 rank NN Yuryshev, military engineer of the 1 rank E. A. Dobrokhotov) and designer F.I. Esakov from the SLE of the plant number XXUMX NKMV ("Compressor", Moscow).

27 September 1942 Budenny’s decision was issued in the form of the Decree of the Military Council of the Black Sea Group of Forces of the Transcaucasian Front No. 00107. This document prescribed to the Military Council of the OG GMC of the Black Sea Group of Forces of the Transcaucasian Front:

“... 1. To organize the production of PC mountain sets and manufacture them in the month of October in the amount of 48 units, i.e., on 12 batteries.
2. To form in the month of October 12 PC mountain batteries. The making of installations and the formation of batteries should be entrusted to the Military Council of the OG GMC Black Sea Group of Forces of the Transcaucasian Front.
3. To protect the coast, install PC mountain assemblies on 4 railcars, forming a PC battery at the HMCH Operator Group.
4. To organize a permanent railway train consisting of: one passenger railcar, one truck and three covered wagons, for organizing uninterrupted power supply of ammunition for parts of the GMC group ... ”.

By the same decree:

• The head of the ABTV Directorate in the 19 Army Repair and Maintenance Battalion was to organize in October the production of 48 units of units No. 1 of a PC mining unit (package, control panel and electrical equipment);
• the head of VOSO and the head of the railway in the workshops of the depot of the city of Sochi were supposed to organize the production in October of 48 of pieces of nodes No. 2, 3 (farm, carriage);
• the head of communication had to provide the OG GMP 12-volt alkaline batteries (48 pcs.) And the appropriate number of electrical wires;
• it was ordered to assemble and calibrate installations;
• a plan for the production of mining installations was approved: in the first decade of October - 8 installations, in the second - 20, in the third - 20;
• Lieutenant Colonel M. P. Gorokhov was appointed Chief of Formation of Mining Batteries; battalion Commissar T. Popov was appointed Commissioner of the Formation.

The decision of the Military Council of the front and proposals for the organization of units were reported to the command of the GMC. The assembly of the mountain installations was launched on the territory of the Riviera sanatorium (Sochi), where the PRM-6 workshop was relocated.

October 15 1942 issued an order No. 0166 of the Commander of the OG GMC of the Black Sea Group of Forces of the Transcaucasian Front (hereinafter - CPG ZAKF) Colonel A.I. Nesterenko, explaining the combat use of new installations: “... PC mountain batteries are used to create a sudden massive fire on reliably reconnoitered targets (according to the accumulation of manpower and enemy equipment, by separate resistance nodes and communications), in places inaccessible to conventional batteries and PC divisions, making maximum use of their high maneuverability in mountainous areas ... ”.

Over the course of two months, 48 ​​M-8 mining pack packs were manufactured. At the suggestion of the command of the OG GMCH of the Black Sea Group of Front Forces for anti-landing, anti-submarine and anti-boat defense of the Sochi-Tuapse coastline, the more powerful 8-charge M-6s developed by the PRM-12 were delivered to railway railcars (8 for each of the 2 railcars) . In addition, for boats of the Black Sea fleet Four 12-charge M-8 units were manufactured.

10 December 1942, in the order to the troops of ChGV ZAKF No. XXUMX, Commander Lieutenant-General I.Ye. Petrov summed up the activity on the formation of mountain batteries. The results were as follows: the Military Council Decree was executed; by November 00130, all 23 batteries were included in the number of active parts.

From the M-8 installations made up of the Black Sea Group of Forces of the Transcaucasian Front, the following units and units of the GMC were formed:

• in October 1942. - 1-I and 2-I separate Guards mining-pack mortar batteries (4 with M-8 installations in each) and a separate Guards mortar division on rail cars (Commander - Senior Lieutenant A. N. Vinogradov, 4 railway railcars with two X-NUMX charging sets M-12 on each and 8 shells transport platform; since December 4, the division received No. 1942, disbanded in March 1;
• in November 1942 - 3, 4, 5, 6-I separate Guards mining-pack mortar batteries, 1 and 2-th individual Guards mining-mortar battalions (staff number 08 / 167, for 3 batteries MMA divisions 8, total 12 installations in the division);
• in February 1943 - the 3 and 4-th separate Guards mining-pack mortar divisions (from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-th separate Guards mining-pack mortar battalions, and formed-molded forces.

In October, 1942 1-I (commander - Lieutenant DF Andreev) and 2-I (commander - Senior Lieutenant B. Gurevich), separate guards mining-mortar batteries were sent to the 18 army under Tuapse. The 1-th separate Guards Mining-and-Mortar Mortar Division in November 1942 was sent to the area of ​​the Bolshoy Lazarevsky Pass in the command of the commander of the 19 rifle corps. 19 January 1943 Division first opened fire on the enemy.

The 2-th separate Guards Mining-and-Mortar Mortar Division was assigned to Tuapse under the command of the commander of the 383-Infantry Division. In January, 1943 g, by order of the Commander ChGV ZAKF, eight 12-charging units of the 4-th detached separate Guards Mining-Tying Mortar Battalion were transferred to the Black Sea Fleet and installed on the KATSCH-606 boat trawler (former Sacker Mackerel). All 4 of the Katyush mountain division participated in the battle for Novorossiysk. The 3 Division (commander - captain DI Yermolchik) successfully landed on Malaya Zemlya only from the second time on the night of February 12 1943, deploying its battle formations in the area of ​​the Myskhako state farm. The 2 Division (commander - captain S. I. Zhuiko) landed on Malaya Zemlya in March, taking up positions on the eastern slope of Mount Myskhako.

At the beginning of 1943 in the SCR of Plant No. 733 NKMV by the design group A. N. Vasilyeva, on the basis of the installation developed in PRM-6, a more sophisticated 8-charging mountain-loading launcher was created. It was adopted and recommended for mass production.

In November, 1943, the commander of the 1 Division, was ordered to Captain L. E. Gnatkov to form a separate Guards Mining and Batch Battery for a special mission. This battery (commander - senior lieutenant P. P. Avdyukov) was transferred by airplanes to the Crimea, to the Zuisk forests for joint actions with partisans. The battery took an active part in the fighting in the mountainous Crimea in November - December 1943 and in January 1944, receiving a high rating from the partisan command. According to some reports, this battery completely died in the Crimea at the height of Kolan-Bair.

After the North Caucasus, the 2 and 3 divisions were redeployed to the Crimea, where they took an active part in the liberation of the peninsula. Here, for the exemplary performance of command assignments, both divisions were awarded the Order of Alexander Nevsky.

When the Red Army reached the foothills of the Carpathians, the need for the mountain-pack installations M-8 again arose. The 4 and 2 separate guards of the mountain-mortar battalions were redeployed to the 3 of the Ukrainian Front. In December, 1944 according to the drawings developed under the guidance of the assistant to the head of the PRM-62 workshop on the technical part of engineer-captain V.I. Krasnoper, using this workshop, the M-8 mining installations were mounted on Willis of the 12 division. Both divisions successfully operated as part of the 2 of the Ukrainian Front until the end of the war, deservedly received the name "Carpathian", and the 4 Division was awarded the Order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky. Guards mountain-pack mortar units were a specialized GMC family, demanded by the Great Patriotic War, and played a role in defeating the enemy. Having a new materiel, developed not at specialized design bureaus, but at the front, its organization and tactics of action, mountain pack batteries and divisions were constantly in the battle formations of infantry in the mountainous terrain, greatly enhancing its firepower, accompanied the infantry on the passes, firing from firing positions not available for most other types of artillery.

"Mountain Katyusha"



General view of the 8 charging M-8 launcher



X-NUMX-Mining Charger M-8 launcher




Mountain launcher BM-8-8 on a cross-country vehicle "Willis"


The head of the PFP-6 OG GMC Black Sea Group of Forces of the North Caucasus Front, military engineer of the 3 rank Alexander Fomich Alferov was born on September 10 1910 in Yeisk, went from a cadet of a military school to a major general. He served in the Soviet Army 38 for years, was awarded two Orders of the Red Banner, the Order of the Red Banner of Labor, the Order of the Patriotic War of the II degree, two Orders of the Red Star and 14 medals. After graduating in February 1942 of the Military Academy of Motorization and Mechanization, he fought on the Southern, North Caucasian fronts, in the Black Sea group of troops of the Transcaucasian Front, on the 1 of the Ukrainian Front. After the war, he served in the Scientific Research Institute-4 MO, since 1954 - the commander of the military unit 31874 in Belarus, in 1965, a part was included in the Strategic Missile Forces and transformed into the 25-th Arsenal of missile weapons. He commanded an arsenal until October 1969, after which he retired. During this time, a part of 15 once won the leading places among the arsenals of the Strategic Missile Forces, 8 was awarded once by the Challenge Red Banner of the Central Committee of the Trade Unions. The commander himself for success in service was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor, he was awarded the high military rank of "Major General-engineer" and he was entered in the "Book of Honor of the Strategic Missile Forces". Having gone on a well-deserved rest, Aleksey Fomich continued active public work in the Minsk section of the Soviet Committee of war veterans, in the Military Scientific Society at the Officers' Club of the KBVO, in the Minsk Society "Knowledge". 5 died March 1982 in Minsk.
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  1. kaktus
    kaktus 11 December 2013 07: 56
    +5
    Baksan
    Music: B. Terentyev Lyrics: A. Gryaznov, L. Korotaev, N. Persiyaninov


    Where the snow paths sweep
    Where the formidable peaks stand
    This song folded and sings
    Climbers fighting squad.

    Mountains became our family in battles
    Snowstorms and snowstorms are not terrible.
    An order was given, no debts were fees
    For reconnaissance in the lair of the enemy.

    Remember comrade
    White snow
    Slender forest of Baksan,
    Enemy dugouts
    Remember the grenade and the note in it
    Under the rocky crest for the coming days

    Branches crackled in the smoke at the stake
    Strong tea was smoking in the pot.
    You came tired of intelligence
    He drank a lot and was silent for the same amount.

    Blue frozen hands
    I wiped the sweat machine
    Taking a deep breath at times
    Head leaning back.

    Remember, comrade, the howl of the night snowstorm,
    Remember how the enemies screamed in our faces
    Remember how the machine responded with a roar,
    Remember how you and I returned to the squad.

    Where day and night squalls
    Where the peaks are formidable in the snow
    We closed the passes firmly
    And not a single step was given to the enemy.

    The day will come, with a decisive blow,
    The people will go into battle for the last time,
    And then he will say that it’s not in vain
    We stood to the death for the Caucasus.

    Bygone time flies like smoke
    The memory will scatter past traces
    But do not forget us these formidable days,
    We will always keep them in our memory.

    No jokes are taught in our camps,
    If you have to fight in the mountains
    Instead of an ice ax, you take a machine gun,
    As if on insurance, squeeze his butt.

    Remember, comrade, white snows,
    Slender forest of Baksan, dugouts of the enemy,
    Bones on the Bass, graves near Uzhba,
    Remember comrade, remember dear.



    1943 soldier
  2. makarov
    makarov 11 December 2013 08: 43
    0
    The author of the material with me is a single surnamer, this is probably something related .. at one time, under the impression of the triumph of historical justice, he piled material called "Katyusha and Luka Mudishchev." http://lebed.com/2007/art5013.htm
    1. Timeout
      Timeout 11 December 2013 09: 17
      0
      Quote: makarov
      piled up material called "Katyusha and Luka Mudishchev"

      At VO there was already similar material http://topwar.ru/14839-luka-i-katyusha-protiv-vanyushi.html comparison with German jet mortars ...
      1. makarov
        makarov 11 December 2013 09: 54
        0
        SW Timeout You just probably didn’t pay attention when it was I who collected the material that you mentioned and wasn’t mentioned.
  3. avt
    avt 11 December 2013 09: 48
    0
    At the end of the 80s, the guys from the lake pulled out a "Katyusha" mounted on a skidder, then they were printed in the "Youth Technique"
    1. Bigriver
      Bigriver 11 December 2013 11: 11
      +2
      Quote: avt
      At the end of the 80s, the guys from the lake pulled out a "Katyusha" mounted on a skidder ..,

      Probably like that? STZ-5.
      But, this is a regular agricultural tractor. Used by the army, mainly as an artillery tractor.
      1. Lesnik
        Lesnik 12 December 2013 00: 29
        +1
        Slightly correct the chassis STZ NATI-5 wink
  4. avt
    avt 11 December 2013 12: 17
    0
    Quote: BigRiver
    Probably like that? STZ-5.

    Looks like I don’t remember exactly now, but the magazine has not been preserved. request
    1. ICT
      ICT 11 December 2013 18: 49
      +1
      Quote: avt
      Looks like I don’t remember exactly now, but the magazine has not been preserved.

      here is an article
      1. avt
        avt 11 December 2013 22: 07
        +1
        Quote: TIT
        here is an article

        good Exactly! She is the most. good
  5. Leshka
    Leshka 11 December 2013 14: 46
    +1
    cool thing to the Germans she got on the ground, and then also in the mountains laughing
  6. Drosselmeyer
    Drosselmeyer 11 December 2013 18: 41
    0
    Partisans had to deliver such things. He took it off the cart, wheeled a couple of rockets at its location and drove on.
    1. Lesnik
      Lesnik 12 December 2013 00: 30
      +1
      And to forge ammunition in the forge?
      1. Hudo
        Hudo 12 December 2013 01: 52
        0
        Quote: Forestman
        And to forge ammunition in the forge?

        The partisans were supplied with guns and ammunition. Information about this is simply excessive. But about the forge, and where are the Palestinians forging their rackets? Or do Palestinians have more oil in their head? Or maybe some scarce materials are used there. They would have cheated on something.
        1. faraon
          faraon 12 December 2013 03: 02
          +2
          Well, as far as the Palestinians from the Gaza Strip are concerned, you’re probably right. They make their own rackets (it’s impossible to name otherwise) and an ordinary pipe is taken from the auxiliary material, stabilizers are welded to it (so by eye), and everything else is the same as in the young technique for 1968. damage this thing brings insignificant since It doesn’t have a warhead, but the feeling is unpleasant when a pipe falls next to you.
          I saw such crafts in Yerusalim at the exhibition of the Palestinian people’s folk art. When they start, they give only direction, and there, God willingly puts it. Most of these products do not reach their destination, most of them are knocked down by an iron dome. Well, some of them fall in the Negev desert. terrifying the Bedouins living there.
        2. Lesnik
          Lesnik 12 December 2013 22: 57
          0
          Quote: Hudo
          The partisans were supplied with guns and ammunition. Information about this is simply excessive. But about the forge, and where are the Palestinians forging their rackets? Or do Palestinians have more oil in their head? Or maybe some scarce materials are used there. They would have cheated on something.


          I probably missed history lessons at school and in further education many times missed laughing that’s why I didn’t hear (I didn’t read, I didn’t see it in the historical chronicle) that the airborne method delivered mortars of divisional caliber and ammunition to them (I say I skipped) laughing
          And he no longer heard (didn’t read, didn’t see) that there was electro-gas welding in the partisan detachments recourse
          I read (saw) how tol was smelted from captured ammunition
          So excuse school skipping repeat I repent
  7. Morgan761
    Morgan761 12 December 2013 01: 15
    0
    Thanks to the author ... I did not know about such a technique.
  8. faraon
    faraon 12 December 2013 03: 05
    0
    The article is very interesting, informative, but I doubt that our Palestinian brothers will take advantage of this. As HUDO said above problems with oil.
  9. 345 guards
    345 guards 12 December 2013 19: 39
    0
    "The carriage was a solid support circle with a cross in the center and 4 folding legs, like a spider." (from)
    The spider has 8 legs, dear !!!
    And maybe stop reprinting and PR? There was already a publication on the same resource !!!
    http://topwar.ru/14839-luka-i-katyusha-protiv-vanyushi.html
  10. Artemmitr
    Artemmitr 23 December 2013 10: 57
    0
    5+ article! good soldier
  11. vik52
    vik52 29 January 2014 00: 04
    0
    In Crimea, in the forest, they found a mountain Katyusha that fought against partisans. She was restored and she is in the Republican Museum of Local Lore. As far as I can tell, this is the second original installation. The first is in Moscow in the museum of the armed forces. Everyone else in Sochi, Sevastopol and in the photographs is a remake. There is information in YOUTUBE \ Partisan Katyusha \. And good information in the online newspaper CRIMEAN ECHO in the news on 21.01.14/XNUMX/XNUMX