Military Review

Gato class submarines

28
Submarines of the type "Gato" (the name comes from the name of the feline shark, borrowing from the Spanish el gato - cat) - a series of American submarines of the Second World War. The previous Tambor project served as the basis. Compared with the previous project, the submarine "Gato" underwent significant upgrades, resulting in improved combat and patrol qualities of submarines. Modified diesel engines and batteries increased the duration and range of patrols. In addition, significantly improved habitat conditions.




The results of the military operations of the US Navy in the Pacific during World War II were a real triumph for the US Navy. A huge contribution to the victory over Japan was made by American submarines, which sank Japanese ships and ships with a total displacement of 5 million tons.

The formation of modern American underwater fleet began in the 1930s with the construction of several large submarines capable of operating in the ocean. From each other, they differed in equipment and characteristics. Analysis of the pilot operation of these submarines made it possible to make the choice of the most successful model. It was he who began to improve and used in serial production.

It was a submarine Cachalot SS-170. In its production, instead of traditional riveting, welding was used. This reduced the mass of the structure while increasing its strength. In addition, this submarine favorably differed by the presence of an electromechanical computing device TDS, which allows to solve aiming tasks during firing with torpedoes. TDS automatically introduced anticipation into the torpedo control system, the target angle, and also the depth of the course.

On the basis of the submarine Cachalot in the 1933 year laid the series of 10 submarines "Tour P". The new submarines, in contrast to the prototype, had a large displacement and size, which allowed installing a diesel-electric power plant of greater capacity (Cachalot was equipped with a conventional diesel engine with direct transmission) and an air conditioning system. The last improvement was the most important. Air conditioning systems not only improved the conditions of habitability, but also ensured safety by eliminating increased air humidity in the compartments (the main cause of short circuits in electrical circuits).



The maximum depth of the submarines "Ture P" was equal to 75 meters. The main armament consisted of 16 torpedoes and four bow and two stern torpedo tubes. Ten built submarines "Ture P" can be divided into two series. The first (4 submarines) was commissioned in 1935 — 1936. and the second (6 submarines) - in 1936 — 1937. Submarines of the second series differed more powerful diesel powerplant.

Following the "Tour P", the US Navy ordered 16 Salmon-type submarines with reinforced weapons. They mounted a couple of additional feed torpedo tubes. Thus, the number of torpedo tubes increased to ten: 6 bow and 4 fodder. The number of torpedoes increased to 24. According to some experts, the electric motor on the submarines "Ture P" can be disabled by damage to the power cable. In this regard, the developers of the first six “Salmon” series submarines (commissioned in 1937 — 1938) did not install a diesel-electric power plant, but returned to direct transmission from the engines to the propeller shaft.

But strong vibrations, high noise and an increase in battery charging time forced the developers in the remaining ten submarines (named after the lead ship into a separate type of “Sargo”) to return to the scheme using a diesel-electric power plant, which lacked the above disadvantages. During the rework on the submarine, it was possible to additionally place 44 tons of fuel and double the capacity of the batteries, which increased the range of the surface run (by 1000 miles) and scuba diving (85 miles).

The next step in the development of American submarines were the Tambor submarines, carrying torpedoes and 24 torpedo tubes on board the 10. "Tambor" - the last production submarine, which entered service in the Pacific before the war. For the rest of the characteristics, including the type of power plant, it did not differ from the first series of submarines “Salmon”.

After Pearl Harbor, it became clear that the Japanese expansion could be stopped only with an asymmetrical response. Admirals Nimitz and King were invited to act in two directions: to conduct deterrent battles and strike deep into the territory of Japan. The fleet command had several aircraft carriers, about 30 squadron submarines, 10 old class V submarines and several dilapidated submarines of class S.



Aircraft carrier forces managed to contain the Japanese offensive. The Japanese lost in the Coral Sea, and the Midway Atoll was completely defeated. In principle, the United States won the war in the Pacific theater, it was enough to tighten it and wait until Japan exhausted resources. But these two decisive operations precipitated the defeat of the Japanese Empire.

Deep strikes were delivered almost exclusively by submarines. With the exception of a raid on Tokyo Doolittle in April 1942, US aircraft could not reach the territory of Japan until the middle of 1943. From the first days of the war American submarines operated in the depths of enemy territory, striking convoys. Initially, the effectiveness of the submarines was lower than expected. The main reason was the excessive caution of the boat commanders, who had not yet received real combat experience. The unreliability of torpedo fuses and the frequent descent of torpedoes from the course presented a noticeable problem. Finally, the submarines were too small to create a serious threat to the communications of the enemy. 40 with a small boat, including a dozen old ones, was obviously not enough.

The last problem was solved most easily. The original budget of 1941, which involved the construction of 6 submarines, was revised to a sharp increase in their numbers as the war began. France’s capitulation also forced the US government to dramatically increase funding for the shipbuilding program. 20 in May 1940. 6 was added to 22 to the planned submarines, while 16 of August ordered 43 submarines. All submarines were ordered by: Electric Boat Company (41); Portsmouth Naval Shipyard (14); Mare Island Naval Shipyard (10). Soon, the company Mare Island Naval Shipyard freed 2 stocks, and in April 1941, she received an order for 2 additional submarines. Thus, before the attack on Pearl Harbor 73 class submarines "Gato" was built. By 07.12.1941, only one submarine of this type, the Drum (SS 228), was put into operation, but in the first days after the raid, 10 boats were launched, and the 21 was laid. The pace of production has steadily increased.



Seventy three Gato class submarines were assigned numbers from SS 212 to SS 284. Unlike the fleets of other countries, where tactical numbers are assigned arbitrarily and can vary, the ship receives a permanent number in the US fleet. As a rule, a number consists of a two-letter index (type of vessel) and a serial number. Numbers are allocated blocks for different shipyards. For example, the block of SS numbers 212-227 was allocated to Electric Boat Company, a SS numbers 228-235 - Portsmouth Naval Shipyard. These numbers did not carry information about the order of bookmarking, launching or commissioning the ship. Therefore, the submarine "Drum" (SS 228) laid and put into operation earlier formally the first submarine of the series "Gato" (SS 212). The numbers of the vessels whose construction was discontinued fell out of sequence. Although the last submarine of the Gato series was the Grenadier (SS 525), there were gaps in the series among the younger numbers. Also canceled further series, up to SS 562. In this regard, the first post-war series of submarines became 6 submarines of the “Tang” class with numbers starting from SS 563. In case the ship was reworked, the letter prefix was changed, but the number remained unchanged. For example, “Cavalla” (SS 244) in 1952 was converted into PLO, its designation changed to SSK 244.

From their predecessors, the submarines of the Tambor class, the submarines of the Gato class differed in details. Gato was heavier on the 51 ton and longer on the 1,4 m. The extra length allowed the installation of more powerful diesel engines and additional bulkheads between the engine compartments. The first submarines "Gato" equipped with old diesel engines, like the "Tambor". However, the elongation of the hull improved hydrodynamics, which made it possible to win half the speed node in the surface position (21 node). On the submarine also installed more powerful batteries, which increased the speed in a submerged position by a quarter of the node (to 9 nodes). Additional volume was used to increase fuel and oil reserves up to 94000 gal (355829 L). This ensured the 12 thrust range for thousands of miles at a speed of 10 nodes. According to the results of the operation of submarines of the “Tambor” class, the internal reinforcement was strengthened, increasing the maximum immersion depth (to 15 meters) by 91,5 m. The estimated crush depth has not changed - 152 m. The maximum depth of the dive was equal to the depth at which the submarine can act without problems and leaks associated with an increase in pressure. During the fighting captains often exceeded the maximum depth, trying to avoid depth charges.



There were small differences between submarines produced by different shipyards. The most notable of these was the configuration of the drainage holes. Drainage holes on submarines built at government shipyards were more numerous and went farther in the stern and bow than in submarines launched by Electric Boat. Later, many submarines received additional equipment and weapons, so their appearance could vary widely.

Gato-class submarines had two hulls. The inner robust hull was surrounded by a light outer hull, inside which were placed fuel tanks, trim tanks and ballast tanks. The central part of the robust housing is a cylindrical construction made of 14,3 steel. The robust hull was conically tapered to the bow and stern, and the conning cylinder was attached to the hull from above. The sturdy casing had a maximum diameter of 16 feet (4,9 meters).

To the outer hull on top of the deck and attached superstructure. The shape of the outer hull ensured a high surface speed. On the nose were capstan and anchor, buoyancy tank and front depth rudders. The deck structure in front of the bridge and behind it was reinforced. There were installed two guns of caliber 76,2 mm (length of barrel 50 calibers), but in practice they left one gun or both were dismantled.

Air was accumulating under the deck, which slowed down the submarine dive. To eliminate this drawback, drainage holes were made in the deck. On top of the conning tower covered the bridge fence. Deck for the cabin got the nickname "cigarette", because it was there the sailors went out to smoke. An anti-aircraft machine gun was also installed here: Browning 12,7 caliber or 7,62 mm. When immersed machine gun retracted inside the submarine.



The robust submarine hull of the “Gato” class inside was divided into 10 waterproof compartments.

Nasal torpedo compartment

The nasal torpedo compartment served to accommodate six torpedo tubes (4 — above deck, 2 — below deck). Going to a military campaign, the boat carried one torpedo in each tube. To 4, upper torpedo tubes had 2 spare torpedoes, to the underdeck vehicles - only one at a time. There were a total of torpedoes for the nasal tubes. From the front torpedo compartment, the sonar and the hydrodynamic lag were pushed out and pivoted out. In addition, there were 16 berths in the nose torpedo compartment.

The following equipment was installed in the compartment: hydraulic pump; control mechanism of the bow depth rudders; hydraulic motor for steering control; air duct for ventilation and blowing of torpedo tubes; compressed air cylinders for launching torpedoes; purge valve box; manifold and valves for normal fuel tanks Nos. 1 and 2; sanitary tank collector and valves №1; freshwater tank manifolds and valves №№ 1 and 2; control mechanisms for purging the ballast nasal tank and controlling the purging of the main ballast tank.



Nasal battery compartment

The nasal battery compartment was located between the 35 and 47 frames. From the nose torpedo compartment, it was separated by a sealed bulkhead. The submarine carried 252 rechargeable batteries (6 21 series), half of which was under the deck of the nasal battery compartment. Hydrogen produced during battery operation was removed by a special ventilation system. The deck of the compartment served to accommodate the premises for the officers: a scullery; mess-room; 3 residential officer cabins. One of the cabins was intended for 3 junior officers. In the second cabin lived first lieutenant and senior mate. The captain of the submarine had a separate cabin, he was the only person on the submarine, who had a separate room. The fourth cabin housed 5 senior non-commissioned officers. The crew of the boat in some cases could have counted up to 10 officers, in the officers' cabins it was rather cramped. The non-commissioned officer’s cabin served to store and maintain the ship’s log.

The following equipment was located in the compartment: bulkhead flaps; exhaust and injection ventilation lines; battery ventilation compressors; the control mechanism of the ballast tank valve 2А-2В; external and internal emergency air connections.

Control post

A control post was located in the central part of the submarine between the 47 and 58 frames. From here they controlled the course, speed and depth of the submarine. The control panel for the rudders, the hatch to the pump room, the main gyroscope, as well as the shafts of the radar mast and periscopes were located in the center plane of the compartment. On the ceiling, the ventilation lines, external emergency air inlets, a hatch to the conning tower and bulkhead flaps were mounted.

On the starboard side, on the deck of the compartment, a high pressure air system valve box, electrical distribution boards, 225-pound air collector, purge collectors 10- and 600-pound tanks of the main ballast, as well as the power distribution network of auxiliary mechanisms were installed.

On the port side were a signal ejector, armory group, hydraulic valve box, quick-immersion tank ventilation valve, ascent and dive fighting post and stern horizontal rudder control, emergency ventilation flaps and trim box valve box. It also housed a panel of indicators of the holes of the durable case, jokingly nicknamed the "Christmas tree". This nickname was given because each hatch in a sturdy hull had two lights: red and green. A red light meant opening the hatch, green a closing. From here came the slang expression green board ("green panel"), meaning that all the hatches are closed up, and the submarine can sink.

A pump room was located under the deck of the control post to accommodate the manual and hydraulic mechanisms for controlling negative buoyancy, high-pressure air compressors, low-pressure compressors, bilge pump, trimming pump, vacuum pump, hydraulic accumulator, air-conditioning system, refrigerator and pantry.

In the stern of the control station there was a radio room in which a radio station was installed, a CSP-888 encryption machine (45 operation speed — 50 words per minute), a radio direction finder indicator.



Conning tower

A special, rather tight compartment, located outside the hull lines above the control post, has a cylindrical shape, equipped with its own ventilation and air conditioning system. It housed firing controls, navigation equipment, sonar equipment, periscopes, a gyrocompass, a rudder control panel, various indicators and pressure sensors. The conning tower was connected to the control post through the lower hatch.

It housed both periscopes. The first submarines of the class “Gato” were equipped with a periscope “type 2” or “type 3”. The periscope “type 2” was also called combat or needle, it was subtle, having the smallest possible diameter. "Type 3" provided a larger field of view, but was thicker. Starting with 1944, periscopes of “4 type” began to be placed on submarines or, instead of periscopes of “3 type”, a night periscope. The periscope "type 4" was shorter and thicker, so it had a greater luminosity. On the periscope was the ST radar-rangefinder, which helped to carry out nightly underwater attacks. The torpedo rate calculator (TDC, Torpedo Data Computer) was located on the left side of the rear bulkhead. Nearby were displays of sonar and radar, as well as spare submarine controls. During the underwater attack in the fighting compartment, it became crowded, since the fighting positions of the captain, first assistant, one or two sonar and radar operators, one or two TDC operators and a telephonist were located here.

Aft battery compartment

Below the deck of the aft battery compartment between the 58 and 77 frames were the remaining 126 batteries, as well as the piping and compressor of the ventilation system. The galley, main buffet, freezer and fridge were located on the deck. Here was a ship first aid kit and a sailors' dining room was equipped. In addition, there were 36 berths and lockers for the crew’s personal belongings. There were also a double sailor shower and dishwasher. The aft battery compartment was the most capacious in the submarine.

Nasal engine room

Located between 77 and 88 frames. It housed diesel engines №№ 1 and 2, which rotated the shafts of electric generators. In addition, there were installed oil and fuel pumps, emergency air inlets, bulkhead flaps, a general ship ventilation system valve, air blowers, a liquid separator, and bilge compressors.



Stern engine room

Behind the nose engine compartment between the 88 and 99 frames was the stern engine room. The equipment of this compartment differed from the previous one by the access hatch in the ceiling. Under the deck of the compartment, an auxiliary diesel generator (power 300 kW) was installed, which supplied power to the battery chargers and auxiliary mechanisms.

Depending on the manufacturer, submarines were equipped with Fairbanks-Morse or General Motors diesel engines. Fairbanks-Morse 38D81 / 8 (power 1600 hp) - 10-cylinder, push-pull, with opposite arrangement of cylinders. General Motors 16-278А (power 1600 hp) - 16-cylinder, push-pull, with a V-shaped arrangement of cylinders. Air for the engine was supplied by the compressor.

The fuel pump (performance 37,9 l / min) was driven by a DC motor (power at 1150 rpm 0,736 kW). The cooling system operated on fresh water cooled before re-using seawater. The engines started from the 200-atmospheric air line.

Each diesel engine was connected to the generator shaft (power 1100 kW). At a frequency of 750 rpm, the generator produced a current with voltage 415 B. The DC generators had air cooling and parallel excitation. During the voyage, they powered electric motors or charged batteries.



Steering / engine compartment

Located between the 99 and 107 frames. At the same time, on the deck there was a power plant control post, a remote engine shut-off switch, an auxiliary distribution electrical panel and a lathe. Under the deck of the compartment, four propeller motors were installed (each power was at 1300 rpm 1000 kW), which rotated the propeller shafts in pairs: on the right side - right rotation, on the left side - left.

Electric motors №№ 1 and 3 through reduction gears (reduced rotational speed to 280 rpm), propelled shaft on the starboard side, and electric motors №№ 2 and 4 - were driven to the left. In addition, oil and circulating pumps were installed under the deck.

On late-release submarines, the gearboxes were not installed, since two-anchor electric motors were mounted that could change power at a rotational speed of 67..282 rpm within 15 - 2000 kW.

Aft torpedo compartment

In the stern torpedo compartment, between the 107 and 125 frames, there were four torpedo tubes (torpedoes were charged before the march) and four spare torpedoes. Also here were the instrumental box of the boatswain and fifteen berths. Although the submarine had 70 berths (formally, for each sailor in one place) the crew of the boat was in practice more, in connection with which the sailors slept in two shifts, more precisely, three sailors slept in turns on two beds. The number of crews by the end of the war usually exceeded 80 people. Some beds in the torpedo compartments were lowered only after the torpedo tubes were reloaded. By the end of the war, the number of targets in the sea significantly decreased, the submarines could return from the march without having made a single shot.

In addition to torpedoes, Gato-class submarines carried other types of weapons. For example, on the "cigarette" deck was installed 7,62- or 12,7-millimeter anti-aircraft gun Browning. During the dive, the machine gun retracted inside the boat.

The machine gun "Browning" caliber 7,62 mm was the first anti-aircraft weapon, which was installed on the submarine class "Gato". Initially, a machine gun with a barrel having water cooling was used, however, an air-cooled version appeared. As a rule, the submarine was equipped with several machine guns mounted along the perimeter of the wheelhouse on the machines. The large-caliber 12,7-millimeter Browning machine gun was not popular. Although it was highly effective at firing at air targets, it was large and heavy, making it difficult to clean the machine gun during emergency diving.



Replace the anti-aircraft machine gun was supposed to 20-mm gun «Oerlikon» (length 70 calibers) Swiss production. In the United States, it was released under license. Many submarines after the start of the war received one such gun. Single-barrel guns were later replaced by twin ones.

The Swedish 40-mm cannon “Bofors” (caliber 60 length) in the US fleet was put into service shortly after it turned out that the American 28 mm anti-aircraft gun was ineffective against modern aircraft. In the year 1944, one Bofors cannon was put on Gato class submarines. The gun itself proved to be excellent, and it began to be installed on all submarines before the end of 1944.

Before and behind the bridge deck had a reinforced design for mounting guns. The artillery armament of the Gato submarines was notable for its diversity. The location and type of location of the guns depended on the wishes of the boat commander and the time she was commissioned.

The submarines of the “Gato” class in front of and behind the deckhouse on the deck had reinforced platforms that were intended for the installation of guns. Only some submarines carried a pair of guns at once. The following guns could be installed on submarines:

76,2-mm gun with a barrel length 50 caliber was a standard deck gun of American submarines during World War II. Produced many modifications, with different notation. Between themselves, the modifications differed mainly in the type of cutting. Although the gun was simple to operate, it used too light projectiles (5,9 kg - 13 pounds) to be effective even in confrontation with small ships. Combat experience forced to equip the submarine artillery system more power.



Initially, 102-mm guns with a barrel length 50 caliber mounted on several submarines of class S. Later they were installed on the submarines of the class "Gato". For 102-mm guns, 15-kg shells have already been used. The main drawback of the gun was the high initial velocity of the projectile, which was 884 m / s, so the projectile often pierced light targets right through without causing serious damage.

The barrel of the 127-mm gun (barrel length 25 caliber) was made of stainless steel, and therefore the gun did not require a plug on the muzzle. This simplified the transfer of weapons from the marching position to the combat position. The gun fired 24,4-kg high-explosive shells (mass of high-explosive charge - 2,55 kg). The initial speed was 808 meters per second. This gun was considered ideally relevant to the requirements that apply to the deck artillery of submarines.

There were a large number of visual differences between the submarines produced by various shipyards. The most noticeable were the location, number and configuration of scuppers. Some submarines were equipped with additional equipment and weapons. That is why fleet historians claim that it is impossible to find two absolutely identical Gato submarines.

Modernization of submarines of the Gato type continued until the end of the Second World War, while the work concerned not only weapons and designs, but also equipment.



For example, hydroacoustic equipment was constantly upgraded. In the first series of submarines, WCA sonars were installed with a JT hydrophone operating in the 110 Hz range - 15 kHz. Its range was 3429 meters. He made it possible to determine the distance to the target and the bearing, and if the target is a submarine, then the depth of the dive was determined. In 1945, a more advanced WFA sonar was adopted.

All 73 Gato class submarines took part in battles. Of the 10's most successful US submarines (the largest tonnage drowned), the 8 belong to this class. Killed 19 boats. One of them (SS-248 "Dorado") was sunk by an American plane en route to the Panama Canal in the Caribbean, 18 was lost as a result of the opposition of the enemy in the Pacific.

Among the submarines of the Gato type, the most well-known during the war years were the Flasher SS-249 (leader of the drowned tonnage, 100231 brt), the Barb SS-220, the Growler SS-215, the Silversides SS-236, Trigger SS-237, and Wahoo SS-238.

Captain of the SS-215 “Growler” Howard V. Gilmore became the first submariner to be awarded the Medal of Honor. Gilmour 7 February 1943, being on the bridge, was injured from the Japanese Hayasaki transport. The captain ordered the immediate immersion, although Gilmore himself did not have time to get to the hatch in time.



SS-227 "Darter" - the only American submarine, sunk as a result of hitting the bottom.

SS-238 "Wahoo" under the command of Dudley "Mash" Morton became the first of American submarines, which penetrated into the Sea of ​​Japan. In 1943, she was sunk on her return from the second hike to the area.

SS-245 "Cobia" was sunk by Japanese transports that came with tank parts of Iwo Jima as reinforcements.

The SS-257 Harder, commanded by Samuel D. Dealey, is the only submarine to sink five escort ships during its career. Four of them were sunk in one trip.

SS-261 "Mingo" after the war was sold to Japan and served under the name "Kuroshio".

SS-244 "Cavalla" sank the aircraft carrier Shōkaku, who took part in the attack on Pearl Harbor.

Some Gato class submarines have been preserved as monuments: USS Cavalla (SS-244) is installed in Seawolf Park, USS Cobia (SS-245) is installed in the Wisconsin Maritime Museum, and USS Drum (SS-228 ).



Specifications:
Length - 95 m.
Width - 8,3 m.
Surface displacement - 1526 t.
Underwater displacement - 2410 t.
Immersion depth - 90 m.
Surface speed - 20 nodes.
Submerged Speed ​​- 8 nodes.
Power point:
4 diesel horsepower 1400
4 electric motor with power 1370 hp
2 batteries for 126 elements each.
The autonomy of swimming is 75 days.
Crew - 60 / 85 people.
Armament:
Artillery - deck gun caliber 76 mm.
Torpedo armament - 6 bow and 4 aft torpedo tubes caliber 533 mm, 24 torpedoes.
Air defense - 2 machine gun caliber 12,7 mm or 7,62 mm.





























Based on materials:
dic.academic.ru
wunderwafe.ru
anrai.ru
Author:
28 comments
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  1. Su-9
    Su-9 9 December 2013 08: 31
    +3
    Thank you for the article. And the continuation of the modernization of the guppies will be?
    1. Civil
      Civil 9 December 2013 09: 01
      +1
      About radars during World War II, articles are needed, thanks to the author.
    2. Santa Fe
      Santa Fe 9 December 2013 14: 04
      +6
      Quote: Su-9
      And what about the guppy modernization going on?

      Allow a little PR, since there was a reason

      Project GUPPY: between the Second World War and the Era of Atomic-powered Vessels
      http://topwar.ru/31384-proekt-guppy-mezhdu-vtoroy-mirovoy-i-eroy-atomohodov.html






      The Yankees developed the ideas of the German "electric robot": you need to sacrifice a lot (artillery, fuel supply, internal space of the compartments), for the sake of underwater characteristics (speed / range, GAC). Smooth, streamlined body contours, three times more batteries - they were installed in any free space + modern hydroacoustics and radar. The calculation turned out to be correct. Greater Underwater Propulsion Program has extended the life of old Gato, Balao and Tench by 30-70 years!

      ... the most striking story is connected with two boats of the Taiwanese Navy - ex. USS Cutlass and USS Tusk, which became, respectively, "Hai Shi" and "Hai Pao." Both submarines launched in the 1944-45 years, as of the 2013 year, are still in service, as training units, and periodically make trips to the sea!

      And how cool they look!
      1. Santa Fe
        Santa Fe 9 December 2013 14: 21
        +4
        The last of the Second World War American boats that died in battle is the Argentinean ARA Santa Fe (S-21). 25 April 1982

        "Holy Faith" - ex. American USS Catfish, upgraded by GUPPY II. Damaged by British helicopters at about. South Georgia - was able to reach Grytviken, where she was captured by British commandos. While trying to tow one of the Argentos - Felix Artuso (part of the crew was left on board to operate the boat under the supervision of the British) opened the Kingston and sank the boat right in the middle of the fairway. Shot by the British. Buried as a hero. Subsequently, after the war - the old boat was raised and sunk in the ocean.


        Semi-Flooded Santa Fe at Grytviken's Quays


        There are no secrets about the death of the "Santa Fe" - the boat twice delivered troops to South Georigia and was in a very vile technical. state (Argentos-football players, what to take from them). Battered by a severe storm, by the time the British discovered it, it had completely lost its ability to submerge. Was shot from machine guns and a salvo of small anti-ship missiles
        1. Vladimirets
          Vladimirets 9 December 2013 16: 49
          +3
          Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
          When trying to tow one of the Argentos - Felix Artuso (part of the crew was left on board to control the boat under the supervision of the British) opened the kingstones and flooded the boat right in the middle of the fairway. Shot by the British. Buried like a hero.

          Indeed, a hero. yes
  2. Eugeniy_369
    Eugeniy_369 9 December 2013 08: 59
    +2
    The author is well done +++. A detailed article, the photo pleased, but I will bring a fly in the ointment. I would like more information about the combat use.
  3. makarov
    makarov 9 December 2013 09: 18
    +2
    interesting review material. Author ++++++
  4. avt
    avt 9 December 2013 10: 28
    +1
    good Beautifully designed and well written. Review is good. +
  5. ramin_serg
    ramin_serg 9 December 2013 11: 59
    +1
    To the author and Respect article
  6. Former
    Former 9 December 2013 12: 05
    +2
    Thanks very informative.
  7. Yuri11076
    Yuri11076 9 December 2013 12: 20
    0
    Great, article +. Thanks to the author !!!
  8. Santa Fe
    Santa Fe 9 December 2013 13: 53
    +1
    With the exception of the Tokyo Doolittle raid in April 1942, US planes could not reach Japan until the middle of 1943. From the first days of the war, American submarines operated deep in enemy territory, delivering convoy attacks

    Another good example is that boats are autonomous units. They DO NOT NEED any kind of cover and support

    In the conditions of dominance of own aviation in the air and obtaining high-quality intelligence from aircraft (nowadays AES) - the effectiveness of submarines in general becomes prohibitive.
    The layout of the tonnage of sunk ships and ships of the Japanese fleet during the Second World War. Base / aircraft carrier aircraft, submarines, artillery and torpedo duel of the NK, mines and group victories (unidentified, force majeure). Guess who drowned the most)))
    1. avt
      avt 9 December 2013 16: 03
      0
      Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
      Another good example is that boats are autonomous units. They DO NOT NEED any kind of cover and support

      request Just a plus for description
      Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
      The last of the Second World War American boats that died in battle is the Argentinean ARA Santa Fe (S-21). 25 April 1982

      And those are hello! negative Well, why again empty slogans? After all, he himself refutes himself
      Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
      In the conditions of dominance of own aviation in the air and obtaining high-quality intelligence from aircraft (nowadays AES) - the effectiveness of submarines in general becomes prohibitive.

      After all, not only in our time, when the Germans turned their flippers back with their "meteorological" reconnaissance ships, when the interaction with the "Condors" went wrong because of Goering, when they finally closed the sky for them with coastal aviation and escort AIR CARRIERS, all at once covered up at the Hans, , the autonomy of combat units. "Amers were lucky that the Japanese did not bother, and sometimes did not have the technical means for convoy work, well, at least like in the Atlantic. I don’t like tolerances like" if ", scenario - the alignment for amers could be significantly more costly in terms of losses.
      1. Santa Fe
        Santa Fe 9 December 2013 16: 24
        0
        Quote: avt
        when the Germans turned the flippers back with their "meteorological" reconnaissance ships, when the interaction with the "Condors" went wrong because of Goering, when they finally closed the sky for them with coastal aviation and escort aircraft carriers, all the "autonomy of combat units"

        True? Oh wow

        Then how do you explain to the British sailors where the 765 000 br. reg. tons in 1944 year. Despite the fact that there are fewer boats on communications than in 1942 or 1943.

        What was the overall victory / loss ratio of German submariners in 1944-45?
        1. tlauicol
          tlauicol 9 December 2013 16: 52
          +2
          The Germans have not yet canceled the principle of uneven distribution of forces along the front for the Germans. When your opponent is forced to spread the forces of anti-submarine forces across the oceans, nothing prevents you from concentrating 2,5,20 boats where you consider it necessary. And even in these conditions, destroyers and corvettes are wiped off with a boat in 9 cases out of 10.
          The same Prien or Kretschmer in the last campaigns. 4 the best boats against the convoy of 2 destroyers and 2 corvettes - the result is the loss of the best aces. And in the yard March 41 years! The USA, the USSR will not start fighting soon, the Germans have bases from Africa to Norway, the British are fighting the Kriegsmarine, Italians and Franks at the same time. Destroyers land and evacuate troops, lay mines, fight with German cruisers. And they still manage to roll their neck to these nits.
          The principle of uneven separation of forces in action:
          SC convoy 130: 37 transports, 8 destroyers / corvettes. Germans: 25 submarines in three squadrons. Bottom line: 3 boats are sunk, the convoy has no losses.
          SC 143: 14 boats vs 8 escort men
          SC 129: 12 boats, 8 escort ships
          SC-118: 20 boats vs 11
          SC-94: 19 vs 9
          SC 42: 14 vs 4x
          SC-121: 27 submarines against 2 destroyers 2 frigates 3 corvettes
          HX 212: 17 against destroyer, frigate, 5 corvettes
          etc.

          Agree, neither the British nor the Yankees could afford to set up 270 destroyers to guard the SC-121 convoy from 27 boats (such as 10: 1)
          1. Santa Fe
            Santa Fe 9 December 2013 17: 21
            0
            Quote: Tlauicol
            When your opponent is forced to spread the forces of anti-aircraft defense across the oceans, nothing prevents you from concentrating 2,5,20 boats where you find it necessary.

            And whose problems are these?
            Secretive deployment is one of the advantages of submarines
            Quote: Tlauicol
            And they still manage to roll their neck to these nits.

            Yes, they succeed))) 1000 ships were lost in the 1942 year. Successors)))
            Quote: Tlauicol
            Destroyers land and evacuate troops, lay mines, fight German cruisers

            Boats land sabotage groups, lay mines, limit the transport channel of Kil-Tokyo, fight with British cruisers (which Ediburg alone costs wink ), and at the end of the war, the leadership of the Reich was evacuated to the South. America - along with the gold of the party.

            Despite the fact that the German U-bot is three to four times smaller than the average destroyer of the WWII. Worked on 200%
            Quote: Tlauicol
            SC convoy 130: 37 transports, 8 destroyers / corvettes. Germans: 25 submarines in three squadrons. Bottom line: 3 boats are sunk, the convoy has no losses.

            It happened in different ways. This is a war.

            There were also heroes on the Pacific Ocean - what is one "Flesher" worth, EMNIP sank 9 tankers + a bunch of warships
            Quote: Tlauicol
            Agree, neither the British nor the Yankees could afford to set up 270 destroyers to guard the SC-121 convoy from 27 boats (such as 10: 1)

            How many destroyers guarded Scapa Flow?))

            Individual cases do not make sense. But 14 million tons disappeared somewhere
            1. tlauicol
              tlauicol 9 December 2013 18: 27
              +2
              I agree with this: "Individual cases do not make sense." (C). Are you talking about Edinburgh and Scapa Flow? :)) About the gold of the party it is from RenTV's repertoire rather.

              about how the Yankees attacked the average target with a good example:

              The American submarine Tinosa, commanded by Captain Despit, met the Japanese tanker Tonan-Maru (displacement 19000 tons) in the Caroline Islands.

              At 9.30 hours, Tinosa fired four torpedoes at the tanker, two of which hit the target but did not explode. Then Despith ordered to turn the boat around and fire a salvo from the bow devices. Two more torpedoes hit the target, and one of them exploded. There was a deafening explosion, and the Tonan-maru, settling on the stern, stopped. "Tinosa" could not surface, since the tanker had artillery pieces on board, but under water it could take an ideal position for attacking a helpless giant ship frozen in place. By the start of the attack, there were 16 torpedoes on board the Tinosa. Within five hours, the submarine fired all but one torpedo at the Tonan Mar. All 15 torpedoes, except the first two, hit the target, but only one of them exploded - the one that made the tanker stop. Cursing everything in the world, Despith left the scene, saving the last torpedo for specialists at the base in Pearl Harbor. This incident helped to understand serious flaws in the design of the fuses of American torpedoes and to correct them, significantly increasing the effectiveness of submarines throughout the Pacific Ocean. "
              I’m not talking about torpedoes, but about how a Yankee boat can afford to attack a lonely tanker for half a day. Hence the heroes in the Pacific
              1. Santa Fe
                Santa Fe 9 December 2013 19: 07
                0
                Quote: Tlauicol
                "Individual cases do not make sense." (C). Are you talking about Edinburgh and Scapa Flow? :))

                No, about the SC-121 convoy
                And Edinburgh is not a simple case, golden)))
                Quote: Tlauicol
                I’m not talking about torpedoes, but about how a Yankee boat can afford to attack a lonely tanker for half a day. Hence the heroes in the Pacific

                The nemchury did not lag behind them

                At 22.07 September 12, 1942, U-156 under the command of Lieutenant Commander Werner Hartenstein torpedoed the British liner Laconia (360 brt) 19695 miles northeast of Ascension Island (South Atlantic). At this time, the liner had 136 crew members, about 80 civilians, 160 Polish guards accompanying 1809 Italian prisoners of war, and 268 military personnel.
                Shortly after the sinking at 23.23 the U-156 crew heard the voices of the Italians in the water. Hartenstein immediately embarked on a rescue operation and called for help by radio, addressing in cipher to the captains of the other submarines and openly to all other ships. The commander of the submarine made a promise to the captains of all ships that will come to the rescue of "Laconia" not to attack them. By dawn on 13 September, U-156 had picked up about 200 survivors, and over the next hours, another 200 were taken into tow in lifeboats.
                According to the order of Karl Dönitz, U-506 (commander - Lieutenant Commander Erich Würdemann) arrived on September 15 and continued the rescue operation, later U-507 joined two boats under the command of Corvette Captain Garro Schacht.
                On September 16, the Liberator bomber appeared, taking off from the air base on Ascension Island. He began circling over U-156, and he could see for sure that the boat was towing two boats. In addition, U-156 deployed a large Red Cross flag on the bridge. After requesting instructions, the Liberator was ordered to attack. He made two passes, dropping two bombs each time. They did not hit the boat, but one of the boats was damaged and the other capsized. Many of the rescued people on the deck of U-156 were thrown into the sea by the blast wave. In order to avoid new attacks, Hartenstein gave the order to dive.
                Later that day, the Liberator reappeared, this time hunting U-506. The boat went to an urgent dive, she did not receive any damage, but those who were on board rescued from "Laconia" were very scared. The French ships of the Vichy government "Glory", "Dumont d ^ Urville" and "Annamit", and the Italian submarine "Cappellini" came to the aid of the boats. Acting together, they lifted on board all the survivors who were still on the submarines and boats. A total of 1083 people were rescued.
                On September 17, 1942, Karl Dönitz issued an order containing the following warning to submarine commanders: "You must not under any circumstances endanger the submarine. Take all measures to ensure safety, including the immediate termination of any rescue operations. Do not trust the enemy."


                The reason for such cases - 2 / 3 ships go WITHOUT an escort. An attempt to establish a convoy system and drive ships only in the guarding of destroyers will immediately slow down and undermine the cargo flow (it will take a while to stand idle for weeks, waiting for the convoy to form). Half of the ships will always go without cover - to the delight of the boats.
        2. avt
          avt 9 December 2013 17: 20
          0
          Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
          What was the overall victory / loss ratio of German submariners in 1944-45?

          I didn’t understand it because of my feeble mind. The table shows the ratio of losses in tons, and not in pieces !? And if you look at how many sunk ships per one lost boat? Is it known how much the Germans lost boats in Biscay in the escort zone with their ships and when they independently crossed before reaching the position? So as soon as they closed the “Air gap”, creating new bases in Iceland and the Azores, “wolf packs” covered themselves 46% were sunk by aircraft, everything, a specific turning point in the battle for the Atlantic.
          Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
          In what?

          And you need to read to the end.
          Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
          You come from ignorance.

          And I really don’t know how the PLO was carried out by the Japanese, by what forces and technical means, there is very little data. I know that they released ONE specialized type of PLO aircraft, I never read about the system of their convoys.
          Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
          By the year 1, in the Atlantic, 1944 anti-submarine ships and aircraft were put up for 10 boat -

          Well, what I'm talking about, they closed the air to the Germans and drove the diving boats under the water and dispersed the main trump card of their trump card, a wolf pack.
          Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
          only then did the loss ratio reach 1: 1

          So dear man, this is not just a defeat - the collapse of a submarine war, when one boat for one transport. Here the Germans then understood this, hence the rearmament to qualitatively new, no longer diving boats. So, figure it out when the industrial assignment was given to the XNUMXst technical assignment , rewind a little bit on the creation of the TK itself and see when they finally understand that they are losing, and in the future, into the net.
          1. Santa Fe
            Santa Fe 9 December 2013 17: 44
            0
            Quote: avt
            . The plate shows the ratio of losses in tons, not in pieces!?

            Nameplate - the scale of losses of the allies, in tons.
            I asked you to see how many boats the Germans lost on the 1 sunken ship / ship by the end of the war. Exchange - one on one.
            This means that you drove away when you wrote:
            Quote: avt
            they covered the sky with coastal aviation and escort aircraft carriers, at once all the autonomy of the combat units was covered by the Hans

            The boats fought, died - while inflicting equal damage to the enemy (if not more damage - after all, there are many "stars" among the trophies, their cost is incomparable to the cost of building a 700-ton pelvis)
            Quote: avt
            And I really don’t know how the PLO was carried out by the Japanese, by what forces and technical means, there is very little data

            The most common. Destroyers, patrol boats, hunting boats.
            Naturally, all this turned out to be completely ineffective - to bring the loss ratio to 1: 1 - mountains of anti-submarine equipment are needed

            2 / 3 transports went without cover (as in the Atlantic) - and this is normal. An attempt to establish a convoy system and drive ships only in the guarding of destroyers will immediately slow down and undermine the cargo flow (it will take a while to stand idle for weeks, waiting for the convoy to form). Half of the ships will always go without cover - to the delight of the boats.
            Quote: avt
            Well, what I'm talking about, they closed the air to the Germans and drove the diving boats under the water and dispersed the main trump card of their trump card, a wolf pack.

            Those. to eliminate the underwater threat (at least with the exchange of 1: 1), the Allies had to spend ten times more forces and meansthan the Germans spent on Kriegsmarine
            This is where you need to start.
            While the forces were approximately equal (Germany vs Britain) - German boats were using a "balanced" British phot, like a heating pad
            Quote: avt
            So dear man, this is not just a defeat - the collapse of a submarine war, when for one transport one boat

            And nefig was to fight a obviously superior enemy - it was obvious that sooner or later the United States would enter the war and then Germany would have no chance

            An interesting tablet that gives an idea of ​​the loss of it. boats, boats under construction and most importantly - coefficient. operational voltage
            1. avt
              avt 9 December 2013 19: 34
              0
              Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
              2/3 of the transport went without cover (as in the Atlantic) - and this is normal.

              Yeah, well, then the convoy abandoned by 17 was generally a matter of life.
              Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
              This means that you drove away when you wrote:

              Why suddenly? It was when 1k 1 became, the Germans ended their "fat years" and lost the war for the Atlantic.
              Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
              ten times more forces and means than the Germans spent on Kriegsmarine

              Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
              after all, among the trophies there are many "stars", their cost is incomparable to the cost of building a 700-ton pelvis)
              But there is no need for an artistic whistle a la Kron's novel "House and Ship", let's do it without dialogues from the plays. But now let's start - how much should be spent on boats, including training of crews and command personnel.
              So it is possible to bring a counter question to the turning blue, but didn’t come to compare boats with PLO planes? According to the system cost effectiveness?
              Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
              The most common. Destroyers, patrol boats, hunting boats.

              To stand up and you yourself do not know anything specific, neither by melt composition, nor by technical means.
              Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
              While the forces were approximately equal (Germany vs Britain) - German boats were using a "balanced" British phot, like a heating pad

              And who was talking about a "balanced" fleet of Britons at the beginning of the war !? It became such much later. Moreover, to the delight of the Germans, the arrogant Britons generally ditched their own experience of the First World War, not to mention its development, for which they paid, having received from the Germans and amerskih allies, that for the old four-pipe and planes from them, the base was chopped off forever.
              1. Santa Fe
                Santa Fe 9 December 2013 22: 24
                0
                Quote: avt
                Yeah, well, then the convoy abandoned by 17 was generally a matter of life.

                You need to look at the nature of the cargo. PQ17 was transporting expensive finished products - hundreds of tanks, planes, vehicles, food and weapons.
                Gold was generally transported on warships - "Edinburgh" - though they did not deliver, they ran into U-456

                But who will guard the ship with a cargo of rubber or each individual tanker from the United States? And will the captain agree to wait weeks / months - until the convoy is formed? The destroyers are several hundred and they have many other things to do. And there are many thousands of transports and tankers.
                Quote: avt
                It was when it became 1k 1 that the Germans ended their "fat years"

                And who is to blame for this, except for the monstrous industry of the USA - literally overwhelming the German fleet with anti-submarine equipment.
                Quote: avt
                and the desire to compare boats with PLO planes didn’t come?

                This is not just a wish. This is a necessity. For the deployment of a network of airfields on the coast of the entire North Atlantic, the construction of thousands of Privetati and Catalin, their supply and fuel supply - all require funds.
                Quote: avt
                To stand yourself do not know anything specific neither in terms of composition, nor in technical means

                Esm, SKRs, converted yachts and trawlers - no different from European / American
                The lack of sonars became their advantage - Japanese destroyers spotted Amer boats by the sounds of their own sonars. The Yankees during the war lost 50 submarines. Despite the fact that the stress on the Pacific communications was times less in 5 than in the Atlantic
                Quote: avt
                And who was talking about the "balanced" British fleet at the beginning of the war !?

                But what about battleships, aircraft carriers, cruisers, hundreds of destroyers, minesweepers, bases, patrol aircraft - all the same Sunderlands as at the end of the war.
      2. Santa Fe
        Santa Fe 9 December 2013 16: 29
        0
        Quote: avt
        Amer was very lucky that the Japanese did not bother, and sometimes did not have the technical means for escort work,well, at least how in the Atlantic

        You come from ignorance. In the Atlantic, on 1 a boat was put up for 1944 by 10 anti-submarine ships and aircraft - only then did the loss ratio reach 1: 1
        Quote: avt
        After all, he himself refutes himself

        In what?
        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
        In the conditions of dominance of own aviation in the air and obtaining high-quality intelligence from aircraft (nowadays AES) - the effectiveness of submarines in general becomes prohibitive.

        The trick is that boats are created and built for different conditions. Much tougher is to act where there is no support. Behind the "front line". This is the whole point of the SP's secrecy. There, the efficiency is not that high. And there are losses - but only a boat is capable of fighting in such conditions, behind enemy lines, when the enemy dominates the sea and the air
  9. Santa Fe
    Santa Fe 9 December 2013 14: 33
    +2
    In battles with the Getau, the Imperial fleet lost two heavy aircraft carriers, lost four cruisers and a damn dozen destroyers. As well as a thousand ore carriers, transports and tankers of the merchant fleet

    "Hit the pain points! Join the submarine fleet! 77% of the tonnage is on our account!"
    who will be able to find the periscope of the submarine in the picture?))) is another proof of the highest stealth of the submarine)))
  10. Santa Fe
    Santa Fe 9 December 2013 14: 36
    0
    Thanks to P. Ulyakin. Quality article + many rare monograph illusions
    +
  11. Walking
    Walking 9 December 2013 15: 59
    +1
    We look forward to continuing.
  12. Saburo
    Saburo 9 December 2013 16: 46
    +1
    Then it is worth mentioning that the American submariners sank the largest surface combat ship in history - the aircraft carrier Shinano with a displacement of more than 70 tons. Sunk on November 000, 29 by the Balao-class USS Archer-Fish, in fact it was an improved version of the Gato.
  13. serezhafili
    serezhafili 9 December 2013 19: 07
    0
    Do not understand why the author appropriated the victory in the Battle of the Coral Sea to the Americans? In a battle that lasted from May 4 to May 8, 1942, the Americans lost 1 large aircraft carrier Lexington, the destroyer Sims and the tanker Neosho, while the Japanese lost only one light aircraft carrier, Soho! And at the Midway Atoll, the Americans were helped only by chance and enormous personal courage of the pilots. So the victory was still very, very far away!
  14. avt
    avt 9 December 2013 19: 43
    0
    Quote: serezhafili
    I do not understand why the author attributed the victory in the battle in the Coral Sea to the Americans?

    Here the question is of course debatable, how to count. It seems to fit in pieces. BUT! The losses of the Japanese flight personnel were very significant, if not to say more that they simply knocked out the trained flyers who drowned everything and everyone, and this, with the difference in the training of flight personnel from the opposing sides, was just a disaster. Yes, and the damage to the "Cranes" was such that they did not go to Midway. And most importantly, the movement to the south was stopped, the strategic movement and Australia could sleep peacefully. It can be said that it was not a return to this direction and the Midway adventure put an end to Japanese successes in the Pacific Ocean.
    1. serezhafili
      serezhafili 9 December 2013 20: 24
      0
      Nevertheless, Guadalcanal was ahead, Attu was, there were "frog jumps" from atoll to atoll! The victory went to the Americans much harder than we think! By the way, in the battle in the Coral Sea, the United States lost 66 aircraft and Japan 77.
      1. avt
        avt 10 December 2013 16: 40
        0
        Quote: serezhafili
        By the way, in the battle in the Coral Sea, the United States lost 66 aircraft and Japan lost 77.
        So after all
        Quote: avt
        they knocked out trained flyers who drowned everything and everyone, and this, with the difference in the training of flight personnel from the opposing sides, was simply a disaster

        Quote: serezhafili
        Nevertheless, there was Guadalcanal ahead, there was Attu, there were "frog jumps" from atoll to atoll!

        Exactly what
        Quote: serezhafili
        "frog jumping" from atoll to atoll!

        The main thing is that
        Quote: avt
        the south movement was stopped, the strategic movement and Australia could sleep peacefully.