Delay in the fight against submarines - death like. In combat conditions, as soon as the boat is found, you must immediately take measures to destroy it. Hard contact can be lost at any second, and then expect trouble: the submarine will have time to defuse its ammunition in the cities on the other end of the Earth or rush into a counterattack, firing six or eight torpedoes at a sluggish destroyer, which will be extremely difficult and risky to evade. .
Already in the first post-war years, the question of the mismatch between the capabilities of the ships' sonar facilities and the capabilities of their anti weapons. Under favorable conditions, the SAS ensured a decent detection range for those times (up to 1 miles in active mode and up to 3-4 miles in noise-finding mode), while the main anti-submarine weapons of the ships remained bomb emitters and jet bombers like the British Hedgehog "(" Hedgehog "). The first ones allowed to attack the boat with deep caliber bombs, rolling them into the water directly behind the stern of the ship. In this case, for a successful attack was required to be exactly above the boat, which is unlikely in most meetings with the underwater threat. Missile multi-bombed bombs of the war years allowed firing volleys of depth charges directly along the course, but the range still remained unsatisfactory - no more 200-250 meters from the ship’s side.
All this time, the developers of the submarines did not stand still and continuously improved the design of their offspring - speed / range in underwater position / snorkel (RDP), detection tools and weapons. The horizon has already colored the dawn of the atomic era - in 1955 the first Nautilus submarine will enter the sea. Fleet It required a powerful and reliable weapon, capable of hitting enemy submarines at previously inaccessible distances, while having a minimum reaction time.
Bearing in mind that the most effective means during the war years were jet depth charges, engineers began to develop this idea. By 1951, the American fleet was armed with the RUR-4 “Alpha” jet bomb, a powerful weapon that allowed them to hurl 110 kg of explosives at a distance above 700 meters. The launch mass of the jet bomb is 238 kg, the flight speed is 85 m / s. System rate of fire - 12 rds / min. Ammunition - 22 Ready Shot.
RUR-4 Weapon Alpha
A similar weapon was installed on the ships of the Navy of the USSR - jet bombs of the RBU family (1000, 1200, 2500, 6000, 12000). The index in most cases indicates the maximum firing range. Unlike the American RUR-4, domestic RBUs were multilateral - from five (for the primitive RBU-1200, 1955) to ten to twelve stems (RBU-6000 / 12000). In addition to its main function - the fight against enemy submarines, the RBU could be used as an effective anti-torpedo system, allowing you to cover the torpedo going to the ship with one volley or set the barrier out of false targets. Powerful and unpretentious RBU turned out to be such a successful system that they still stand on the decks of most surface ships of the Russian Navy.
Small anti-submarine ship firing from RBU-6000 "Smerch-2"
But all efforts ultimately proved futile. The use of depth bombs at large distances did not give the desired result: the error of the means of detection, superimposed on the circular probable deviation of jet ammunition, did not allow to hit modern nuclear-powered ships with due efficiency. There was only one way out - to use a small-sized homing torpedo as a warhead. The once primitive "Hedzhhog" has become a complex combat system, the true demon of two elements: rocket technology and torpedo weapons, sealed by the fusion of the most modern technologies in the field of microelectronics.
The first such complex, RUR-5 ASROC (Anti-Submarine ROCket), appeared in 1961 year - the box-based launcher Mk.16 for many years became the hallmark of the US Navy and allied fleets. The use of ASROK gave a huge advantage to the "probable enemy" anti-submarine forces and brought the combat capabilities of destroyers and frigates of the US Navy to a completely different level.
The system quickly spread throughout the world: the ASROS could be installed on board warships of most classes — torpedo missiles (PLUR) were used in the ammunition sets of nuclear cruisers, destroyers and frigates, massively installed on outdated destroyers of the Second World War (the FRAM program for turning old ships into hunters for the Soviet submarines). Actively delivered to allied countries - sometimes as a separate technology, sometimes bundled with export ships. Japan, Germany, Greece, Spain, Italy, Brazil, Mexico, Taiwan ... In total, 14 states are among the users of ASROK!
RUR-5 ASROC. Starting weight 432 ... 486 kg (depending on the version and type of warhead). Length - 4,5 m. Ammunition speed - 315 m / s. Max. firing range - 5 miles.
The main reason for the success of the ASROC complex, in comparison with similar systems, was its balance. At first glance, the American PLUR did not have enough stars from the sky: max. the firing range was only 9 km. Such a solution has a simple explanation - the PLUR range is primarily determined not by the duration of the rocket engines, but by the capabilities of the ship's acoustic detection equipment. Indeed, why does PLUR fly tens of kilometers - if it is impossible to find a boat at such a distance ?!
The range of the first ASROC exactly corresponded to the effective detection range of the sonars (first of all, AN / SQS-23 - the base GUS of all American 60-s ships). As a result, the system was relatively simple, cheap and compact. Subsequently, it greatly helped to unify the torpedo missile with the new systems of naval weapons: several generations of small-sized torpedoes, special combat units W44 with 10 CT power, three variants of launchers. Besides 8-charging container Mk.16, raketotorpedy launched from the launching beam Mk.26 plants (atomic cruisers "Virginia" destroyers, "Kidd", the first sub-series "Ticonderoga") or PU MK.10 (Italian missile cruiser "Vittorio Veneto" ).
The destroyer Agerholm observes the effects of his shot. Tests of ASROK with YABCH, 1962
Ultimately, excessive standardization has been destructive: to date, only one RUM-139 VLA PCRK remains in service with the US Navy, whose capabilities (first of all, the firing range, 22 km) no longer fully meet the needs of the modern fleet. It is curious that ASROC for a long time could not adapt to vertical launch installations - as a result, all modern cruisers and destroyers of 8 years (1985-93) went without anti-submarine missile complexes.
It is curious that the ASROC system PU could also be used to launch the Harpoon RCC
More interesting is the situation in the overseas submarine fleet - in the middle of the 60-x the US Navy received a submarine-launched UUM-44 SUBROC submarine. A large two-ton ammunition, launched from a standard torpedo tube, was designed to destroy enemy submarines at distances greater than the range of the torpedo weapon. Equipped with a nuclear warhead power 5 CT. Max. firing range - 55 km. Flight profile is similar to ASROC. It is curious that the first SUBROC set delivered to the fleet was lost along with the dead submarine “Tresher”.
By the end of the 80's, the outdated system was finally retired, and there was no replacement: the promising UUM-125 "CELANCE" complex was still in the sketches. As a result, the US Navy submarines have been completely unable to use anti-submarine missiles for a quarter of a century. I wish them the same in the future. Especially since no work on this topic is underway.
Among other foreign anti-submarine complexes, the Ikara complex (Australia / UK) should be noted. Unlike the simple ASROK, which simply flew along a ballistic trajectory in the indicated direction, the Icara was a real unmanned aircraft, whose flight was continuously monitored during the entire time. This made it possible to make operational changes in the trajectory of the aircraft carrier - in accordance with the updated sonar data, thereby specifying the place where the torpedo was dropped and increasing the chances of success. Separating the warhead with a parachute, the Icarus did not fall into the water, but continued its flight — the system would divert the carrier aircraft to the side so that the sound of its fall did not distract the torpedo guidance system. Max. the launch range was 10 miles (18,5 km).
Ikara turned out to be exceptionally good, but the British Admiralty was too impoverished for the serial purchases of this complex: only one of the planned ships equipped with the ICRK Icara could be built - the destroyer type BNNXX Bristol. Another 82 complexes were installed during the modernization of old frigates. Also, several complexes appeared on Australian ships. Subsequently, the ships from the Ikara PLRK passed through the hands of New Zealand, Chilean and Brazilian sailors. On this 8-year-old stories "Icarus" is over.
There are other “national” rocket-torpedo complexes that are not widely used - for example, the French Maladon submarine missile radar (currently retired), the modern South Korean complex Honsan'o (Red Shark) or the Italian in every sense MILAS is an anti-submarine missile based on the OCR anti-ship missile with an 35 + km range, equipped with one of the world's best compact torpedoes MU90 Impact. At the moment, the MILAS complex is installed on board five ships of the Italian Navy, incl. promising frigates type FREMM.
The rocket theme was the main trend in the development of the national navy - and, of course, the idea of anti-submarine missile-torpedo complexes here has grown into a really violent color. At different periods of time in service were 11 PLRK, differing in weight and size characteristics and methods of basing. Among them (with a list of the most interesting features):
- RPK-1 "Whirlwind" - nuclear warhead, ballistic trajectory, two variants of PU, the complex was installed on anti-submarine and aircraft-carrying cruisers of the USSR Navy with 1968 g .;
- RPK-2 "Blizzard" - underwater basing, launching through a standard 533-mm machine;
- URPK-3 / 4 “Snowstorm” - for equipping surface ships: BOD Ave. 1134А, 1134Б and patrol ships of 1135 Ave;
- The URK-5 “Rastrub-B” is an upgraded Metel complex with a range of 50… 55 km, which corresponds to the detection range of the Polynom GAS. It is possible to use the PLRK as an anti-ship missile (without separating the warhead);
- RPK-6М “Waterfall” - a unified system for launching from NK and PL torpedo tubes, firing range over 50 km, equipped with UGMT-1 deep-water self-guided torpedo;
Fantastic launch of the Vodopad-NK from the board of the large anti-submarine ship Admiral Chabanenko. Having jumped out of the torpedo apparatus, the ammunition is immersed in water (unification with submarines!), After a second to jump out of the waves and, fluffing up the fiery tail, rush off into the clouds.
- RPK-7 “Wind” - underwater basing, launching through a standard 650 mm torpedo tube, nuclear warhead, launch range - up to 100 km with issuing digital control center using own sonar tools from other ships, submarines, airplanes and satellites;
- RPK-8 - is an improvisation based on the widespread RBU-6000. Instead of the RSL, small-sized PLUR 90Ps are used, which allows 8-10 times to increase efficiency compared to the original system. The complex is installed on board the Fearless and Yaroslav the Wise patrol ships, as well as Indian frigates of the Shivalik type;
- RPK-9 "Medvedka" - small anti-submarine complex to equip the IPC. The experimental model in 1990-s was tested from the board of the IPC on hydrofoils, etc. 1141 "Alexander Kunakhovich". According to some data, an upgraded version of the Medvedka-2 with a vertical launch is currently being developed to equip promising Russian frigates of the 22350 Ave;
- APR-1 and APR-2 - anti-submarine air-launched missile-torpedo complexes. They were launched from the Il-38 and Tu-142 aircraft, Ka-27PL helicopters. In service with the 1971 year;
- APR-3 and 3M "Eagle" - aviation PLUR with a turbojet engine;
URK-5 "rastrub-B" on a large anti-submarine ship
PU "Rastrub-B" (or "Snowstorm") on board the TFR pr. 1135
Domestic developers are not going to rest on their laurels - it is proposed to include new PLUR 91Рs from the family of Caliber missiles into the armament of future ships of the Russian Navy. The ballistic trajectory, the launch range 40 ... 50 km, the flight speed 2..2,5 M. The AFP-3 and MPT-1 self-guided torpedoes are used as warheads. The launch is carried out through the standard UVP of the Universal Ship Shooting Complex (USKS), which is planned to be installed on the promising corvettes of the 20385 Ave. and frigates of the 22350 Ave.
Nowadays, anti-submarine torpedo missiles remain one of the most effective and effective anti-submarine weapons, which allow enemy submarines to be “kept at a distance”, preventing them from a distance of a torpedo salvo. On the other hand, the inclusion of a submarine ammunition submarine ammunition provides substantial advantages to the submarine fleet, allowing you to quickly strike your “brothers” at distances that are many times longer than the effective use of torpedo weapons.
No anti-submarine aircraft and helicopters can match the PLUR by reaction time and volley power. The use of PLO helicopters is limited by weather conditions — when waves are in excess of 5 points and wind speeds over 30 m / s, it is difficult to use the lowered HAC, besides, the helicopter HAC is always inferior in power and sensitivity to the ships' hydroacoustic stations. In this case, only the tested GUS + PLUR combination allows for effective anti-submarine defense of the compound.
Shows the work of ASROC, Ikara anti-submarine systems, a LAMPS helicopter and a coastal / carrier-based aircraft. In the near, the most critical zone, anti-submarine missiles are leading the way.