"Mind Russia does not understand." Wonderful words of the great poet, 210, the birth of which is performed today. We love his wonderful lyric poems, but not everyone knows that Fyodor Tyutchev was still the author of sharp political articles. Even Fyodor Dostoevsky called him the first poet-philosopher, who, apart from Alexander Pushkin, had no equal.
Fedor Ivanovich 23 was born on November (December 5) 1803, in the village of Ovstug, Oryol Province, in a poor but noble noble family. “Ovstug ... Adorable, fragrant and serene,” he recalled his native land later, working in a foreign land. The future poet received his home education under the guidance of Semen Raich, later a teacher of Mikhail Lermontov. I was doing well, already in 13 years I translated the odes of Horace from Latin. He studied at Moscow University, after graduation received a “distribution” to the College of Foreign Affairs, and at the age of 18 years went to work in the Russian diplomatic mission in Munich.
Who was the diplomat at that time? And by the same person who today is a political intelligence officer. And Tyutchev became a scout also by inheritance. One of his ancestors, Zakhariy Tyutchev, was sent by Dmitry Donskoy to the Golden Horde, to the camp of Mamai himself, with special assignments. In other words - on reconnaissance to the rear of the enemy, and managed in the most brilliant way to perform the task. 20 spent the same years in Germany, but also in Turin and Fyodor Tyutchev: he regularly sent reports to St. Petersburg, talked with informants, analyzed the political situation in the host countries, drew conclusions and made suggestions.
The level of his knowledge could be envied by any modern diplomat. He was "on a friendly footing" not only with kings, local nobility, but also with Heine, Schelling, Goethe, and other leading figures of European culture. And, therefore, knew very, very much, was aware of all European intrigues, secret conspiracies and the most profound strategic plans.
In those days, the royal palaces, the salons of princes and barons, social events and receptions at the embassies were the place for gathering intelligence information. On them Tyutchev, distinguished by brilliant eloquence and rare wit, felt like a fish in water.
In addition, he seemed to be in Germany in general, marrying a girl from the well-born German family, Eleanor Peterson.
But Tyutchev did not attach much importance to his literary work, thanks to which we remember him today. Often lost manuscripts or burned them at all, like garbage. For the sake of the construction, it was only a way of self-expression. Friends persuaded to send him some of the poems for publication in Russia, which he did. But - signed by initials. Many, including the most famous, poems were published only after his death. If it were not for Nikolai Nekrasov, who paid attention to Tyutchev in his article “Russian Secondary Poets”, then he probably would not have been noticed at all in his lifetime.
In St. Petersburg, Tyutchev returned to the 1844 year and at first fell into disgrace. All changed his meeting with the powerful chief of the Third Branch, Alexander Benkendorf. He sought him out on behalf of Nicholas I, who liked the unsigned letter from Tyutchev to the editor of the German newspaper Gustave Kolb. As a result, Tyutchev was appointed official on special assignments under the State Chancellor and became a close friend of Alexander Gorchakov, and then - the chairman of the foreign censorship committee.
Poet at the head of the censorship? More than strange, but the fact is, I repeat, Tyutchev did not consider himself a poet at all. He was a government official serving Russia. He served faithfully and all his life was a fiery Russian patriot. But also - a subtle diplomat, and, therefore, a scout and a very careful person. It is no coincidence that he wrote:
Shut up, hide and hide
And your thoughts and dreams ...
Only live in yourself know how
There is a whole world in your soul ...
Tyutchev was entrusted with creating a positive image of Russia in the West, as well as independent speeches in the press on the political problems of the relationship between Europe and Russia.
In other words, Tyutchev became the first in the Russian stories the organizer of counter-propaganda in foreign countries in response to the torrents of lies and slander, already then an avalanche of rolling on our country.
Tyutchev lived a long time abroad and understood better than many others how in reality they treat Russia in Western Europe. “The only natural policy of Russia in relation to the Western powers,” he concluded, “is not an alliance with one or another of these powers, but separation, their separation. For only when they are separated from each other, they cease to be hostile to us - by impotence. This harsh truth, perhaps, distorts sensitive souls, but in the end, after all, it is the law of our being. ” Moreover, he predicted the possibility of fascism in Germany. He noted the birth of something in it that “can lead Europe to a state of barbarism, which has no similar world in its history”.
In those years, Russian society was shocked by the appearance in the West of the book “Russia in 1839” by the French marquis de Custine, affectionately accepted in St. Petersburg. In it, in response to the generous Russian hospitality, he portrayed our country with hatred and contempt, and at the same time inadvertently revealed the secret plans of the West against Russia. “This insidious plan,” the talkative marquis snapped, “originates from the era of Napoleon. The perspicacious Corsican saw the danger threatening Europe from the growing power of the Russian colossus, and, wanting to weaken the terrible enemy, resorted to the power of ideas ... He sent to St. Petersburg under the pretext of helping to implement the plans of the young monarch (that is, Alexander. - VM), a whole galaxy political workers - something like a disguised army, which was supposed to secretly clear the way for our soldiers. These skilled intriguers were tasked with ingesting the administration, seizing, above all, public education and sowing ideas into the minds of young people, contrary to the political symbol of the country's faith, or rather, its government ... ”
Russia, which liberated Europe from Napoleon's domination, Tyutchev wrote on this subject, is now subject to constant hostile attacks by the European press. He did not reply to de Custine, but wrote to Gustave Kolb, editor of the influential German magazine:
"The true defender of Russia is history, for three centuries it has tirelessly resolved all the trials to which it puts its mysterious fate in favor of Russia."
Tyutchev prophetically warned the German editor that the policy of contention and hostility against Russia would bring bitter rewards. “And then, gracious sovereign,” he wrote, “you pay too much for having been unfair to us once.”
Well, Tyutchev’s main answer to the slanderers was his very famous:
Mind does not understand Russia,
Yard common not to measure ...
Moreover, it is not difficult to guess that he was referring to the "Western European mind" and the same "arshin". Tyutchev, Nikolai Pogodin wrote, was the first representative of the national consciousness about the Russian mission in Europe, in history.
His statement in the article “Russia and the West” about the pro-Western intelligentsia is striking, as if written off from the portrait of today's activists of Bolotnaya Square. “This nameless folk,” he notes, calling him “the worst enemy”, is the same in all countries. This is a tribe of individualism, denial. " At the same time, Tyutchev noted the falsity of the norms and standards imposed on Russia from the West:
Long on European soil,
Where lies are so overgrown,
A long time Pharisee science
The double truth was created.
With reference to Slavism, of which he was an ardent supporter, Tyutchev describes this threat: “Slavism has its worst enemy, and even more internal than the Germans, the Poles, the Magyars and the Turks. These are their so-called intelligentsia. This is what can completely destroy the Slavic business ... These stupid, stupid, confused intellectuals still couldn’t understand that for Slavic tribes there is no possibility of independent historical life outside their legal organic dependence on Russia. ” Tyutchev seemed to foresee the fact that the Serbs, for example, after the NATO bombing, began to ask for Russian citizenship themselves. But after all, other states already understand that the modern world cannot do without our country. This was clearly shown by the latest events around Syria, when only Russia was able to stop a new impending slaughter.
Tyutchev dreamed of creating an Orthodox Slavic power under the auspices of Russia and believed that "the Russian kingdom should extend from the Nile to the Neva, from the Elbe to China." And not only he dreamed, but he also actively promoted this, fought hard against the anti-Russian forces, was convinced of the world destiny of Russia, believed in its special way of development. He tirelessly exposed the insidious machinations of the Jesuits and the papacy, criticized the policies of the rising United States.
In his opinion, Russia "by the very fact of its existence denies the future of the West." Therefore, he was a staunch opponent of blindly borrowing foreign experience, transferring European institutions and institutions to Russian soil. He believed that “it is necessary to stay where fate put us. But such is the fatal confluence of circumstances, now several generations of aggravating our minds, that instead of keeping our thoughts on Europe naturally giving it a foothold, we tied it, willy-nilly, to the tail of the West, so to speak. ”
But at the same time, he believed that Russia is not at all opposed to the West, but is its "legitimate sister", living only "its own, organic and original life."
Contrary to the opinion of the then German Chancellor Bismarck, who declared that the unity of nations is achieved only by "iron and blood," Tyutchev wrote:
"Unity," announced the oracle of our day, "
It may be soldered with iron only with blood ... ”
But we will try to solder him with love, -
And there we will see that stronger ...
He was prophetically aware that, under the slogans of freedom and the West European “democratic” revolutions, a terrible fate was being prepared for Russia, and severe tests awaited it. He wrote:
A terrible dream over us,
Horrible, ugly dream:
In the blood to toe, we fight with the dead,
Resurrected for a new funeral.
Osma month last these battles
Heroic ardor, betrayal and lies,
The den of the robber in the house of prayer,
In one hand crucifix and knife.
And the whole world, like intoxicated with lies,
All kinds of evil, all the tricks of evil! ..
No, never so boldly the truth of God
Human curse to battle did not call! ..
And this cry of sympathy for the blind,
World cry to frantic struggle,
Corruption of the minds and the distortion of the word-
Everything has risen and everything threatens you,
O native land! - such militia
The world has not seen since the original days ...
Great to know about Russia, your meaning!
Take heart, stand, cross, and overcome!
Anticipating events, Tyutchev noted: “The revolution and Russia. These two forces are facing each other today, and tomorrow, perhaps, they will clutch among themselves. Between them, no agreements and treaties are possible. The life of one of them means the death of the other. The whole political and religious future of humanity depends on the outcome of the struggle between them, the greatest struggle ever seen by the world. ”
And Tyutchev was right - it happened. The revolution in Russia not only destroyed the centuries-old foundations of the country and flooded it with blood, but also changed the face of the world, the consequences continue to be felt to this day. And he explained the adherents' hatred for historical Russia by saying that Russia, first of all, “is a Christian state, and the Russian people are Christian, not only because of the orthodoxy of their beliefs, but also because of something even more sincere ...
Revolution, first of all - the enemy of Christianity. The anti-Christian spirit is the soul of revolution, its essential, distinctive property.
Its consistently updated forms and slogans, even violence and crimes, are all particulars and random details. And it is precisely the anti-Christian principle that animates it. ”
In his article “Russia and the Revolution,” he argued that if a country was morally and spiritually transformed, it would triumph over the revolutionary contagion: “And when was the call of Russia more clear and obvious? We can say that the Lord inscribed it with fiery arrows in the heavens darkened from storms. The West leaves the scene, everything collapses and perishes in the universal world fire ... And when over such a huge crash we see an even more enormous Empire, emerging like the Holy Ark, who dares to doubt her vocation, and whether we, her children, show disbelief and cowardice ?
In modern times, when the US and NATO bombed Serbia, destroyed Iraq, provoked chaos in Libya, and now encourage terrorist gangs leading the war in Syria, when Western policies are based on double standards and the whole world is covered by a global network of electronic espionage by the United States, and The spiritual foundations of Western society are corrupting the rage of sexual minorities, same-sex marriages and the cult of the golden calf, elevated beyond the ocean to the rank of a national idea, Russia, despite all its own difficult problems, remains today for this world is almost the only bastion of Christian values.
... More bells are silent,
And the East is the dawn of blush
The endless night has passed,
And soon the bright day will come!
Get up, Rus! Already close the hour!
But the fate of the prophet in his homeland was not easy. The last years of Tyutchev's life were marred by heavy losses. His eldest son, brother, daughter Maria died. His beloved Elena Denisyeva died from consumption, and a year later - their two children, his mother. He himself was seriously ill, and died in 1873 in Tsarskoye Selo. But until the last day of his life, he believed in the triumph of truth and justice, he fought stubbornly for the interests of Russia. This also bequeathed to us, the descendants:
Take heart, fight,
Oh glorious friends,
No matter how tough it is,
Nor persistent struggle.