Military Review

Three centuries of Russian marines: from cuts to new development

24
November 27 Russian Marines celebrated their 308 birthday. The first regular "regiment of naval soldiers" Peter I created by decree of November 16 (Julian calendar) 1705 of the year. Russian father Fleet in almost all significant gains of the young empire, he successfully used amphibious assault forces.


However, this specific, but invariably effective branch of the troops (or rather, the forces of the fleet) did not develop easily. Already at the end of the Northern War, the marines were reorganized for the first time: instead of one regular regiment, several separate battalions were created that had different tasks. Thus, the "Admiralty Battalion" carried guard duty and actually served as a coastal defense. And several other battalions served on ships as boarding and landing teams.

For its three centuries history our marines knew many reorganizations, reductions and even complete liquidations. After Peter, many leaders were captured by the illusion of the “land character” of our country. But every time the reality of war proved the opposite, the marines were recreated anew.

In 1769 – 1774 years, the Russian marines fought in Syria and Lebanon, occupying and holding the Beirut fortress for over a year. In the Mediterranean campaign 1798 – 1800, the marines acted in the squadron of Admiral Ushakov against Napoleon’s troops, showing outstanding effectiveness. A number of islands of the Ionian archipelago (Kitira, Zakynthos, Kefalonia, Lefkada) were liberated from the French, the fortress of Corfu was captured, the Neapolitan kingdom was liberated. The Marine Corps under the command of Lieutenant Commander Belly, who was only about 500 people, fought across the Apennine Peninsula from east to west and 3 on June 1799 captured Naples. 16 September 1799, the landing party of Lieutenant Colonel Skipor and Lieutenant Balabin (700 naval soldiers) entered Rome. In March 1807 of the year, during the outbreak of the war with Turkey, a landing force that seized the island of Tenedos landed from the ships of the squadron of Vice-Admiral Senyavin. The island is located twelve miles from the Dardanelles, and its capture provided a near blockade of a strategically important strait.

In the 1812 war, a special role was played by the Guards naval crew, which served as the frontline engineering unit. The same uncle of Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov (midshipman Mikhail Nikolayevich Lermontov) served in the crew, from which the poem “Borodino” begins. In the battle of Borodino 26 in August 1812, the sailors-guardsmen, along with the rangers of the Lifeguard regiment of the Life Guards, destroyed the 106-th linear regiment of General Delson's division, under fire of the enemy destroyed the bridge over the Koloch River, which cut off the French to retreat. And when the Russian troops went over to the counteroffensive, bridges were built across the Protva River. For the battle of Kulm, the Guards naval crew was awarded the honorary banner of St. George. Commanded by the French under Kulm, General Vandam surrendered to the captain of rank 2 Kolzakov. During the siege and surrender of the fortress of Danzig, the brigade formed from the 1 and 2 sea regiments distinguished themselves. Together with the main forces the Russian marines entered Paris.

However, after the 1812 war of the year, despite the success of its use in both sea and land operations, the fleet lost its large Marine units for almost 100 years. Neither the Crimean War, nor the defense of Sevastopol could convince the Russian leadership of the need to revive the marines as a separate kind of fleet forces. Contrary to its creator, Peter, the empire became a "land power." And only in World War I, at the end of 1916 - the beginning of 1917, were attempts to form the Baltic and Black Sea divisions of the marines. However, these plans prevented the revolution.

25 April 1940 was born the Soviet marines, when common sense demanded that a special brigade of marines be formed in the Baltic 1. In the years of the Great Patriotic division, the marines appeared on all fronts. The first landing of the Great Patriotic War occurred simultaneously with its beginning, when 22 on June 1941 of the year, the sailors of the Danube Flotilla and border guards cleared the Romanian Danube coast for 75 km from the enemy. In total, during the war years, a 21 marine infantry brigade, about three dozen naval rifle brigades, many individual regiments, battalions and companies were formed. About 500 thousands of sailors fought on the fronts, more than 100 landings were conducted. It was then that our marines again earned combat glory, earning the nickname “Black Death” from the enemy.

But at the end of the 50s, the marines were again abolished. None of the units and formations famous during the war (5 brigades and 2 battalions that became guards, 9 brigades and 6 battalions awarded orders) were retained.

Soon, however, the marines again required. It turned out that even specially trained units of the Ground Forces cannot show satisfactory results in amphibious operations, in which the “dismounted” sailors always achieved success. And with the active participation of the Navy Commander-in-Chief Admiral of the Fleet S. G. Gorshkov 7 June 1963, the 336 th guards motorized rifle regiment was reorganized as the 336 th Belostok Separate Marine Regiment (OMP). He was removed from submission to the Ground Forces and transferred to the Baltic Fleet. In December of the same year, the 390-th separate marine regiment appeared in the Pacific Fleet. In the 1966 year, the 61 th motorized rifle regiment of the 131 th motorized rifle division became the 61 th Kirkenes Marine Regiment of the Northern Fleet. And in November, the 1967 regiment of the Black Sea Fleet Marine Corps was formed on the basis of a single battalion of the Belostok regiment, 810. Later, a separate battalion appeared in the Caspian Flotilla, and the Pacific 390-th OMP was deployed to the division. In all the fleets naval engineering battalions appeared, designed for engineering support of naval landings. So Russian Marines was born for the third time.

In 1971, the directive of the commander-in-chief of the Navy in Sevastopol created the legendary 299 marines training center "Saturn". There, officers, sergeants and sailors underwent naval, airborne, lightwater, reconnaissance, engineering, tactical and fire training, studied military topography, organization, tactics and armament of a potential enemy. Most of the center’s teachers were involved in hostilities in the “hot spots of the Cold War,” such as Egypt, Angola, and Syria. The training center did not transmit theoretical knowledge, but real, moreover, the most recent combat experience. And the marines, as one of the elite components of the armed forces, received this experience first.

A new stage in the development of this kind of fleet forces came with the assumption of the post of Chief of the General Staff, Nikolai Vasilyevich Ogarkov. In September 1979, the individual regiments were reorganized into separate brigades. Since 1981, the status of brigades has been upgraded to tactical formations, which equated them to divisions. The battalions and divisions of the brigades became separate units capable of acting independently. To solve the new tasks in the European strategic direction, in addition to the 61 brigade in the Northern Fleet, the 175 was formed. The fleet received landing ships and hovercraft. Marines received new weapons, equipment and unique training. She again became the elite of the armed forces, capable of performing the most difficult tasks. She again returned to her innate purpose - she was preparing to defeat the enemy on his territory, and not to fight him off on her own.

In 1989, there was a preparation for signing a treaty on the limitation of armed forces in Europe (CFE Treaty). Since the forces of the fleet did not fall under reduction, four motorized rifle divisions (they became known as coastal defense divisions), one artillery brigade, two artillery regiments, and a separate machine-gun and artillery battalion were transferred to the Navy’s subordination. The fleet and had previously had parts of the coastal defense. They were called the Coastal Missile-Artillery Forces (BRAV), just like the marines, were a separate branch of the fleet forces that had their tasks. These are artillery units and divisions of coastal missile systems, units for the protection and defense of naval bases and objects, anti-sabotage units. After December 1989, the Brav was formally combined with marines, creating a single Coastal troops. Former ground formations and units were also added to them. They had heavy weapons and could conduct a general battle on the coast, to fight with enemy naval assault forces. It must be said that the fight against the landings was always entrusted to the Ground Forces, and, at first glance, little changed from the transfer of divisions to the fleet. But in this way we maintained the defense potential of the reduction. And besides, the former land divisions strengthened the general potential of the fleet forces, including the marines, one of the best-trained components of the armed forces. Motorized rifle divisions and artillery, subordinate to the fleet, could participate in amphibious operations in the second echelon, fixing themselves on the bridgeheads captured by assault forces. With heavy weapons, they could lead the offensive and develop the success of naval operations. Such a reorganization could give a new impetus to the development of the forces of the fleet. If this had not been prevented by unforeseen circumstances ...

14 June 1991 at the Conference on the CFE Treaty in Vienna on the initiative of Gorbachev, the Soviet delegation for some reason decided to take on additional standards for the reduction of conventional weapons. The last president of the USSR, just before the destruction of the country, decided to make a gift to NATO - he included the armament of the Coastal Forces (including the marines) in the overall cuts. Thus, he destroyed all the benefits from the transfer of ground formations and units to the fleet and stopped the development of one of the most successful branches in our history.

After the collapse of the USSR, the new Russian leadership did not pay attention to the marines. The 1992 – 1993 disbanded the 175-I separate brigade of the Northern Fleet MP. From 1993 to 1996, all four coastal defense (DBO) divisions transferred to ground forces were disbanded: 77-i DBO SF, 40-i DBO BSF, 126-I RBU BF. The Black Sea 3-I brigade was reorganized into a regiment. The remaining units of the marines did not formally decline, but in reality there were only a few deployed units. The reduction actually happened, partly due to the lack of draftees, and partly because the officers and ensigns were fired.

About the marines remembered only during the war in Chechnya. Since January, the 1995 of the year (after the unsuccessful New Year's assault on Grozny), separate assault and assault battalions of the Northern Fleet's 61 Brigade, the Baltic Fleet's 336 Brigade, as well as being equipped with the naval personnel and composition of the coastal units (due to the lack of the Baltic Fleet, as well as the personnel of the Baltic Fleet and the composition of the coastal units (in connection with the lack of the Baltic Fleet, as well as the personnel of the Baltic Fleet) all armed forces) 165 th regiment 55 Pacific divisions of the Pacific. From May 1995, a consolidated marine infantry regiment (105) was formed in Chechnya from three MP battalions and an engineering battalion of the Baltic Fleet. The regiment acted on the most difficult directions, leading heavy battles for the mastery of settlements. Having completed his combat missions, he was disbanded. And in the counter-terrorist operation 1999 – 2000, the marines of the Northern and Black Sea fleets, as well as the newly formed 414 th battalion of the MP of the Caspian Flotilla, take part. The Marines proved once again that even in the period of stagnation, it is capable of remaining one of the best-trained and combat-ready units of the armed forces.

In 2008 – 2009, the marines again underwent a reorganization. Formed in the Caspian in 2000, the 77 Brigade, in 2008, again became two separate battalions. The 2007-I separate motorized rifle brigade (Kamchatka) transferred to the fleet in 40, in the 2009 year it was reorganized into the 3 regiment of the marine corps. The 61-I Kirkenes Brigade became a regiment. The 55 Division became the 155 Brigade. Perhaps this reorganization cannot be called a reduction, since the actual total number of personnel of the formations and units has not decreased. But this development was also not very similar.

Only recently began to appear encouraging news, allowing to hope for the restoration of the former power of the Russian marines. Far Eastern Higher Military Command School named after KK Rokossovsky (DVVKU), which trains naval infantry commanders, this year, for the first time after many years, conducted a full-fledged recruitment. More than 300 cadets started training, while the previous sets did not go beyond a few dozen. This year, the 3 th regiment of the marines was again reformed into the 40 brigade. In this, just recently, overland, compound, amphibious training began to be conducted. In the coming years, the fleet will receive amphibious helicopter-borne docking ships "Vladivostok" and "Sevastopol". A new combat vehicle for the Marine Corps is under development (code NIR "BMPP Platform"). Such a machine is really necessary, since the marines have long felt the need for a combat vehicle with good seaworthiness. Designed specifically for marine paratroopers BMP-3F received not ours, but the Indonesian sailors. And our fleet, unfortunately, expects the arrival of a new amphibious vehicle only "in the long term." This is all the more strange that the commander-in-chief of the airborne forces still managed to achieve the adoption of the BMD-4M. But the problem of upgrading the fleet of vehicles and enhancing the firepower of the marines is no less acute.

The other day, the head of the Navy Coastal Forces (the marines still belong to them, although we actually already left the CFE Treaty), Major General Alexander Kolpachenko said that next year the 61-th regiment of the Marine Corps of the Northern Fleet would again be reorganized into a brigade. This is a real gift for the 308-th birthday of the Marine Corps. I would like to hope that these are only the first steps towards the restoration and development of the power of the naval landing forces capable of hitting the enemy on its territory.
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  1. Baron Wrangell
    Baron Wrangell 3 December 2013 08: 30
    10
    "Black devils", "black death" - the epithets with which the enemies called the marines!
    My personal opinion of the marines in terms of training will be abrupt than the Airborne Forces, so the marines, in addition to combat training, landing on the coast, seizing a bridgehead, also went through a parachute training course.
    But the Airborne Forces did not study maritime affairs. (in no case do I want to offend the Airborne Forces, I treat them with great respect)
    1. Egor.nic
      Egor.nic 3 December 2013 14: 04
      0
      I do not recommend hitting anyone. To talk about something, you need to understand this, have knowledge in this area or have good practice. And so - demagogy and tuftalogy.
    2. BLACK-SHARK-64
      BLACK-SHARK-64 12 February 2014 14: 39
      0
      I guess, yes
  2. Karpv
    Karpv 3 December 2013 08: 50
    +2
    Thank you for the article. A detailed history of marines for the article.
  3. Dimon-chik-79
    Dimon-chik-79 3 December 2013 09: 59
    +2
    Very good and informative article!
    Indeed, it would be great if the Marine Corps revived to the scale that was in the USSR! And all the same, an adequate rearmament of formations and units was carried out!
  4. chehywed
    chehywed 3 December 2013 11: 46
    +1
    The other day, the chief of the Navy's Coastal Forces (the marine corps still refers to them, although we have already actually left the CFE Treaty), Major General Alexander Kolpachenko announced that next year the 61th Northern Fleet Marine Regiment will be reorganized into a brigade again.

    The news is good, but it would be better in the division.
  5. AK-47
    AK-47 3 December 2013 12: 01
    +3
    The Marine Corps was, is and will be.
    1. Mister X
      Mister X 3 December 2013 22: 42
      +2
      And this is the chief warrant officer of the Airborne Forces of the USSR

  6. wanderer_032
    wanderer_032 3 December 2013 12: 02
    +4
    Hmm ... Unfortunately, our guys are not enough for a serious matter, in which case, and with the equipment for them things are not important.
    But more than once already stepped on this rake.
    With all due respect to the Airborne Forces, I personally see their work only on a very limited scale (because the air defense of a potential enemy is good everywhere).
    It is not for nothing that the Americans bake so much about their marines and build normal equipment for a separate order.
    And they are not baked in vain, because in modern realities only the marines can be truly mobile (even Colonel Yevkurov understood this perfectly and therefore in 1999 he took his troops to Yugoslavia on "boxes", and not by air on military transport boards) ...
    And our top authorities, unfortunately, still do not want to understand this.
    1. Egor.nic
      Egor.nic 3 December 2013 13: 58
      -2
      Do not engage in tuftology. You do not understand this topic.
      1. gosha1970
        gosha1970 4 December 2013 11: 22
        0
        "... tuftology". As I understand it, your favorite word? Do you know anything else?
  7. wheel
    wheel 3 December 2013 12: 55
    0
    every day I am convinced that the main trouble of the Russian army is constant alterations. They would do it once, even if it was bad, but the system would work. And so from reforms and transformations there are only wastes and no effect. Stability is a sign of skill. And stability is not enough.
  8. Terrible ensign
    Terrible ensign 3 December 2013 12: 55
    +3
    For a small article, a very good and dense presentation of the actual material. Thank!
    I really want to believe that the time of constant reorganization has sunk into oblivion.
    As for the remark: "In my personal opinion, the Marines will be steeper than the Airborne Forces in terms of training, so the Marines, in addition to combat training, landing on the coast, seizing a bridgehead, also underwent a parachute training course." - You cannot indiscriminately, offhand, compare the levels of training, as you do, dear Baron. This or that training is determined, first of all, by those tasks that are called upon to solve this or that subunit, formation, formation or branch of troops.
    It is possible to compare the training levels of two divisions (for example, the MP and PDR companies) in the course of a comprehensive check when solving the same problem, on the same training ground, under the same conditions. Everything else is idle speculation ...
    Glory to the MP! Glory to the Airborne Forces!
  9. lukke
    lukke 3 December 2013 14: 26
    +1
    I am glad that the Annunciation School is being restored. As far as I understand now, the "Arctic" platoon will still be preparing. It generally needs to be specialized for the Marine Corps. The only thing is whether the absence of a training base at the school at sea or a large body of water hinders?
    1. albai
      albai 3 December 2013 17: 53
      +1
      I dare to correct you, "Blagoveshchenskoye" was only a tank school, and the general military school has always been the Far East, the base is modern enough, there are large ponds and not weak rivers, the Zeya and the Amur. For the Far Eastern theater of operations, normal fields and hills of the training center of the school, he personally ran through them. And as far as I am aware, even in the years of the greatest reduction of VUZ, DVOKU has always been in the ranks. And DVOKU has always been the forge of real field officers, and infantry, and DShB, and MP, and border guards. Glory to DVOKU !!!!!!
      1. not good
        not good 4 December 2013 13: 54
        0
        Before the reduction of the marines, the Pushkin VOKU was preparing, the bozas were gorgeous, and anyone could envy the training ground, but now they are gone. In general, a separate school is needed, but who will do this now in the Moscow Region.
  10. Walking
    Walking 3 December 2013 15: 18
    0
    Endless shy from one extreme to another, and people suffer, and in the first place.
  11. Walking
    Walking 3 December 2013 15: 18
    0
    Endless shy from one extreme to another, and people suffer, and in the first place.
  12. Russian officer
    Russian officer 3 December 2013 15: 45
    +2
    Baron Wrangel apparently proceeds from the position that the MP in the eyes of the average man, not only the Russian one, is portrayed through Western video materials as the coolest guys.
    Quote: Scary ensign
    It is possible to compare the training levels of two divisions (for example, the MP and PDR companies) in the course of a comprehensive check when solving the same problem, on the same training ground, under the same conditions. Everything else is idle speculation ...
    Glory to the MP! Glory to the Airborne Forces!

    It just so happened that MP by type of activity is a conqueror of 3 elements. Airborne Forces-2.
    The slogan of the MP- Where we are, there is victory! The slogan of the Airborne Forces- Nobody except us! Do you feel the difference? Me not. Both speak of Victory. And this is true. Both branches of the armed forces are strong and elite in their own way. And there are still guys from the squads to combat underwater sabotage forces and means. Believe me, also not made with a finger.
    So let's leave these arguments.
    The main thing is that Russia has both the MP and the Airborne Forces !!!!

    Quote: Scary ensign
    Glory to the MP! Glory to the Airborne Forces!

    I want to raise my glass for the cutest on earth,
    For those creatures without whom I can’t imagine life for myself,
    For the languid look
    For the tenderness of an affectionate hand.
    For you, in short, men !!!!!
  13. motorized rifle
    motorized rifle 3 December 2013 22: 18
    +1
    Nevertheless, the winged infantry, the marine, is the infantry. How it will be delivered is the second question, but they are conducting a combined arms battle. Of course, the creation of elitism is required as psychological compensation for entering the battle without heavy weapons, especially the airborne forces, well, remember:
    Like an angel from heaven he flies
    For that he fights like Damn!
    But without heavy weapons, both the naval and winged infantry are destroyed by tank and infantry formations. And the war is still won by the usual infantry, which everyone somehow forgot, because there is no romance of landing there, but there is only hard work for Victory. A normally trained infantryman can participate in any landing and win, but instead of teaching motorized rifle troops normally, they lean on elite units, and they cannot win a war without an infantry private Vanya. So it turns out, the infantry is not taught, and the marines and paratroopers are not enough to plug all the holes. As it was with G. Baklanov, in one of his works the infantry battalion commander argued: "- I think I served in the infantry, get an order, because an infantryman, more than three times, does not attack, either in a clean room or in a hospital ... "
  14. motorized rifle
    motorized rifle 3 December 2013 22: 18
    0
    Nevertheless, the winged infantry, the marine, is the infantry. How it will be delivered is the second question, but they are conducting a combined arms battle. Of course, the creation of elitism is required as psychological compensation for entering the battle without heavy weapons, especially the airborne forces, well, remember:
    Like an angel from heaven he flies
    For that he fights like Damn!
    But without heavy weapons, both the naval and winged infantry are destroyed by tank and infantry formations. And the war is still won by the usual infantry, which everyone somehow forgot, because there is no romance of landing there, but there is only hard work for Victory. A normally trained infantryman can participate in any landing and win, but instead of teaching motorized rifle troops normally, they lean on elite units, and they cannot win a war without an infantry private Vanya. So it turns out, the infantry is not taught, and the marines and paratroopers are not enough to plug all the holes. As it was with G. Baklanov, in one of his works the infantry battalion commander argued: "- I think I served in the infantry, get an order, because an infantryman, more than three times, does not attack, either in a clean room or in a hospital ... "
    1. SIT
      SIT 4 December 2013 00: 05
      +1
      Quote: motorized infantryman
      Normally trained infantryman, can participate in any landing and win,

      Have you ever seen the BDK after the landing, where a new call participated? Everything that is possible is spat out there and the BDK team puts mats on floors during a big tidy. Young people are rocking already on the outer roadstead of the base and by the time of the landing of erysipelas, they have the color of their camouflage uniforms. No makeup is needed for disguise. Everything is cradled first, but with time and experience they get used to it. This is a purely maritime specificity, and if you put an ordinary motorized rifle inside the airborne compartment and send it at least in 5-point fresh weather, then by the time of landing it will be half dead.
  15. motorized rifle
    motorized rifle 4 December 2013 20: 57
    0
    But who argues that, everything is correct, but according to the charter motorized rifle troops can participate in naval and air (landing method) landings.
    I won’t tell you about the 5-point storm, but the mandatory 500 km march in armor, off-road, cradles be healthy. And do not get up, and do not go into the latrine as you wish.
  16. The comment was deleted.
  17. ando_bor
    ando_bor 5 December 2013 14: 19
    0
    Propiar, http://volot26rus.livejournal.com/ the guy urgently served in the Marine Corps in the Caspian Sea in Dagestan, in 2012, I read, wrote well.
  18. mr.gelen
    mr.gelen April 16 2014 09: 20
    +1
    Gentlemen, all branches of the armed forces need each other and take upon themselves the duty of a different military unit — it’s completely absurd! A marine cannot be everything and a landing party cannot do everything and everyone is convinced of this when they encounter on business trips, engineers, infantry, communications are all connected! I’m still grateful to the booby soldier from the construction battalion who laid the wall crookedly and didn’t spare concrete on it for two days, they kept on and normal and failed, but wherever they swore with the gunners as much as possible, I served in PDSS and I don’t want to isolate myself from the mass of all the Armed Forces of RUSSIA !! Glory to our army, may God give her health !! Sorry if I hurt someone’s ambitions !!