Military Review

Smoldering fire of separatism. I would not want Russia to step on the same rake as the USSR

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Smoldering fire of separatism. I would not want Russia to step on the same rake as the USSRThe other day, President Vladimir Putin approved the concept of public security in Russia before 2020. According to the document, the main sources of threats for the Russian Federation are corruption, ethnic conflicts, extremism and man-made disasters. These problems are really explosive and at any time can provoke a crisis situation similar to the one that was observed in the USSR in 1988-1991.


Old rake

True, the concern is the intention of Russian officials to resolve ethnic conflicts by the same methods as in the USSR. In Russia, as once in the Union, to overcome ethnic strife is mainly assumed by measures that can easily be reported to higher authorities ...

At the same time, unsuccessful attempts continue to convince the Russians that ethnic conflicts in the Russian Federation are not national, but domestic in nature. This is a vicious practice that has discredited itself in Soviet times.

It is no secret that today separatist sentiments are observed in a number of regions of the Russian Federation. In many cases, they are aggravated by religious extremism, which even some clergymen, especially the muftis, carry. I will give just one example.

An interview of Honored Artist of Russia Elena Bezborodova recently published in “Century” “I visited the Patriotic War in Syria”, it is said that at present muftis for Russia are being prepared in anti-Russian Saudi Arabia. Naturally, the mufti, who received a charge of Russophobia there, will spread it among the Muslim believers of the Russian Federation.

It is clear that to transfer the training of muftis to Damascus, as it was before, due to military operations in Syria is unrealistic. But to consider measures to remedy this situation is essential.

Recall the sad Soviet experience. As is known, a number of Gorbachev perestroika, whose actions led to the collapse of the USSR, were trained in the United States under the program of Senator Fulbright. In 1958, Alexander Yakovlev, a post-graduate student of the Academy of Social Sciences under the Central Committee of the CPSU, and the senior lieutenant of the KGB, legend philologist, Oleg Kalugin. The result of the internship Yakovlev and Kalugin known ...

In total, during the Soviet period, nearly one and a half hundred young promising Soviet scientists underwent retraining in the United States. This is not much, but it should be borne in mind that we are talking about people who are visible and influential in their fields and professions. Among them are historians, academicians of the Russian Academy of Sciences Nikolai Bolkhovitinov and Alexander Fursenko, philologists Mikhail Gasparov and Vladimir Kataev, dean of the faculty of journalism of Moscow State University Yasen Zasursky and others.

The following facts speak about the degree of influence of the Soviet preachers of the American way of life prepared according to the Fulbright program. Yakovlev was the member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU, which, hiding behind the defense of communist ideas, did everything so that they would go into oblivion.

Andrei Fursenko, son of the aforementioned Alexander Fursenko, becoming the Russian Minister of Education, was able to introduce into the Russian school the vicious American slogan “Educate a literate consumer!”, The consequences of which Russia is already reaping.

Undoubtedly, the anti-Russian muftis in the regions of Russia who profess Islam are not less significant in social terms than the aforementioned “Fulbright” people. If you continue to ignore their influence, then the country may face serious conflicts.

Tbilisi-1956, Kaunas-1972

In connection with the above, it is necessary to tell about those ethnic conflicts that reminded the Union of the smoldering fire of ethnic hatred and separatism.

In March, 1956, in Georgia, a week after the Twentieth Congress of the CPSU, mass nationalist demonstrations took place. This was related to the report of Khrushchev on the personality cult of Stalin at this congress. In Georgia, respectively, banned to celebrate the anniversary of the death of the Soviet leader.

In Tbilisi, this caused protests of students. She began to lay flowers and wreaths en masse to the monument of Stalin. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of Georgia gave the command to stop the production and sale of wreaths. This further inflamed passions and multiplied the ranks of the defenders of the memory of the leader.

On March 5, thousands of Tbilisi gathered at the Stalin monument and began a multi-day rally, which soon became nationalistic. Not only Moscow and Khrushchev were criticized at the rally, but also called for the independence of Georgia. This was to be expected, since Georgian nationalists believed that in February 1925, Georgia was allegedly "occupied by the Bolshevik forces of Russia."

Troops were brought into Tbilisi. But the rally did not stop. 9 March there appeared a group of violent extremists. They began to call for the seizure of the House of Communications in order to radio to the world powers for the support of the protesters. As a result, a crowd of thousands of people broke into the House of Communication, crushing the posts of soldiers of the Soviet Army who were on duty at the entrance.

The protesters failed to break through above the ground floor of the building, but the intensity of the passions was indescribable. This led to casualties. An angry mob pressed the soldiers against the wall, and one of the extremists, trying to seize weapons, pressed a fork on the throat of a soldier. He instinctively pulled the trigger machine. The result is a 21 victim. So tragically ended the events in Tbilisi. 10 March rally stopped. The city seemed to have moved to the usual rhythm of life. Until 1988 year.

The Tbilisi situation in the Soviet media was presented as hooliganism. Because of this, proper conclusions were not drawn. The controversial issues of establishing Soviet power in Georgia remained under a ban. As a result, by 1988, nationalist sentiments in the republic gained new supporters.

Special mention should be made of protest sentiments in Lithuania. They continued in the 1944-1956 years, when the so-called "partisans" or "miškiniai" (forest) acted in Lithuanian forests. True, it is difficult to call them partisans, as they fought not against the “Soviet occupiers”, but against the Lithuanians who decided to start a new life.

Over the 12 years, the "forest" of Lithuania failed to make a single serious sabotage, did not destroy a single major party or Soviet official, did not beat off a single train with Lithuanians, who were deported to Siberia. Is it possible to compare them with the partisans of Belarus, Ukraine or France?

At the same time, it should be recognized that protest moods in Lithuania, especially among young people, have always been. On the days of the holidays of the pre-war bourgeois Republic of Lithuania, tricolor flags regularly appeared on the streets.

A surge of nationalist sentiment occurred in 1972. 13 of May of that year in Kaunas near the fountain near the Musical Theater on the main street - Laisves Alley (Liberty Alley), Romas Kalanta, an evening school student, burned himself.

He left a note: "I ask you to blame only the political system for my death." Kalanta died the next day. His death caused the two-day unrest of the Kaunas youth. She took to the streets shouting slogans: “Freedom to Lithuania! Russians, get out! ”

Again, the Soviet authorities and the media presented these unrest as hooliganism. Neither Moscow nor Vilnius ever bothered to clarify the controversial pages of the Soviet-Lithuanian stories. The formation of the worldview of the younger generation was still provided to the Lithuanian family.

Meanwhile, every third family in Soviet Lithuania had relatives abroad: in the USA, Canada, England, Germany, Brazil. At the beginning of the 1960-s in Lithuania, parcels from foreign relatives went to the sea. They had fashionable clothes, records, etc. For Lithuanian youth, this was the calling card of an attractive and supposedly carefree western way of life. Accordingly, it caused a negative attitude to the everyday life of Soviet life.

Restructuring. Alma-Ata-1986

The Gorbachev perestroika, which removed all the prohibitions, brought massive public appearances on national grounds. The first in this regard, declared itself Kazakhstan. In December, 1986, in Almaty, mass riots of student youth occurred, which grew into national unrest.

The dissatisfaction of the youth was caused by the appointment of the Russian Kolbin Gennady Vasilyevich Koland as the first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan instead of the dismissed Kazakh Kunaev Dinmukhamed Akhmedovich. But in reality they had a deeper nature.

In the Soviet period, in the Kazakh SSR, two main ethnic groups developed in parallel: the Kazakhs and the Russians. The Russian-speaking population, which is quite numerous and at one time created the entire industrial infrastructure of Kazakhstan, was concentrated in large cities. Kazakhs mostly lived in small towns and villages.

The Central Committee of the CPSU, pursuing personnel policy in Kazakhstan, made a bet on the Russian-speaking. It was considered normal to appoint the Russians to leadership positions who had no relation to the republic and did not know the language and history of Kazakhstan. The Kazakhs perceived it as the Russification of the republic. The young national elite did not want to put up with this situation. The last straw that broke the patience was Kolbin's appointment.

The performances began a small group of Kazakh youth, which 16 December took to the streets of Alma-Ata with the demands of the resignation of Kolbin. Moscow ordered to disperse the demonstrators. In December, 17 responded to the Brezhnev Square in front of the building of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan already crowds of young people headed by active national patriots.

The posters of the protesters said: “We demand self-determination!”, “Every nation has its own leader!”, “Put an end to the great-power madness!”.

Further, for two days, riots continued in Almaty and Karaganda, which were crushed by army forces. The following figures speak about the scope of the unrest: law enforcement officers detained 8500 people, more than 1700 people suffered serious injuries. Three people died, and 99 were convicted and sentenced to different terms.

At the beginning of 1987, the CPSU Central Committee adopted a resolution in which the incident was qualified as a manifestation of Kazakh nationalism. However, in the future, under the influence of the political situation, the position of the central authorities changed. The Kremlin did not draw appropriate conclusions from the events in Almaty. This was shown by the tragedy of Sumgait.

Sumgayit

Mass riots on a national basis in the city of Sumgayit of the Azerbaijan SSR (25 km from Baku) occurred 27 — 29 in February 1988 of the year. In fact, it was an anti-Armenian pogrom. The occasion was the statement of the deputies of the Nagorno-Karabakh autonomous region from 20 February 1988 of the region’s withdrawal from Azerbaijan and its joining to Armenia.

The statement has generated rumors in Azerbaijan that Armenians are mass killing and driving out Azerbaijanis in Nagorno-Karabakh. It was established that provocateurs were involved in the dissemination of these rumors. But Gorbachev in this explosive situation confined himself to only a duty appeal to the peoples of Azerbaijan and Armenia,

In response to this appeal, a rally of Azerbaijanis began in Sumgait, at which calls for revenge against the Armenians were heard. By the evening of February 27, performances from the stands turned into action. Hundreds of protesters, warmed up with appeals and spirits distributed free of charge from trucks, began to smash the apartments of Armenians and kill their owners, whose addresses they had in a strange way.

Moscow kept silence. Finally, the February 29 regiment of the internal troops of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs and the cadets of the Baku General Military School managed to stop the bacchanal of the killings in Sumgait. However, the situation in the city was completely under control only after the introduction of marines and paratroopers there. The seriousness of the situation is evidenced by the fact that 270 military personnel were injured during the establishment of order.

In total, during the three days of unrest in Sumgayit, hundreds of Armenian apartments were destroyed, dozens of people were killed, a significant part of them were burned alive after beatings and torture, hundreds were injured. The real numbers of the victims are still unknown.

29 February 1988, the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union recognized that mass pogroms and killings in Sumgait were carried out on a national basis. However, 18 of July of the same year, at a meeting of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, Gorbachev excluded the topic of interethnic dissension from his speech.

Along the way, the Secretary General declined responsibility for the Sumgait tragedy, saying that it would not exist if the troops had not been three hours late. In a word, the army is to blame, not Gorbachev, who for almost two days preferred not to notice the development of the situation in Sumgait. Like this!

Accordingly, the investigative group of the USSR Prosecutor’s Office identified the main motive for the crimes in Sumgayit is not interethnic strife, but “hooligan motives.”
Investigators also rejected evidence of preparations for the pogrom. Sumgait events were presented to the Soviet public as a violation of public order.

Such an approach by the investigation ruled out the possibility of identifying the true organizers of the Sumgayit tragedy. There was no single common trial for these events. The case was divided into 80 episodes and was considered in the courts of various cities of the Union. The real culprits of the bloody events remained unpunished.

This gave rise to the confidence of the nationalists of all kinds that violence is an effective means of resolving inter-ethnic issues. As shown by the further development of the situation in the Union.

Tbilisi-1989

The transnational situation in the Union worsened when in 1987-1988. the Yakovlev-Gorbachev plan to create so-called popular movements in support of perestroika in the national republics was implemented. These movements were designed to move the social and political field of the CPSU. However, in reality, they became a refuge for all sorts of nationalists and separatists, who, speculating on the ideas of national revival, quickly captured leading positions there.

In 1987-1988 In Georgia, a number of informal public associations were created. Their organizers were 3. Gamsakhurdia, M. Kostava, I. Tsereteli, G. Chanturia, and others. These associations proclaimed as their main goals: the overthrow of the Soviet government in Georgia, the withdrawal of the Georgian SSR from the USSR, and the promotion of the processes of the breakup of the Union.

In 1988, Georgian separatists intensified. They organized and held 30 unauthorized rallies, demonstrations and political strikes. In this regard, in February 1989, some of them were arrested. But from Moscow an order came to release the “fighters for independence”. Having received such a blank check, the separatists turned to mass public actions.

5 April 1989, they organized a rally at the Government House in Tbilisi. A day later, there were already rally over 5 thousands of people.

At the rally, an appeal was made to the President and the US Congress, to the NATO countries, in which it was proposed to consider the issue of Georgia at the UN, to recognize the Soviet occupation of Georgia and assist it in leaving the USSR.

On April 6, slogans appeared on the square: “Down with the communist regime!”, “Down with Russian imperialism!”, “Down with Soviet power!”. The protesters also formed detachments of former "Afghan" soldiers and athletes armed with metal rods and chains.

There was a real threat of capture by protesters of the House of Government and power in the republic. On April 7, the leadership of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Georgia appealed to the Central Committee of the CPSU with a request to send to Tbilisi additional forces of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Ministry of Defense of the USSR. Arriving late at night on April 7, General Secretary Gorbachev from an overseas trip directly at Vnukovo-2 airport instructed the former first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Georgia, and at that time USSR Foreign Minister E. Shevardnadze and Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee G. Razumovsky to fly to Tbilisi.

However, according to the testimony of Viktor Mikhailovich Chebrikov, the former head of the KGB of the USSR, and later the secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU, the secretary general simultaneously invited Shevardnadze and Razumovsky to think about when to fly? A very strange advice, considering that the situation in Tbilisi was already extremely explosive.

Realizing the danger of the situation, on the evening of April 8, Patriarch Iliya addressed the rally participants with a request: “Brothers and sisters, leave the square, do not bring the matter to the use of force.” But the future president of independent Georgia, Zviad Gamsakhurdia, tore the microphone out of his hands and shouted: "Let the blood be shed!" The crowd replied: "Let the blood spill!"

In the evening of April 8, the commander of the troops of the Transcaucasian Military District I.N. Rodionov received an order from the Minister of Defense D.T. Yazova, by the morning of April 9, clean up the rally Rustaveli Avenue from the demonstrators and take state objects under protection.

After the events, Gorbachev claimed that Yazov had ordered the use of military force in Tbilisi on his own initiative. But in the 1999 year, shortly before his death, V. Chebrikov revealed the secret. In his last interview with the correspondent E. Zhirnov, Viktor Mikhailovich said that he personally "reported to Gorbachev on the situation and requested sanction for the use of troops in Tbilisi." Gorbachev gave the go-ahead, and then played the holy ignorance. " (“Tribune”, 27.07.2001).

By the evening of April 8, the situation in Tbilisi became critical. And the leaders of the rally constantly received secret information about what measures Moscow plans to take against them. Having learned that a force action was being prepared, they blocked all approaches and entrances to Rustaveli Avenue with KamAZ trucks laden with rubble and lowered tires.

As a result, when the troops attempted to oust the protesters from Rustaveli Avenue in 4 on April 9, 1989 people, of whom 18 were women, died from mechanical asphyxiation (forensic examination). The situation was aggravated by the militants of Gamsakhurdia, armed with batons and fittings, which aggravated this crush by arranging hand-to-hand combat with soldiers everywhere.

However, guilty for the death of people made the Soviet paratroopers, who allegedly chopped down women with deminers. With such a “diagnosis” on 10 in the morning of April 9, the previously mentioned Shevardnadze and Razumovsky appeared in Tbilisi. Where they were for almost 1,5 days until then, remained a mystery.

First Deputy Chairman of the KGB of the USSR F.D. Bobkov objected to the approval of Shevardnadze, referring to the film, shot by KGB operators on the square outside the Government House.

Documentary shots testified that the soldiers simply defended their heads from stones and bottles flying from a crowd with demining shovels.

I should add that, regarding the film and the shovels of the shovel, Bobkov personally called Anatoly Alexandrovich Sobchak, the chairman of the commission of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, who dealt with the Tbilisi tragedy. He assured Bobkov that the commission’s conclusions about the shoulder blades are out of the question. But at the meeting of the USSR Armed Forces of the USSR and the I Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR the topic of sapper blades sounded like truth. The Soviet Army, the KGB and the Soviet authorities were dealt their first fatal blow. No doubt, the truth about Tbilisi events was known to Gorbachev. Moreover, he received an exhaustive certificate from the USSR Prosecutor General N. Trubin.

Gorbachev's silence at the moment when the Army and the KGB defamed, meant one thing. He deliberately sought to undermine the authority of the Soviet government, the army and the KGB. And in his entourage there was no man who would make public the treacherous position of the head of the party.

Well, the fact that the death of people in Tbilisi was a consequence of Gorbachev’s position, which allowed the situation to develop to a critical one, is beyond doubt.

Baku-1990

After the Sumgait pogrom, relations between Azerbaijanis and Armenians became extremely tense. 12 January 1990 of the year on Baku television sounded a statement by representatives of the Popular Front of Azerbaijan that Baku was filled with homeless Azerbaijani refugees from Karabakh, and thousands of Armenians live in comfortable apartments.

The next day, a rally of thousands of people gathered on Lenin Square in Baku, and slogans “Glory to the heroes of Sumgayit”, “Long live Baku without Armenians” sounded on it. By evening, some of the protesters began a seven-day anti-Armenian pogrom. As in Sumgayit, the mobsters purposefully walked around the city, perfectly guided by what apartments the Armenians lived in.

The actions of the mob were distinguished by sophisticated cruelty. However, troops stationed in the city of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs and part of the Soviet Army received instructions from Moscow not to intervene in what was happening, limited only to the protection of government facilities.

On January 17, supporters of the Popular Front of Azerbaijan began a continuous rally in front of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Republic, blocking all approaches to it. By this time, the Popular Front controlled a number of regions of Azerbaijan. An anti-Soviet uprising was going on in the republic.

19 January 1990, a state of emergency was introduced by decree of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet in Baku. On the night of 19 on 20 in January, Gorbachev agreed to the deployment of units of the army and the KGB of the USSR in Baku. 134 was killed and more than 700 residents of Baku were wounded during the street battles of servicemen with militants of the Popular Front.

A few words about the statements about the disproportion of power actions of the Soviet military in Baku. Good to talk about this topic, sitting in the office. Now imagine the young guys entering the unfamiliar city at night, in which they are trying to take away their weapons or set fire to equipment? Their reaction is quite predictable.

For comparison, let me remind you that in April of this year, the American authorities brought several thousand policemen, special forces and armored vehicles to the capture of the two Tsarnaev brothers. The whole city resembled a military camp, living under martial law.

The streets of the city were empty. Residents of Boston during the period of power actions were strictly ordered not to leave their homes. Knowing the logic of the behavior of the American police and soldiers "first shoot, then understand", there is no doubt that any city that appeared on the streets could be destroyed.

But back to Baku. The introduction of troops into the city dealt a severe blow to the positions of the Soviet government and the Communist Party in Azerbaijan. Tens of thousands of Azerbaijani communists publicly burned their membership cards. 22 January, the population of Baku buried the victims of the tragedy. They were buried as heroes of the struggle for independence in the park to them. CM. Kirov, later renamed the Shahid Alley.

The military operation was a tragedy for the Russians who lived in Azerbaijan. Baku in January 1990 was seething with hatred for "Russians". The inscriptions “Russians are occupiers!”, “Russians are pigs!” Appeared on many houses. Over the course of 1990, Russians began to be evicted from their flats without a break. The courts did not respond to their requests.

And what about our Secretary General? He again stood aside, saying that the troops entered Baku by order of Yazov and Kryuchkov, as if forgetting that the decree on imposing a state of emergency in Baku was signed by him.

Let me also recall the Politburo meeting on the Tbilisi tragedy, which took place on April 24 on 1989. Then Gorbachev strictly forbade the Minister of Defense of the USSR D. Yazov and the Chairman of the KGB of the USSR V. Kryuchkov without the decision of the Politburo to use the army and special forces in civil matters.

However, after Baku there were no organizational conclusions regarding the “self-producers”. Moreover, on April 28 of 1990, President Gorbachev awarded Yazov with the title of Marshal of the Soviet Union by decree! It is absolutely clear that Yazov and Kryuchkov in Baku followed Gorbachev’s instructions.

Then the bloody wheel of ethnic violence rolled across the Union: Dushanbe (February 1990), Osh (June 1990).


But the Kremlin and Gorbachev preferred to hide the truth about the above-mentioned inter-ethnic clashes. They did not become the subject of a serious discussion at the XVIII Congress of the CPSU, held in June-July 1990.

Criminal cases on this topic, as a rule, "let down on the brakes." As a result, the nationalists believed in their impunity. This was most clearly manifested in the Lithuanian SSR.

Vilnius-1991

Having created the Lithuanian Movement for Perestroika (“Sajudis”) in June 1988 of the year with the filing of the Kremlin and the KGB, the Lithuanian separatists literally trampled under their control all the power structures of the republic. The reporting and election fall campaign of 1988 of the year in primary, city and district party organizations was mainly won by the representatives of Sajudis.

After that, the Communist Party became an instrument of “Sajudis” in solving the issues of gaining independence for Lithuania. From October 1988 on the 90%, the communist Supreme Council of the Lithuanian SSR began to obediently adopt the declarations and laws that formed the legal framework for Lithuania to secede from the USSR.

The Central Committee of the CPSU and Gorbachev impassively watched the processes of strengthening the position of the separatists in Lithuania. There is a clear analogy with the development of the situation in Georgia and Azerbaijan, which testifies to the deliberate tactics of Gorbachev and his entourage.

Finally, having won the elections to the Supreme Soviet of the Lithuanian SSR in February-March 1990, at the very first meeting, the syuydis proclaimed the restoration of an independent Lithuanian state. Meanwhile, Landsbergis, while giving an interview to the English newspaper The Daily Mail (07.04.1990), said: “The West must understand that Gorbachev himself has allowed this situation to happen. For two years he observed the growth of our independence movement. He could stop him at any time. Maybe he wanted it or wants it now. But he did not stop him. ”

Having gained power, the sajudists relied on inciting ethnic hatred in the republic, since this contributed to the consolidation of the Lithuanian nation. By January 1991, the inter-ethnic situation in the multinational Vilnius became critical. Then in Moscow they decided to take control of the Press House, as well as the republican radio and television, which inflamed interethnic strife.

The plans of Moscow, as it was in Georgia and Azerbaijan, became instantly known to Lithuanian separatists. In Lithuania, the Center, or rather Gorbachev, again allowed the situation to be critical.

Only on the night of 12 on 13 in January of 1991, when strategic sites in Vilnius were surrounded by thousands of protesters, a force action was ordered from Moscow.

And that is characteristic. After the events, representatives of the President of the USSR E. Shevardnadze and G. Razumovsky arrived in Tbilisi, with the 1,5-daily delay. And in Vilnius, to which 1 hour 20 min. flight from Moscow, the commission of the USSR Supreme Council, headed by the deputy. Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Nikolai Ivanovich Dementey flew 20 hours. A strange repetition, suggestive of sad reflections.

It is also strange that during the military action in Vilnius, the sad experience of Tbilisi and Baku was ignored. The separatists prepared perfectly. The arrows located on the roofs of the houses surrounding the TV tower and on the TV tower itself, after the appearance of a military column with paratroopers, opened fire on a crowd of protesters and military personnel. In addition, victims of arrivals tanks people who died in city car accidents were represented.

As a result, the soldiers of the Soviet Army and the special group of the KGB of the USSR "A" early in the morning of January 13 1991 were accused of killing 13 and injuring 48 residents of the republic. It soon became clear that the Vilnius tragedy dealt a crushing blow to the authority of the Soviet Army and the KGB.

The foregoing makes it possible to confidently believe that separatism and ethnic strife in the USSR could be stopped if this happened in a timely manner, relying on the force of the USSR Laws, supported by skillful propaganda work, revealing the essence of controversial historical issues of interethnic relations, and, of course, without camouflaging nationalism hooliganism.

However, when nationalist separatism in the Union broke out like a forest fire, it was impossible to stop the process.

The blame for this development of the situation in the USSR, lies entirely on the Secretary General and President Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, who deliberately led the case to the collapse of the USSR.
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  1. Denis
    Denis 3 December 2013 08: 31
    +4
    After the events, Gorbachev claimed that Yazov ordered the use of military force in Tbilisi on his own initiative.
    Is it not for this nonsense that they gave him an order when the army did this without an order?
    Prezik said that he did not know what was happening in the country and did not resign after this?
    And now there are lovers of such a stupid word:
    1. Civil
      Civil 3 December 2013 08: 36
      +1
      If I understand correctly, now the Russians themselves do not want national republics to be part of the Russian Federation, and ideally, that the national authorities evaporated without their lands?
      1. shuhartred
        shuhartred 3 December 2013 19: 18
        +1
        Yes, there is nothing that I don’t want. But I also don’t want Russia to fall apart into national republics. After all, the Russians do not have their own republic. Where do we live after being trampled from everywhere? In general, I have the feeling that so many want the Russians to evaporate from their land and then all will be happy and well-being of the air
  2. Kolya
    Kolya 3 December 2013 08: 34
    +2
    It is so "politically correct" to destroy the country — this is Gorbachev's talent. A professional was acting.
    1. vladimirZ
      vladimirZ 4 December 2013 19: 32
      -1
      Judas Gorbachev the traitor, along with his Raisa, deliberately ruined the USSR.
      During his tenure, the "active" majority also rattled everywhere: "There is no alternative to Gorbachev," "they don’t change horses in the crossing," and it was useless to argue with them, just as it is now with the Putinites.
      An uncontested situation in relation to the first head of state is very dangerous! The destruction of Russia in the style of the USSR may be repeated.
  3. aszzz888
    aszzz888 3 December 2013 08: 42
    +3
    The blame for this development of the situation in the USSR, lies entirely on the Secretary General and President Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, who deliberately led the case to the collapse of the USSR.


    But what can he, a labeled CIA agent, do? It is necessary to work out the loot, so he worked ...
  4. smersh70
    smersh70 3 December 2013 10: 35
    -4
    .. it was necessary after the column of Alma-Ata to put the column - Nagorno-Karabakh .... the events in Sumgait just did not start from the floundering bay .... it was the Armenian separatists who began their so-called movement for separation from Azerbaijan .. it was from them action began the collapse of the USSR ... in Alma-Ata there were at least no calls for the separation of the USSR ..... and Sumgait, there was a response ... WHO WANTS TO GIVE OFF YOUR TERRITORY ... GO OUT, STEP AHEAD!!!!
  5. smersh70
    smersh70 3 December 2013 10: 38
    -1
    In January 1990, Baku was seething with hatred for the “Russians.” On many houses there were inscriptions “Russians are invaders!”, “Russians are pigs!”
    ... all this is a LIHT of pure water ... let Ezhak say ... he lived there at that time .... and saw everything with his own eyes ..... to the author, minuscule minus and from the soul ...... am
    1. Angry reader
      Angry reader 3 December 2013 13: 54
      +1
      I support. Comrade Senior Baku Cossack ( wassat ), lived and attended, claims that there was none. there was tension ... but there wasn’t anything like that
      1. alone
        alone 7 December 2013 18: 37
        0
        The Swede author simply took some facts and events from the ceiling, rewrote them in his own way. The article is full of various errors that are unforgivable. If you already decided to write an article, at least double-check the dates.
        Soviet power in Georgia was established not in 1925, but in 1921.
        as a resident of Baku and a real witness to those events, I declare that on January 12 no one from the popular front spoke and no one said that the Armenians were full in Baku, and Azerbaijanis were being expelled from NKAO (although this was a fact). NFA representatives were not allowed on TV. there was censorship))
        at the rally on the 13th there were no banners such as glory to the heroes of Sumgayit and Baku without Armenians. in the midst of the rally there were rumors that an Armenian in Bailovo killed two Azerbaijanis from a double-barreled gun. The pogroms began immediately after the rally in the wake of this rumor and did not last seven days and it’s been 2-3 days. There were no more pogroms during the deployment of troops. And the Armenians were rescued by local residents and police officers, they were assembled at the cinema, the cinema was completely protected and people were transported to Krasnovodsk by ferries of the Caspian Shipping Company.
        the population was not warned in advance that the troops would be brought into the baku. Mikhailov, Girenko and Primakov assured on TV that the troops would not enter the city, they were arriving due to the tense situation in the NKAR and would be sent there to fight illegal armed groups. the time of entry was the facts of shelling of troops by unknowns who dispersed on black gas-24. The population was mostly unarmed. Many were killed due to indiscriminate fire in apartments and cars. They killed local police officers, an ambulance doctor (a Jew by nationality), A 77-year-old woman in her own apartment, workers who were returning by bus from the night shift, etc.

        YES and to be honest, the actions of Gorbachev before Vilnius were so disgusting and criminal that the KGB and the army lost the confidence of the people before 1991.
  6. ImPerts
    ImPerts 3 December 2013 11: 04
    +1
    The only person whom I consider guilty of those events is Gorbachev M.S.
    The CCP and Deng Xiaoping personally were not afraid to take responsibility. Here's how the events on Tiananmen Square are described:
    "... Mercilessly crushing" human shields "with military equipment, sweeping away barricades with artillery fire, exchanging hurricane fire with militants, throwing burning armored vehicles along the way, the troops broke through to the center of Beijing and blocked all exits with Tiananmen stuffed with human bodies. diesel fuel exhausts, rumbling tanks with swinging antennas moved forward. Molotov cocktails and cobblestones flew from the crowd. Warm air. Following the tanks, infantry with AK-47s at the ready entered the square. Everyone who was holding weapons was shot or stabbed with bayonets. The same reception awaited those who tried to get out of the square through the army cordons. Survivors were tied behind their backs and ordered to long to kneel down in ranks - right into the bloody mess, then scraped it off for a long time with bulldozers and graders. mass arrests were made in Chinese cities. The streets of Beijing were shattered by steel tracks, and transport barely trudged through the monstrous potholes (even three years later, cars vibrated perceptibly on the patched asphalt). Through the windows of the car we ... saw the lifeless bodies of the hanged instigators of the rebellion - the summer breeze swayed them on the poles. In the courtyards of overcrowded prisons, firing lines thundered. Hospitals were packed with wounded and half-crushed, many of whom were soon taken directly to the cemeteries ... "
    http://argumenti.ru/history/n342/182155
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Lindon
      Lindon 3 December 2013 15: 40
      0
      In Den Xiao Ping, the Chinese killed the Chinese. There was no national issue. There were supporters of capitalism and the CCP.
      The article is breaking more on the national question in the USSR. Gorbachev threw troops against the peoples of the USSR, but he never recognized this. He blamed everything on the siloviki - I wonder why the GKChP did not happen after his hypocrisy and lies - before?
      1. ImPerts
        ImPerts 3 December 2013 16: 32
        -1
        The CCP brutally crushed dissent. But in the USSR they were afraid. For even on the national question there is a small handful of instigators that balamutes everything and everyone. Calm them, isolate them for 10 years and there would be no Sumgait, Vilnius, Tbilisi.
        And to say that the Chinese killed the Chinese is the same as the Soviet Soviet.
        In China, during the census of 1964, 183 national minorities were registered, of which only 54 was recognized by the government. Of the remaining 129 peoples, 74 were included in the recognized 54, while 23 were classified as “others” and 32 as “doubtful”.
        We still have Cossacks who are Russian and there are Cossacks who are Cossacks.
        In the article, the idea that the authorities reacted languidly to problems and often even heated up speeches with a red thread. Instead of harshly stopping everything.
  7. Hort
    Hort 3 December 2013 12: 21
    +1
    The other day, President Vladimir Putin approved the concept of public security in Russia before 2020. According to the document, the main sources of threats for the Russian Federation are corruption, ethnic conflicts, extremism and man-made disasters. These problems are really explosive and at any time can provoke a crisis situation similar to the one that was observed in the USSR in 1988-1991.
    the funniest thing is that power itself actually forms all four of these sources.
  8. Vladimir65
    Vladimir65 3 December 2013 12: 21
    +1
    The concept of public safety in Russia until 2020, signed by Putin, is a paper in fact worthless. Back in the 90s, a group of authors under the leadership of V.M. Zaznobin developed a concept of public safety and proposed for implementation to the Duma, but the deputies were not interested in it. Interethnic conflicts do not arise by themselves, someone creates them. So in the late Soviet era, they were created by the top of the CPSU and the party nomenklatura, headed by Gorbachev and Yakovlev. The best means of destroying the USSR was ruined interethnic relations. Many people, both in Moscow and in the union republics, had a hand in this. Thus, the activist of the Tatar national movement Fauzia Bayramova demanded the withdrawal of Tatarstan from Russia and still cannot calm down. This is what Galina Starovoitova said at a conference in Grozny in 1991. "Kill the Russians!" Galina Vasilievna advised her comrades-in-arms in the Great Democratic Revolution. "Let the earth burn under the feet of the invaders." Read the book by Larisa Babienko "Why do people part?" There is a lot in this book about interethnic relations and who and how destroyed them. It is too late to drink Borjomi if the kidneys have fallen off.
  9. Vladimir65
    Vladimir65 3 December 2013 12: 25
    0
    The signed concept of public safety in Russia until 2020, the paper is in fact worthless. Back in the 90s, a group of authors under the leadership of V.M. Zaznobin developed a concept of public safety and proposed for implementation to the Duma, but the deputies were not interested in it. Interethnic conflicts do not arise by themselves, someone creates them. So in the late Soviet era, they were created by the top of the CPSU and the party nomenklatura, headed by Gorbachev and Yakovlev. The best means of destroying the USSR was spoiled interethnic relations. Many people, both in Moscow and in the union republics, had a hand in this. Thus, the activist of the Tatar national movement Fauzia Bayramova demanded the withdrawal of Tatarstan from Russia and still cannot calm down. This is what Galina Starovoitova said at a conference in Grozny in 1991. "Kill the Russians!" Galina Vasilievna advised her comrades-in-arms in the Great Democratic Revolution. "Let the earth burn under the feet of the invaders." Read the book by Larisa Babienko "Why do people part?" There is a lot in this book about interethnic relations and who and how destroyed them. It is too late to drink Borjomi if the kidneys have fallen off.
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  12. Lindon
    Lindon 3 December 2013 15: 28
    +4
    Gorbachev turns out to be "white and fluffy." No where and not when did this bastard give command to the troops against the people.
    For some reason, the author did not pay attention to the role of Gorbachev in Alma-Ata in 1986. After all, the troops were used there for the first time. While filming "Brezhnev's Personnel" Gorbachev said there were no worthy people in the republic and sent Kolbin from the Ulyanovsk region. Taking pictures of Kolbin after blood was shed - "he reveals the talented Kazakh Nazarbayev to the head of the Council of Ministers of the Kazakh SSR who had been sitting on the farm for many years." Nazarbayev was so talented as it turned out that Gorbachev offered him the post of head of the USSR Government.
    But the author of the article is silent about this and repeats the "Gorbachev" lie of those years and even repeats the label.
    At the beginning of 1987, the Central Committee of the CPSU adopted a resolution in which the incident was qualified as a manifestation of Kazakh nationalism.

    A whole nation was accused of nationalism. In fact, 20 thousand people stood in the square and demanded to remove the stranger Kolbin (he did not work for a day in the Kazakh SSR - he did not know the republic - and it was not his level). Kolbin introduced Gorbachev - I am your man, but they did not accept me here. Gorbachev gave the command to the troops to disperse the people. There were no disturbances — the people didn’t destroy anything, did not break anything — they went out to them and demanded to disperse. Since the people did not obey, they were dispersed by the troops.
    In fact, Gorbachev did not have his own team - but he decided to clean up the "Brezhnevskys" at any cost. Large positions were given to random people whom Gorbachev considered loyal. Gorbachev himself was a random person who was entrusted with running such a country. The hat turned out to be not for Mishka! As a result, he eventually destroyed not only the interethnic peace in the republics, but the USSR itself. He released the genie from the bottle and thought to drive it back by repression.
  13. optimist
    optimist 3 December 2013 16: 16
    +2
    Another "vyser" about 2020, how many have there been? Given the current progression of the worsening of the situation, it is not a fact that in 7 years Russia will have its current borders. The "guarantor" and his accomplices are doing everything to exacerbate interethnic and religious conflicts. This is especially true for internal and external migration.
  14. mithridate
    mithridate 3 December 2013 16: 54
    +1
    the article is another statement of the fact of the deliberate collapse of the Union by representatives of the decomposed elite recruited by the CIA - "one and a half hundred young promising Soviet scientists"
  15. Yeraz
    Yeraz 3 December 2013 17: 07
    +2
    The author has a fat minus.
    In the course of battles with militants, 134 were killed and 700 injured in Baku.
    What other fighters, people just flooded into the street, and in response tanks and machine guns and stupidly shot the citizens who came to the rally.
    And the most interesting part of the troops that entered was not entirely Muslims, because it was known how this rally would be suppressed by sending tanks to a rally of civilians, and Muslims would definitely refuse to execute such an order.

    Gorbachev didn’t do anything, he just kindled the situation, re-ignited, and now he lives on high.
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  17. FormerMariman
    FormerMariman 3 December 2013 18: 18
    +5
    AUTHOR'S QUOTE: "It was considered normal to appoint Russians to leading positions who had nothing to do with the republic and did not know the language and history of Kazakhstan. Kazakhs perceived this as the Russification of the republic. The young national elite did not want to put up with this situation. The last straw that overflowed the cup of patience, became Kolbin's appointment. " HOW WOULD THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE RESPOND IF THE FIRST SECRETARY OF THE OBKOM OF THE SOUTH KAZAKHSTAN REGION WOULD BE PLACED IN THE PLACE OF THE LEADER OF RUSSIA? I THINK HERE WITHOUT COMMENTS. The Gorbati Traitor Gave Kolbin-Former FIRST SECRETARY OF THE OBKOM VOLGOGRAD REGION. TO LEAD THE REPUBLIC AND THE PEOPLE OF WHICH HE DIDN'T KNOW NIKHRENE! JUST THINK. EVEN RUSSIANS LIVING IN KAZAKHSTAN UNDERSTAND THAT GORBACH HERNYU SPOROL! WITH RESPECT!
  18. Geokingxnumx
    Geokingxnumx 3 December 2013 18: 22
    +2
    since Georgian nationalists believed that in February 1925, Georgia was allegedly "occupied by the Bolshevik forces of Russia."

    what are you) Well, how did Georgia join Soviet Russia and then in the USSR? not in 1925 year but in 1921 year in February?
    and about the rally! the rally was against Khrushov’s kator; the name of Stalin and Gruzinov was scorned too! this rally was bloody 9-12 students were killed and many were injured!
    and this myth that Zviad Gamsakhurdia snatched the microphone from his hands and shouted: "Let blood be shed!" The crowd replied, "Let blood be shed!" lies) and lies! Kostava was the main one, they were smart and advanced people) and Gamsakhurdia was an emotian and not an advanced person!
  19. Klim podkova
    Klim podkova 3 December 2013 18: 50
    +1
    There were much more foci of interethnic conflicts, but there are no complaints about the author, because the immensity cannot be grasped.
    I see a mistake in the title: Russia is attacking the same rake as the USSR. In the national oblasts, a generation that does not identify itself with Russia has already been cultivated with silent connivance. Authorities close their eyes to this, paying off with cash sops. but the infusion of billions of dollars in the budgets of these territories does not guarantee the loyalty of the population.
  20. Klim podkova
    Klim podkova 3 December 2013 18: 50
    +1
    There were much more foci of interethnic conflicts, but there are no complaints about the author, because the immensity cannot be grasped.
    I see a mistake in the title: Russia is attacking the same rake as the USSR. In the national oblasts, a generation that does not identify itself with Russia has already been cultivated with the tacit connivance. The authorities close their eyes to this, paying off with cash sops, but the infusion of billions of dollars in the budgets of these territories does not guarantee the loyalty of the population.
  21. MahsusNazar
    MahsusNazar 3 December 2013 19: 43
    0
    Let me remind you again;
    - at their own peril and risk, fighters and officers of the explosives removed and took out the Meskhetian Turks, closing themselves in Ferghana
    The brothers were there and did it, as LARGE STATES than the hunchback
    This is what it means not to run the country, but to hope that everything will resolve or "the market will align everything."
  22. voliador
    voliador 3 December 2013 23: 55
    0
    I think that no one will argue that this labeled su..a is the biggest shame of our country in the last 50 years.
  23. voliador
    voliador 3 December 2013 23: 55
    +1
    I think that no one will argue that this labeled su..a is the biggest shame of our country in the last 50 years.
  24. quaint
    quaint 4 December 2013 13: 47
    0
    It would be nice to dig into the biography of M.S. Gorbachev, maybe there is something
    1. Hort
      Hort 4 December 2013 14: 03
      +2
      the loop in it is missing, definitely.