Military Review

Perspective optoelectronic sight for small arms

33
Recently, any information in the press and on television about new weapons systems has been accompanied by the terms “prospective”, “based on new principles”, “next generation”. Speaking about new aircraft, they mention the fifth generation, promising Tanks - it means a speech about the fourth generation. The number designating the generation in this case is not abstract, each new generation differs significantly from the previous one in the main parameters characterizing the object in question.


Perspective optoelectronic sight for small arms


If we talk about tanks as an example, then the second-generation tanks differed from the first in the presence of the main armament stabilization systems, mechanical stabilizers, protection from weapons mass destruction, the presence of night vision devices, etc. The third generation is characterized by the massive use of integrated weapons control systems, thermal imaging systems, an increased caliber of the main weapon [1].

The transition from generation to generation is due to significant progress in a particular area of ​​science and technology associated with the object in question. Since in this paper we will focus on the appearance of a perspective sight for small arms, it is necessary to determine the basic terms.

According to the definition of the Ozhegov [2] explanatory dictionary, a sight is “a device, a mechanism for aiming a firearm or a missile at a target.” The Internet portal Glossary.ru [3] defines a rifle scope as “a device or a device: for aiming weapons at a target, for observing a battlefield, for selecting a target”.

There is no particular difficulty with the definition of the term “promising”, Ozhegov writes: promising - able to successfully develop in the future.
It should be noted that the models of basic types of weapons currently being developed are referred not only to improved ones, but to samples of a new generation. Then, perhaps, it is important to talk not only about the perspective sight for small arms, but about the sight of the next generation? What generally can be said about the generations of rifle sights?

Considering the above example with generations of tanks, it is easy to see that each generation is characterized by a number of scientific and technical innovations inherent in their level of development of technology. It should be noted that the transition from generation to generation is recorded not with the usual improvement of the characteristics of the object in question, but with the appearance of qualitatively new ones. The emergence of new qualities in the developed technology is most likely when using advanced technologies, the mass appearance of which is observed when changing the technological patterns of development of society.

Technological structure - a set of technologies characteristic of a certain level of development of production; in connection with scientific and technical-technological progress, there is a transition from lower orders to higher, more progressive [4].

Technological structure - a set of technologies characteristic of a certain level of development of production; in connection with scientific and technical-technological progress, there is a transition from lower orders to higher, more progressive ones. Technological order encompasses a closed reproduction cycle from the extraction of natural resources and professional training of personnel to non-productive consumption. As part of the TU, there is a closed macro-production cycle, including the extraction and production of primary resources, all stages of their processing and the production of a set of final products that satisfy the appropriate type of public consumption.

According to Kondratieff's theory of long waves, the scientific and technological revolution develops in waves, with cycles of about fifty years. There are five technological structures (waves).

The first wave (1785-1835) formed a technological structure based on new technologies in the textile industry, the use of water energy.

The second wave (1830-1890) is the accelerated development of transport (railway construction, steam shipping), the emergence of mechanical production in all industries based on the steam engine.

The third wave (1880-1940) is based on the use of industrial energy, the development of heavy engineering and the electrical industry based on the use of rolled steel, new discoveries in the field of chemistry. Radio communications, telegraph, cars were introduced.

The fourth wave (1930-1990) formed a structure based on the further development of energy using oil and oil products, gas, communications, and new synthetic materials. This is the era of mass production of cars, tractors, aircraft, various types of weapons, consumer goods. Computers and software for them, radar, appeared and widely spread. The atom is used for military purposes and then for peaceful purposes.

The fifth wave (1985-2035) is based on advances in microelectronics, computer science, biotechnology, genetic engineering, new types of energy, materials, space exploration, satellite communications, etc. [5].

The elements of the fifth (current) technological mode include the following industries: electronic industry, computer technology, software, aviation industry, telecommunications, information services, gas production and consumption. The core of the formation of a new structure can be called biotechnology, space technology, fine chemistry, microelectronic components. The main advantages of this technological structure compared to the previous (fourth) mode are: individualization of production and consumption, the prevalence of environmental restrictions on energy and material consumption based on automation of production, location of production and population in small cities based on new transport and telecommunication technologies, etc.
Glazyev gives such a periodization of TU [6]:

First TU. Period: 1770-1830 years. Core: Textile industry, textile engineering, iron smelting, iron processing, canal construction, water engine. Key factor: Textile machines.

Second TU. Period: 1830-1880 years. Core: Steam engine, railway construction, transport, engineering, steam-shipbuilding, coal, machine tool industry, ferrous metallurgy. Key factor: Steam engine, machine tools.

Third TU. Period: 1880-1930 years. Core: Electrical engineering, heavy machinery, production and rental of steel, power lines, inorganic chemistry. Key factor: Electric motor, steel.

Fourth TU. Period: 1930-1970 years. Core: Automobile, tractor construction, non-ferrous metallurgy, durable goods, synthetic materials, organic chemistry, oil production and processing. Key factor: Internal combustion engine, petrochemistry.
Fifth TU. Period: 1970- until 2010's. Core: Electronic industry, computing, fiber optic engineering, software, telecommunications, robotics, gas production and processing, information services. Key factor: Microelectronic components.
Accordingly, the reduction of Kondratieff cycles, the terms of technological structures are also reduced. As can be seen, this concept is only an allegory of the Kondratieff waves and Schumpeter's innovative theory, partly supplemented by the concept of productive forces.

Today, the world is on the verge of an 6 technological set-up. Its contours are only beginning to take shape in the developed countries of the world, primarily in the USA, Japan and China, and are characterized by the focus on the development and application of biotechnology, nanotechnology, genetic engineering, membrane and quantum technologies, photonics, micromechanics, and thermonuclear energy. Synthesis of achievements in these areas should lead to the creation of, for example, a quantum computer, artificial intelligence, to provide a way to a fundamentally new level in the systems of government, society, and economy.

According to forecasts, while maintaining the current pace of technical and economic development, the 6 technology will enter the distribution phase in 2010 – 2020, and in the maturity phase - in 2040. At the same time, in 2020 – 2025, a new scientific, technical and technological revolution will take place, the basis of which will be developments synthesizing achievements in the aforementioned basic technologies. [7]
Generations of rifle scopes.

Today we are witnessing the beginning take-off of the sixth technological order and the “saturation” of the fifth order. It is with these events that one can associate the change of generations of combat aircraft and tank vehicles. Let us try to extend the theory of technological order to rifle sights and try to single out their generations (the author would like to note that the division is rather conditional, a clear division into generations is beyond the scope of this article).

The first and most common sighting device is an open mechanical sight. Its origin goes back centuries, and now it is equipped with all types of small arms. It consists of a fly, located in the muzzle of the trunk, and the rear sight, located in its breech. The line of aiming is a straight line passing through the groove of the rear sight at the level of its horizontal cuts and the top of the front sight. Open mechanical sight in our division belongs to the first generation.

In the middle of the 19 century, the second technological order begins, the second wave of scientific and technological development. This could not but affect such an urgent issue as aiming. Optical (telescopic) sight was successfully used during the American Civil War in 1861-1864. Colonel Khayremu Berdan, who later became the inventor of the famous rifle, who had been in service with the Russian army for more than twenty years, first came up with the idea of ​​creating a special unit of the best shooters for action in the near rear of the enemy [8]. In 1882, Eugen Turnov in Berlin creates the first specimen telescope suitable for use in hunting practice. The company Kahles in 1900, the year creates and begins production of telescopes. Riflescopes for small arms are widely used on the battlefields of World War II, they are equipped with snipers of the opposing sides. Optical (telescopic) sight we assign to the second generation of sights.

The innovations of the third technological order had little effect on rifle sights and did not lead to revolutionary changes, but by the middle of the fourth mode electronics were developing rapidly, rather compact electron-optical converters appeared, the third generation sight appeared on the scene. For small arms begin to use night optical sight with the image intensifier, holographic sight, collimator sight. Illumination of the reticle, luminous elements of the brand are widely used.

The fifth wave of scientific and technological development has created a fourth-generation rifle scope. The fourth generation sights are based on TV cameras, including low-level, thermal bolometers, and LCD and OLED microdisplays are widely used as display devices. Sights are supplied with automatic input devices of amendments, ballistic calculators, integrated range finders, sensors of weather conditions, weapon blockage, counters of shots, etc. In connection with the widespread use of multispectral channels, computer equipment, separation of channels of aiming and sighting, often, the fourth generation should be referred to as an aiming complex.
We got acquainted with technological ways, made a certain division into generations of sights, so to speak, systematized the past. But the future is ahead, the sight, or rather the aiming complex of the fifth generation, the steps to create which need to be done today. What is remarkable, what is characterized today? We are in a recession of the fifth technological order, armed with its knowledge and technology, and we are witnessing the start of the sixth lifestyle. This means that the promising fifth-generation riflescope must be built on the basis of already known technologies with a focus on the technologies of the future.

Consider the arsenal, given to us by the fifth order and suitable for creating a promising aiming complex: undoubtedly, multi-spectral technology, the use of ballistic calculators and entering corrections, separation of aiming and sighting channels, positioning (satellite), identification of others or others, network integration, wideband data exchange.

In the upcoming sixth order, scientists predict the domination of the following technologies: nanotechnology, biotechnology, micromechanics, global networks, artificial intelligence systems, high-speed integrated transport networks.

Based on the foregoing, we will formulate the requirements that a prospective target sighting system for small arms must meet:
1. Intelligent automation. The complex should provide automated input of corrections, indication of service information, changes in optical and mechanical parameters (optical zoom, control of reference, antenna or devices providing ergonomics).
2. Information metrological saturation. The complex must contain in its composition the measuring instruments necessary for the formation of amendments, positioning, as well as the information support bank.
3. Multispectrality. Integration of multi-channel channels.
4. Netcentricity. The ability to receive and transmit over the network video and service information.
5. Sneak application. A masking of the use of measuring instruments and communication channels should be provided.

Almost all of the above requirements, to varying degrees, are used in sighting complexes of the fourth generation, therefore it should be noted that the defining features of the fifth generation sights are network centricity and secrecy of use. Under the stealth application means the masking or rejection of radio communication channels, the transition to optical channels; restrictions on the use of laser rangefinders (due to the widespread use of night vision devices and radiation sensors), the transition to a different spectral range and the spread of passive ranging methods.
These requirements can be considered in the list for the development of modern perspective rifle sights and sighting systems, in the formation of new ideologies of their design.

The following sources are used:
1. Kholyavsky G.L. Encyclopedia of tanks. The complete encyclopedia of the tank world 1915-2000. M .: Harvest, 2002. - 603c.
2. Ozhegov S. I. Dictionary of the Russian language // Ed. Dr. filol. sciences, prof. N. Yu. Shvedova 14-e ed., Stereotype. M.: Russian language, 1983. - 816 with.
3. Shooting sight // Glossary.ru [Electronic resource]. Access mode: http://www.glossary.ru/cgi-bin/gl_sch2.cgi?RRywlrqui:l!vwo.lr:
4. B.A. Raizberg, L.Sh. Lozovsky, E.B. Starodubtseva Modern economic dictionary. 5 ed., Pererab. and add. - M .: INFRA-M, 2007. - 495 with.
5. Korotaev A.V., Tsirel S.V. Kondratiev waves in the world economic dynamics // System monitoring. Global and Regional Development / Ed. D.A. Khalturina, A.V. Korotaev. M .: Librokom / URSS, 2009. - 347 with.
6. Glazyev S. Yu. Economic Theory of Technical Development. - M .: Science, 1990. - 276 c.
7. Kablov, Ye.N. Course in 6-th technological mode. [Electronic resource] NanoWeek, 2010 G., No. 99. Access mode: http://www.nanonewsnet.ru/articles/2010/kursom-v-6-oi-tekhnologicheskii-uklad
8. Ryazanov O. I. History Sniper art, M .: Brother, 2003. - 160 with.
Author:
33 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. PSih2097
    PSih2097 30 November 2013 08: 30
    +4
    Based on the foregoing, we will formulate the requirements that a prospective target sighting system for small arms must meet:
    1. Intelligent automation. The complex should provide automated input of corrections, indication of service information, change of optical and mechanical parameters (optical zoom, control of reference, antenna or ergonomic devices).
    2. Information and metrological saturation. The complex should contain the measuring instruments necessary for the formation of amendments, positioning, as well as a bank of information support.
    3. Multispectrality. Integration of multispectral channels.
    4. Network-centricity. The ability to receive and transmit video and service information over the network.
    5. Secretiveness of application. Masking of the use of measuring instruments and communication channels should be provided.

    I would also add an item - cost, for example - our vaunted 1P70, which Hyperon costs half a lyama, despite the fact that the same sight with similar characteristics from Karl Zeiss costs up to 2 euros ...
    1. SHILO
      SHILO 30 November 2013 16: 16
      +6
      Article - article for all articles! good Here you have the tanks and waves of Kondratiev and technological modes, etc. etc. belay And where about the sight then? what wink
      1. cleric4
        30 November 2013 18: 20
        +1
        Yes, you’re right, it was simply assumed that this would be the first article of the cycle about sights, and therefore the long start.
        1. SHILO
          SHILO 30 November 2013 20: 42
          0
          I will say - they took it thoroughly yes . We will wait for the continuation. And ... competently answered the criticism, my respect hi with a plus. smile
  2. PSih2097
    PSih2097 30 November 2013 08: 30
    0
    Based on the foregoing, we will formulate the requirements that a prospective target sighting system for small arms must meet:
    1. Intelligent automation. The complex should provide automated input of corrections, indication of service information, change of optical and mechanical parameters (optical zoom, control of reference, antenna or ergonomic devices).
    2. Information and metrological saturation. The complex should contain the measuring instruments necessary for the formation of amendments, positioning, as well as a bank of information support.
    3. Multispectrality. Integration of multispectral channels.
    4. Network-centricity. The ability to receive and transmit video and service information over the network.
    5. Secretiveness of application. Masking of the use of measuring instruments and communication channels should be provided.

    I would also add an item - the cost, for example, our vaunted 1P70, which Hyperon costs half a lyama, despite the fact that the same sight with similar characteristics from Karl Zeiss costs up to 2 euros ...
    1. Timeout
      Timeout 30 November 2013 12: 00
      +4
      Yes, such sights are needed for normal money. Only the only thing they forgot about the power source! While for such electronics they will not create a capacious and compact power source, the sense of such sights is only in one-day raids.
      1. cleric4
        30 November 2013 12: 17
        +2
        Li-ion battery + solar battery for charging as an option.
      2. Yves762
        Yves762 30 November 2013 16: 15
        +1
        Quote: Timeout
        Yes, such sights are needed for normal money. Only the only thing they forgot about the power source! While for such electronics they will not create a capacious and compact power source, the sense of such sights is only in one-day raids.

        Quote: cleric4
        Li-ion battery + solar battery for charging as an option.

        Not sunny ...
    2. cleric4
      30 November 2013 12: 22
      +1
      The price is highly dependent on the series. Our sights would be issued in the thousands and the price would be different.
      1. Timeout
        Timeout 30 November 2013 15: 48
        0
        Quote: cleric4
        Li-ion battery + solar battery for charging as an option.

        Dear, did you participate in the hostilities? Who will give you in a protracted battle recharged from a solar panel?
        1. cleric4
          30 November 2013 18: 23
          +2
          I did not participate, dear. I suggest that there is request
        2. The comment was deleted.
    3. vanaheym
      vanaheym 30 November 2013 21: 39
      +2
      Similar in characteristics is the Leatherwood ART sight, aka Hi-Lux ART M-1000, which was in service with the US Army during the Vietnam War, from which Hyperon was copied with its range measurement system. Its price in the USA is about $ 500.
      And for the price of "Hyperon" you can just take a pair of professional Nightforce sights.
  3. makarov
    makarov 30 November 2013 08: 58
    +4
    WONDERFUL stuff, without any "water" and speculation. Author UMNICHKA.
  4. makarov
    makarov 30 November 2013 08: 58
    0
    WONDERFUL stuff, without any "water" and speculation. Author UMNICHKA.
  5. taseka
    taseka 30 November 2013 11: 07
    +4
    Many thanks to the Author for that "bell" alarm, which still does not reach the tight brains of the Russian generals and the authorities of the Russian Federation! I don't have all the money for the construction of the plant, for the production of elementary assault sights for our soldiers - which for 8 years have firmly established themselves on the personal small arms of the NATO bloc !!!!! After all, our soldiers will shoot like quails! Enough only for special forces and for the exhibition !!! Remember those brave Polish lancers in feathers attacking their chestnut German tanks and the laughter of their tankers crushing them with their sabers! Shame!!!
    1. Slavs69
      Slavs69 30 November 2013 23: 33
      +1
      Quote: taseka
      Enough only in special forces and

      Not enough, alas ...
  6. taseka
    taseka 30 November 2013 11: 07
    0
    Many thanks to the Author for that "bell" alarm, which still does not reach the tight brains of the Russian generals and the authorities of the Russian Federation! I don't have all the money for the construction of the plant, for the production of elementary assault sights for our soldiers - which for 8 years have firmly established themselves on the personal small arms of the NATO bloc !!!!! After all, our soldiers will shoot like quails! Enough only for special forces and for the exhibition !!! Remember those brave Polish lancers in feathers attacking their chestnut German tanks and the laughter of their tankers crushing them with their sabers! Shame!!!
    1. cleric4
      30 November 2013 12: 20
      +2
      What alarm is there, I wrote it 7 years ago. No one was interested.
  7. Slotxnumx
    Slotxnumx 30 November 2013 13: 24
    0
    For a good sight, you need an appropriate barrel, but if the accuracy leaves much to be desired ... then there’s no sense in that. And even if the collimators cannot be put on stream and in support in the troops, then what about such complexes.
    1. Droid
      Droid 30 November 2013 14: 43
      +1
      For a good sight, you need an appropriate barrel, but if the accuracy leaves much to be desired ... then there’s no sense in that. And even if the collimators cannot be put on stream and in support in the troops, then what about such complexes.


      Accuracy AK74 is sufficient to defeat a running figure at 600 m with the first shot.
      Well they can, just what is the point of putting them on stream if they are not purchased?
    2. old rocket man
      old rocket man 1 December 2013 00: 58
      +3
      Quote: Slot46
      For a good sight, you need an appropriate barrel, but if the accuracy leaves much to be desired ... then there’s no sense in that. And even if the collimators cannot be put on stream and in support in the troops, then what about such complexes.

      Yes they can, they just don’t want to, sometimes general stupidity strikes to complete dumbfound
  8. Droid
    Droid 30 November 2013 14: 46
    0
    Question to the author - how does such a sight react to an electromagnetic pulse? And then you can act on the principle - we do not use it ourselves and do not give it to others.
    1. cleric4
      30 November 2013 18: 26
      0
      Such issues are resolved by the degree of shielding. To the scope that I did, such requirements were not presented.
      1. Droid
        Droid 30 November 2013 18: 42
        0
        Such issues are resolved by the degree of shielding. To the scope that I did, such requirements were not presented.

        And shielding increases the mass. And, if I understand correctly, can I forget about communication channels? I wonder how much such a sight will weigh?
  9. voliador
    voliador 30 November 2013 16: 42
    0
    It responds to EMP in the same way as all electronics - it burns out.
  10. voliador
    voliador 30 November 2013 16: 42
    0
    It responds to EMP in the same way as all electronics - it burns out.
  11. lukke
    lukke 30 November 2013 21: 51
    0
    when will we see the troops? a rhetorical question ...
  12. lukke
    lukke 30 November 2013 21: 51
    0
    when will we see the troops? a rhetorical question ...
  13. The comment was deleted.
  14. poquello
    poquello 1 December 2013 14: 08
    +1
    I just read the article of the roofing felts, the roofing felts .. The laser designator for the class was withdrawn or combined with the calimator, and this was the next breakthrough in aiming. Optics for close targets did not have any revolution, therefore there was a separation of sights according to the method of use. The next generation is either aiming systems, the starting example is a helmet attached to an abocan, ideally like a predator in the movie of the same name - a multi-purpose, multi-channel system with independent capture for each unit of the arsenal, or a sight for the next generation of shells, a starting example, remote detonation, ideally controlled trajectory, here network-centricity comes in handy.
    1. cleric4
      1 December 2013 16: 44
      +1
      An example of a Predator is the spaced lines of sight and aiming.
      1. poquello
        poquello 1 December 2013 18: 19
        +1
        Quote: cleric4
        An example of a Predator is the spaced lines of sight and aiming.

        Well, what should I name and implement I HZ, you probably need to take a background mask, take into account the general movement and focus the deviation.
    2. vanaheym
      vanaheym 1 December 2013 20: 22
      +1
      Quote: poquello
      Laser pointer for the class removed or combined with the calimator, and this was the next breakthrough in aiming

      On long-range weapons, the LCU has extremely limited use (except for films) - except in the infrared range and if the enemy does not have NVD.
      Quote: poquello
      The next generation is this or aiming systems, the starting example is a helmet attached to an abocane,

      And a special cunning manipulator that will twist the hands of a soldier synchronously with his gaze, because otherwise he will not need a helmet tied to a machine gun.
      1. poquello
        poquello 1 December 2013 21: 19
        +1
        Quote: vanaheym

        On long-range weapons, the LCU has extremely limited use (except for films) - except in the infrared range and if the enemy does not have NVD.

        Correctly, starting with optics, the requirements for sights begin to differ in the range of the target, as before the weapon.
        Quote: poquello
        The next generation is this or aiming systems, the starting example is a helmet attached to an abocane,
        Quote: vanaheym

        And a special cunning manipulator that will twist the hands of a soldier synchronously with his gaze, because otherwise he will not need a helmet tied to a machine gun.

        On the contrary, the fighter sees where his barrel is directed, you can shoot from the hip, and with a picture from behind a corner or cover. I once spoke with the infantryman of the Second World War, so they fired so without a picture, whistled so that it’s scary to stick out the head.
        1. vanaheym
          vanaheym 1 December 2013 21: 50
          0
          Quote: poquello
          On the contrary, the fighter sees where his barrel is directed, you can shoot from the hip, and with a picture from behind a corner or cover

          During firing, the fighter already sees where the barrel is directed. For example, I do not know of a single shooting position in which a fighter would shoot like Rambo - from the hip. Or a situation in which a fighter, with a potential need to instantly open fire, holds his weapon in the position "on the shoulder", "at the hip", "behind the neck".
          If we talk about shooting from around the corner, that is, a cheap thing called Accutact for about $ 200, which at the same time works no worse than mega-sights for $ 10000
  15. vanaheym
    vanaheym 1 December 2013 20: 41
    +3
    Network-centricity, the formation of amendments by electronics - it's all fine.
    However, it would not hurt to start to develop (or at least steal and copy, if your own optical school stopped copying American sights of the 60s) an intelligent optical sight for combined arms use with economical illumination, which allows you to use the sight with NVD, but at the same time bright enough to use it with two eyes open at a magnification of 1x, working on a single battery for at least a month, a variable magnification of 1-4 and First Focal Plane, a correct grid with marks corresponding to the fall of a bullet of standard ammunition from standard armament of a shooter, waterproof, strong .
    This will significantly increase the effectiveness of the fighter.
    Here's an example of such a Leatherwood CMR with a mesh sharpened for ballistics 7.62x39
  16. Kukota
    Kukota 2 December 2013 19: 04
    0
    [media = http: //www.newstube.ru/media/innovacii-oblegchayut-zhizn-rossijskim-solda
    tam]

    And hde video? angry
    1. poquello
      poquello 3 December 2013 01: 17
      +1
      Quote: Kukota
      http://www.newstube.ru/media/innovacii-oblegchayut-zhizn-rossijskim-solda
      tam]

      The requested resource has been moved, renamed, or temporarily unavailable.