Military Review

Surps for the sapper

Surps for the sapper

One of the main combat vehicles of engineering troops in all armies of the world is mine explosive obstacles (MVZ). They are constantly being improved, seeking to achieve the greatest efficiency.

We made extensive use of the cost centers during the Great Patriotic War, but, starting from 1943, the German troops, retreating to the west, began to use them en masse. In addition to the usual standard schemes of mining, in both armies began to spread new methods of using mines, land mines, called mine traps, surprises.

From official sources of the time it is known that a mine trap was called any mine when an explosive charge installed in a certain place, when trying to move it (move), exploded. Most often they were installed as single landmines (mines) in the most unexpected places: in houses, structures, in everyday objects, weapons etc.

To counteract the advance of the enemy troops, by order of the Supreme Command, in the rear began to build state defensive lines, in particular anti-tank ditches. However, their combat effectiveness was far from consistent with the efforts expended on the construction.

Then a new solution appeared: replace ditches with anti-tank traps. They were pits, slightly larger than the dimensions tanks, at the bottom of which were placed Molotov cocktails. On top of the pits were overlapped by light masking flooring. They were successfully used on the South and North Caucasus fronts.

In the battle of Moscow against the German tanks that had broken through, in the direction of the Golitsino station, a shaft of straw, boughs, and brushwood was poured over a half-kilometer stretch and poured with fuel. With the approach of the enemy shaft set on fire. As a result, the enemy reversed and suffered losses from the fire of our artillery. As reported, from 40 tanks were destroyed 25.

During the fighting in human settlements, especially within narrow streets, mine barriers were successfully used. With the advent of enemy tanks, several anti-tank mines connected by a cable or attached to boards and located along the houses were deployed across the street, directly in front of the enemy. The effect of unexpected explosions brought good results.

The experience of our engineering troops gives many other examples of mine traps, surprises. Especially often they were used by reconnaissance and sabotage groups in partisan detachments. They used both home-made and technical means (a technique of special secrecy - TOC). There are a lot of materials about this in the press, including the memoirs of Colonels I. Starinov, B. Epov, A. Ivolgin and other veterans of the engineering troops. In this article, we will mainly discuss the actions of military sappers.

We will give just some examples of interest even now, when bloody battles are taking place in several areas of the world, various surprises from the area of ​​mine-explosive barriers are used. The experience of the past has not lost its value for the present generations. We will know more - we will be less mistaken.

During the war years, in order to protect the troops from losses, the headquarters of the engineering troops of the fronts and armies published information materials (leaflets, bulletins, albums) showing the techniques of laying mines.

Thus, the headquarters of the engineering troops of the Leningrad Front in 1944 published a special album, which contains specific examples of the use of mine-surprises by the Germans.

Most often, the German sappers left mines surprises stretch action. In the territory freed from the enemy, abandoned weapons were found: pistols, machine guns, machine guns. And often from some minor detail was a thin wire with a length of 1 – 2 m, which was connected to the check of the fuse inserted into a masked explosive charge. Any attempt to take advantage of this trophy threatened with death.
Here are other examples.

On the side of the road lay a backpack filled with something. After carefully examining it, the sappers discovered a mortar round inside an 81-mm mortar with a tension action fuse inserted. The rise of this backpack threatened to explode.

In one of the houses near the Russian stove lay the usual firewood. During their inspection, it turned out that a cord connected to a mine fuse was tied to one log.

And in the cleared dugout, a land mine was found, the grating fuse of which was connected with a wire to a deminer shovel standing next to the pole. Tried to take a shovel - as a result of an explosion.

Mines-surprises differed a great variety: tension, unloading, push, thermal, etc.

In the press of that time it was reported that in the dilapidated house of the writer Serafimovich they found a high-explosive shell, hidden in the chimney of the kitchen stove.

In the school building on the desk lay a pile of books. On closer inspection, the sappers found wire under the pile of books leading under the floor to the fuse.

Very often in the houses (under the stairs, floorboards) installed mines, surprises pressure action, which worked under the weight of a person.

In the house of the liberated village of Tuganitsy, several bricks were removed from under the furnace, and instead of them two T-35 mines were laid with screwed fuses. Ash hid the traces of the "operation" ...

The author of the article had to familiarize himself with the liberation of the Kuban with the new method of installing a mine bomb. After the liberation of the village of Petrovskaya, a lot of equipment passed through the center of the city. The road was checked by our platoon. But on the second day an emergency happened - a tank was blown up. We re-checked the road, but we did not find mines. And nevertheless my commander sergeant A.Alyabyev did not calm down. Again and again he explored every shred, suspicious places along the road. Finally, he came across a wooden stake, protruding from the ground, disguised with a tuft of grass. When the earth layer was carefully removed, it turned out that at the meter depth this stake rested on the fuse of a paired German mine.

Of course, neither a probe nor a mine detector can detect such a mine. The sergeant was then awarded the medal "For Military Merit." By the way, the Germans used similar techniques on other fronts.

During the last war, we, the sappers, faced more than once cases when the Germans turned into traps even the corpses of their soldiers. In the houses often mined children's toys. (After WWII during numerous wars and conflicts, these techniques were usually used by all types of irregular military formations).

Often in the captured piles of artillery ammunition, engineering mines were caught allegedly carelessly installed traps, which were set up with the aim of hiding carefully camouflaged, lulled vigilance of the sapper.

The enemy did not disdain anything. According to the headquarters of the engineering troops of the Karelian Front, in a liberated village in one of the houses they found a cat in a box covered with a lid. When the sappers entered the house, the cat mumbled. An attempt to lift the lid ended in an explosion.

War is war. The means of their use, as shown by the events of recent wars, including in Afghanistan and the Caucasus, are constantly being improved. However, past experience can not be forgotten.
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  1. Canep
    Canep 3 December 2013 08: 07
    Now MS-3 mine surprises are released by industry

    Conventional mines of pressure action, and this unloading one, it is worth removing the load from the boss in the center of the mine an explosion of 200 g of TNT will occur, which will detonate the main charge, which should put pressure on the MC-3. This mine is developed on the basis of the PMN anti-personnel mine

    Installation diagram MS-3
    1. Bosk
      Bosk 3 December 2013 23: 46
      And with a simple grenade, as many surprises as possible, and most importantly no bells and whistles are needed, the same F-1 and the same folded sheet of paper, as I recall, I came across such a surprise ... and I had to pull the door and make my legs .. .
      1. Nayhas
        Nayhas 4 December 2013 11: 05
        Quote: Bosk
        And with a simple grenade, as many surprises as possible, and most importantly no bells and whistles are needed, the same F-1 and the same folded sheet of paper, as I recall, I came across such a surprise ... and I had to pull the door and make my legs .. .

        The grenade has a drawback, the operation of the retarder capsule gives a clear signal that you have a couple of seconds to make legs.
  2. 505506
    505506 3 December 2013 08: 17
    We still can’t refuse mines, the effect is too great at low cost. Sadly, in a war that is effective, it is difficult to refuse.
    1. Canep
      Canep 3 December 2013 08: 54
      If you abandon mines, then the next step is to abandon small arms. And still, people will come up with something artisanal, simple and effective, like a grenade inserted in a bottle with a broken bottom, to which a banner is tied.
      1. vladimirZ
        vladimirZ 4 December 2013 19: 08

        In A. Shumilin's documentary book "Vanka Company" there is an episode when the Germans, while retreating in a very good dugout, scattered a layer of shell powder on the floor.
        When the dugout took command of the battalion. The Germans first discovered artillery fire in the area around this dugout, driving staff soldiers connected in this dugout, and then ignited gunpowder. All who were in the dugout burned down.
        What was it? Mina surprise or artillery trap?
    2. rolik2
      rolik2 3 December 2013 12: 12
      Quote: 505506
      too great an effect at low cost.

      The FEAR before the mines is too great.
      1. Bosk
        Bosk 3 December 2013 20: 45
        Mina is an ideal soldier, she doesn’t have to sleep or eat, she is constantly on the post, she doesn’t even have to detonate, she brings with her presence not a weak demoralizing effect ...
  3. Stas57
    Stas57 3 December 2013 09: 08
    "surprises" are still rare, and the bulk is calculated on the fact that, performing monotonous work, when attention is dulled, danger may await. Once again a reminder of the hard and dangerous work of mine clearance - where the cost of error is life

    Regarding the mines themselves, they have proven their high effectiveness throughout the war.
    "Life pass is not a field to pass, as my grandfather sapper said" (c)
    1. Canep
      Canep 3 December 2013 09: 27
      When demining, firstly, the area is cleared of grass, it is easiest to burn it, and secondly, the search for the mines themselves with all possible precautions, an instrument: eyes, a mine detector is better than a radar and a probe, the mines found are only marked. Thirdly, the destruction of mines, if possible then in place, and if not, then each mine must be removed using a cat with a rope while in a safe place. Lastly, the area is rolled with a trawl:

      Mine clearance is a very expensive undertaking.
      1. novobranets
        novobranets 3 December 2013 21: 44
        And quite dangerous. Tools, you are right, the most important tool is the eyes. Sometimes a minefield can be detected by various indirect signs, for example, by soil shrinkage or bumps, the grass dries up or, on the contrary, has a bright green color at the installation site (explosive contains a lot of nitrogen), etc., it is considered better to work with a probe - more chances of finding a bookmark. A metal detector cannot always help, or even initiates a detonation, there are such fuses that react to email. the coil's magnetic field is a goodbye sapper, and radar or geological mine detectors are rare and expensive. There are mines with a complete lack of metal. Damn, you can write a book about human cunning. The work of a sapper is an imperceptible but hard work. God save them.
      2. Nayhas
        Nayhas 4 December 2013 11: 07
        Quote: Canep
        Lastly, the area is rolled with a trawl:

        Recently, all mines have a multiplicity trigger mechanism. So the trawl is far from a panacea.
  4. Ols76
    Ols76 3 December 2013 09: 30
    The article is interesting. It is unfortunate that in the 21st century we still cannot refuse mines.
  5. Takashi
    Takashi 3 December 2013 09: 38
    I just want to write: "sorry for the cat." And then, you know, the sappers died.

    Article +. Only very little, it was necessary to reveal more material.
  6. Canep
    Canep 3 December 2013 10: 03
    I also forgot to say that the anti-tank mines TM-62:

    Have a hole on the side and bottom:
    To install the MUV-2 fuse:
    to set mines on non-recoverability:
    1. MAG
      MAG 3 December 2013 14: 09
      They put this on us, but it cost. After 3 yells (in the Vedeno gorge), they constantly stood up on the blockade in the same place, behu in the bushes themselves side by side. The sappers with the irs passed and said that everything was buzzing, but there was wind and snow, so they decided to leave the behu on the road, and they made a fire in the bushes and from the top of the raincoat, and here we have a kid fidgeting "what a bump under the backside." They picked the earth and there TM62 just on our behu. Sappers received specific luli)))))
      1. Canep
        Canep 3 December 2013 16: 42
        You are lucky that there were not a few PMNs around TM62. And the sappers all the time get Lyuli, they’re not used to it, then the aisles are not ready, then they missed a mine, or something else. The most ungrateful and dirty work for which they do not give special preferences (such as pyshyshkovyh in the airborne forces), and as many as you like.
        1. MAG
          MAG 3 December 2013 19: 09
          PMN was standing underneath it))) but with sappers we were very friends with the most intelligent guys from the entire regiment and then the dog handlers. At the dog handler’s outpost, the dog died, and instead of a new dog, a sapper went to the ird and 7 freelancers (sappers))))))) the freelance scents were better for the freelancers than for the dog and 7 times it was possible to make a mistake — nobody knew even the command itself to understand the command logic) )))
        2. Nayhas
          Nayhas 4 December 2013 11: 18
          Quote: Canep
          And the sappers all the time get Lyuli, they’re not used to it, then the aisles are not ready, then they missed a mine, or something else.

          I remember we were standing at the exit b / p, a sapper group was coming up, four fighters with a dog, such as checking the road. All about the same age, jerks in general, three small and one shafting. We talked, cigarettes back and forth, it turned out that one of them was an officer, they just graduated from Novosibirsk and went straight to the mountains, but in fact the same kid as conscripts ... I speak about mine? In response, yes x / s ...
        3. Frontierguard
          Frontierguard 6 December 2013 19: 37
          Well, this is with us, the Slavs, probably only. According to the principle "women still give birth". And in the same Foreign Legion sappers are appreciated: a legionnaire sapper is much more highly paid than a legionnaire paratrooper.
          1. EdwardTich68
            EdwardTich68 6 December 2013 19: 40
            With a parachute, anything can be dropped. A specialist must be trained for years. laughing
    2. rodz
      rodz 3 December 2013 19: 32
      Sorry, but you are wrong .... Mines of the TM-62 series do not have additional ignition slots for installing them in an unremovable position .... Such a mine is the anti-track TM-57 ... This is one of the reasons why sappers, if possible they try to use the choice of the older TM-57 .... In addition, it also has a larger pressure sensor area due to the construction of the mine ... And the TM-62 mines are just set in an unremovable position using MS-3 mines ... By the way your last picture shows just TM-57, It has a fuse diameter of MVZ-57 just smaller than a fuse of MVCh-62 ...
  7. pensioner
    pensioner 3 December 2013 11: 18
    A friend was telling. He and his wife lived in the city of Lyubytino, Nogorodskaya oblast. in 87-89 He worked in the police. They got a car blown up there. They started to understand. It turned out a German mine. Nearby a few more were found. Everything is in working condition. So many years have passed, but still they were completely in a ready state ... I wonder: is it a purely German quality or can our mines also be like this?
    1. Uncle
      Uncle 3 December 2013 12: 13
      Quote: retired
      So many years have passed, but still were in a fully operational state ...

      But the Chinese firecrackers, after lying down for a year, do not explode, but only smoke. Apparently, the reagents for explosives in German mines are of very high quality and do not "sour" over time.
      1. Bosk
        Bosk 3 December 2013 20: 52
        My uncle, about twenty years ago, also blew up on an anti-tank, at the "goat" ... rubber in rags, after when he collected the remnants of a mine, it turned out that the detonator detonated, and the TNT was most likely damp and did not bang, fortunately ... now a relative birthday celebrating ...
        1. rodz
          rodz 3 December 2013 21: 52
          Well, TNT cannot get wet, or rather it is not afraid of moisture .... but the explosive in the detonator, especially if it was explosive mercury, it could well lose or weaken its initiating ability due to moisture ...
        2. taseka
          taseka 4 December 2013 08: 42
          "and trotyl most likely became damp and didn’t flop to happiness."- TNT, blasting explosive (TRINITROTOLUENE) - NON-HYGROSCOPIC - in other words, it cannot be dampened! Looks like your uncle is lucky in marriage with a mine fuse!
    2. rodz
      rodz 3 December 2013 21: 58
      TNT can be in ammunition as much as you like without detriment to the possibility of detonating ... but fuses can either lose their initiating abilities or dramatically increase as a result of various chemical reactions ... depends on what kind of initiating explosive was used in it. ..and what it interacted with during this time ...
      1. Bosk
        Bosk 3 December 2013 22: 52
        Well, on the subject of TNT, I can say with confidence that everything is slightly wrong, believe me when I was a kid I took a lot of things to pieces and detonated them on my head ... at least a simple shell example, for example, explodes in a fire for 15-20 minutes with a probability of 90%, but the same mortar mine is less than 50% ... and you know why, firstly in the projectile the head fits more tightly and therefore does not allow moisture to pass through, again when the tol in the projectile goes into a more liquid state and how would it be renewed or something ... and in mortar shells the fuse is screwed in just before the shot, and therefore there is no tightness and over the years it forms ... a wet layer or something, it turned out that you would throw a mine into the fire, and after a while the detonator and mine fire flies back like a rocket and at the same time the tol is in place, well, sometimes as I remember it flared up but no more. I'm certainly not a pro, but it seems to me that moisture plays an important role here ... well, all this multiplied by years.
        1. rodz
          rodz 4 December 2013 18: 54
          Believe me, TNT is really not afraid of dampness ... But it can explode in a fire without a fuse, in the event that the outflow of gases generated during combustion will accumulate and increase pressure in the combustion area, this applies to almost all explosives - an increase in pressure leads to an increase in the possibility of detonation .... And as for the mortar mine you wrote about, it most likely worked a knockout cartridge located in the shaft of the mine and just designed for the initial throwing of the mine, it looks like a hunting cartridge in a cardboard sleeve, since if a mine detonator detonated, it would explode ... provided, of course, that the head detonator was working ...
          1. Bosk
            Bosk 4 December 2013 20: 10
            I meant the head fuse because they used mostly unexploded mines ... therefore, without an expelling charge, the thought naturally arises of a malfunction of the main fuse, but judging by the fact that some mines flew out at a distance of about ten meters, then we can conclude that everything is with detonation in order. True, it was noticed that a similar "jamb" was occurring with 80 mines, though it is not known with ours or German ones ... then I thought maybe some mines were filled with powdered TNT and how is it all twisted with this?
      2. Military79
        Military79 4 December 2013 00: 10
        It's true. In combat classes, they threw RGD and, in order not to look for the pin after throwing, they shot it back in the trench and then threw it into the envelope. they can burn not 3,14-3,2 seconds, but only 4,2. " Later I was able to observe something like that, fortunately no one was hurt (from "ours") THANKS to the company commander for the science.
  8. stoqn477
    stoqn477 3 December 2013 13: 31
    A nasty but effective weapon.
  9. Irtysh
    Irtysh 3 December 2013 22: 44
    Hunting, Hunting-2 ... A hellish invention. The sappers of our group were trained to "pump" such fields. And also to overcome analogues. These are not "petals" with a broom of revenge. :-(
    1. rodz
      rodz 4 December 2013 18: 58
      And do not tell me how they taught to overcome the Hunt ... :) And then there is practically no information about it ... Only vague phrases about the need to know the algorithm for storing the seismic sensor triggers by an electronic unit ...
  10. The comment was deleted.
  11. voliador
    voliador 3 December 2013 23: 20
    Yes, this is probably one of the most dangerous military professions. hi .
  12. George
    George 4 December 2013 00: 25
    Thank you for the article.
  13. taseka
    taseka 4 December 2013 08: 56
    Thank you for the article - it poked about the cat! Modern fuses have become much trickier since the war - electronic, thermal, mercury, infrared, light, vibration, radio frequency, chemical, cha
    owls, etc. Sappers also do not like such phrases like - "Come on quickly, one leg here - the other there!" or "Go get some brains!" fellow
  14. The polar
    The polar 4 December 2013 14: 37
    Will there be a sequel?
  15. RPD
    RPD 4 December 2013 16: 43
    yes, I would like to continue