Military Review

Stalin's victory at the Tehran Conference

Stalin's victory at the Tehran Conference

November 28 - December 1 1943 met in the Iranian capital the heads of the three great powers: the Soviet Union, the United States and the United Kingdom. Joseph Stalin, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill gathered in Tehran to address a number of difficult issues related to the continuation of the war against Hitler Germany, the post-war structure of Europe, peace, and the USSR’s entry into the war with Japan. This was the first meeting of the so-called. "Big Three".

In Western Europe, there was no place or danger to hold a meeting of the “big three”. Washington and London did not want to hold a conference on Soviet territory either. In August 1943, Roosevelt and Churchill informed Stalin that, in their opinion, neither Archangelsk nor Astrakhan were suitable for such a conference. They offered to hold a meeting in Alaska, in Fairbanks. But Stalin refused to go so far away from the front at such a tense time. The Soviet leader proposed to hold a meeting in a state where there were representative offices of all three powers, for example, in Iran. In addition to Tehran, Cairo (Churchill suggested it), Istanbul and Baghdad were considered to be the “capitals of the conference”. But they stopped on Tehran, because at that moment it was controlled by the Soviet and British troops, and the American contingent was here.

The Iranian operation (Operation Consent) by the British-Soviet forces conducted 1941 in the end of August - the first half of September. Allied forces occupied Iran for military-strategic and economic considerations (Operation "Consent". Soviet troops entering Iran in 1941). First, in the prewar years, the Iranian leadership actively cooperated with the Third Reich, and the ideology of Iranian nationalism gained momentum. As a result, there was a real threat of involving Iran on the side of the German Empire as an ally in World War II and the appearance of German troops here. Secondly, Iran became the base of German intelligence, which threatened the interests of Britain and the USSR in the region. Thirdly, it was necessary to take control of the Iranian oil fields, preventing their possible seizure by German troops. In addition, the USSR and Great Britain created a southern transport corridor through which the Allies could support Russia as part of the implementation of the Lend-Lease program.

Red Army units occupied northern Iran. The intelligence units of the Soviet 44 and 47 armies carried out active work on the elimination of the German agents. British troops occupied the south-western provinces of Iran. American troops, under the pretext of protecting goods supplied to the Soviet Union, entered Iran at the end of 1942. Without any formalities, the Americans occupied the ports of Bender-Shahpur and Khorramshahr. An important communication through Iranian territory, through which American strategic cargo was transferred to the USSR. On the whole, the situation in the Iranian state was difficult, but controlled. The Soviet 182 th Mountain Rifle Regiment was stationed in the Iranian capital, which guarded the most important objects (before the beginning of the conference it was replaced with a more prepared unit). Most ordinary Persians treated the Soviet people with respect. This facilitated the actions of Soviet intelligence, which was easily found among Iranian volunteers.


Stalin refused to fly by plane and went to the conference on November 22, 1943 on the letter train number 501, which proceeded through Stalingrad and Baku. Beria was personally responsible for traffic safety, he was riding in a separate carriage. The delegation also included Molotov, Voroshilov, Shtemenko, relevant workers of the People’s Commissariat of Foreign Affairs and the General Staff. They flew from Baku on two planes. The first was controlled by an ace pilot, commander of the 2nd Special Purpose Air Division, Viktor Grachev, and Stalin, Molotov and Voroshilov flew on the plane. Commanding aviation long-range Alexander Golovanov personally flew the second aircraft.

Churchill traveled from London to Cairo, where he was waiting for the American president to once again coordinate the positions of the United States and England on the main issues of negotiations with the Soviet leader. Roosevelt crossed the Atlantic Ocean on the battleship Iowa, accompanied by a significant escort. They managed to avoid collisions with German submarines. After a nine-day sea crossing, the American squadron arrived at the Algerian port of Oran. Then Roosevelt arrived in Cairo. November 28 the delegation of the three great powers were already in the Iranian capital.

Due to the threat from the German saboteurs, large-scale measures were taken to ensure the safety of high-ranking guests. The government delegation of the USSR stopped at the territory of the Soviet embassy. The British are located on the territory of the British Embassy. The British and Soviet diplomatic missions were located on opposite sides of the same street in the Iranian capital, with a width of no more than 50. The American president, due to the terrorist threat, accepted an invitation to settle in the building of the Soviet embassy. The American Embassy was located on the outskirts of the city, which seriously worsened the possibilities for creating a tight security ring. The meetings were held at the Soviet embassy, ​​where Churchill walked along a specially constructed covered corridor connecting the Soviet and British missions. Around the Soviet-British diplomatic complex united by this "corridor of safety", the Soviet and British intelligence services created three rings of reinforced security, backed by armored vehicles. All the press in Tehran has stopped its activities, the telephone, telegraph and radio have been disconnected.

Germany, relying on numerous agents, attempted to organize an assassination attempt against the leaders of the “Big Three” (Operation “Long Jump”). However, Soviet intelligence knew about this operation. In addition, the Soviet intelligence officers, together with their British colleagues from MI-6, were looking for and deciphering all the messages of the German radio operators who were preparing a bridgehead for the landing of the sabotage group. German radio operators intercepted, and then took the entire German spy ring (more than 400 people). Some of them were turned over. An attempt on the leaders of the "Big Three" was averted.

The conference planned to solve a number of important issues:

- to establish the exact date of opening by the allies of a second front This was the most difficult question. Britain and the United States in every way delayed the opening of the second front. In addition, Churchill wanted to open "the Balkan front, with the participation of Turkey, in order to advance through the Balkans, to cut off the Red Army from the most important centers of Western Europe;

- Polish question - about the borders of Poland after the war;

- The question of the entry of the USSR into the war with the Japanese Empire;

- A question of the future of Iran, granting it independence;

- issues of post-war Europe (first of all they decided the fate of Germany) and security in the world after the war

Main problem

The main problem was the decision to open the so-called. "Second front", that is, the landing of Allied troops in Europe and the creation of the Western Front, which was to significantly accelerate the fall of the Third Reich. After the strategic radical change in the Great Patriotic War, which occurred during the Stalingrad and Kursk battles, the situation on the Eastern Front was favorable for the Red Army. German troops suffered irrecoverable losses, and the German military-political leadership lost its strategic initiative. Wehrmacht moved to a strategic defense. However, the victory was still far away, the Third Reich was still a formidable opponent. It was possible to accelerate his defeat only by joint efforts of the three great powers.

The Allies promised to open a second front in 1942, but a year went by, and there was no progress. Militarily, the Allies were ready for the start of the operation by July-August 1943, when a fierce battle was taking place on the Orel-Kursk Bulge. In England, 500-thousand was deployed. the expeditionary army, which was in full combat readiness, was provided with everything necessary, including ships and ships for combat cover, support by fire and the landing of the landing force. However, the front was not opened for political reasons. London and Washington were not going to help Moscow. Soviet intelligence found out that in 1943, the allies would not open a second front in the north of France. They will wait "until Germany is mortally wounded by the Russian offensive."

Moreover, it became known that London and Washington had developed a strategic plan for an offensive from the south, on the approaches to Italy and the Balkan Peninsula. They planned to bring Italy out of the war, having held behind-the-scenes negotiations with Italian politicians; to force Turkey to stand on its side and use it to open the way to the Balkans, launching the offensive in the autumn; wait until autumn, watch what is happening on the Eastern Front. The Anglo-American leadership believed that the Germans in the summer of 1944 would launch a new strategic offensive on the Eastern Front, but after some successes they would again be stopped and thrown back. Germany and the Soviet Union will suffer huge losses, will bleed their armed forces. At the same time, plans were underway for the landing of Allied forces in Sicily, Greece and Norway.

The United States and Britain wanted to convince the USSR that the landing in the north of France was complicated by lack of transport, which made it impossible to supply large military units. Getting Turkey into the war and an offensive across the Balkan Peninsula is a more advantageous scenario that will allow the allied armies in Romania to join in and strike at Germany from the south. Thus, Churchill wanted to cut off most of Europe from the USSR. In addition, the pace of warfare slowed down, which made it possible to work out new anti-Soviet scenarios and weaken the significance of the Red Army at the final stage of the war, when battles would take place on German territory. So, the scenario of the anti-Hitler coup in Germany was worked out, when the new German leadership would understand the hopelessness of the situation, capitulate and let Anglo-American troops in order to save the country from the Red Army. After the war, they planned to create an anti-Soviet buffer from regimes hostile to the USSR in Finland, the Baltic states, Poland, Romania, and the new Germany. In addition, the Allies hid their nuclear project from Moscow, which was not directed against the Third Reich and was supposed to make the Anglo-Saxons full owners of the planet after the end of World War II. In Moscow, they knew about it, and prepared response moves.

Conference results

Operation Overlord. After a long debate, the problem of opening a second front was at an impasse. Then Stalin expressed his readiness to leave the conference: “We have too many things to do at home to waste time here. Nothing good, as I see it, does not work. ” Churchill realized that the issue could not be heated up more, he made a compromise. Roosevelt and Churchill promised the Soviet leader to open a second front in France no later than May 1944. The final time of the operation was planned to be determined in the first half of 1944. To mislead the German command regarding the place and the start of the landing of the Anglo-American troops in Western Europe, it was planned to conduct a landing operation in southern France. During the Allied operation, the Soviet troops were to launch an offensive in order to prevent the German forces from moving east to west. The allies agreed to take measures to assist the Yugoslav partisans.

Polish question. The future of Poland also caused serious disagreements. However, it was tentatively agreed that the eastern border of the Polish state will pass along the “Curzon Line”. This line basically corresponded to the ethnographic principle: to the west of it there were territories with a predominance of the Polish population, to the east - lands with a predominance of the Belarusian, Ukrainian and Lithuanian population. Territorial appetites of Warsaw decided to satisfy at the expense of Germany (Prussia), which had occupied significant Polish lands in the Middle Ages. Stalin rejected the claims of Roosevelt and Churchill for Moscow to recognize the Polish emigre government in London. The United States and Britain planned to plant their puppets in Poland. Moscow did not go for it and stated that the USSR separates Poland from the emigrant government in England.

Iran. The Big Three adopted the Declaration on Iran. The document emphasized the desire of Moscow, Washington and London to maintain the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Iran. After the end of the war, the occupation forces were planned to withdraw. I must say that Stalin was not going to leave Iran in the clutches of the Anglo-Saxons. During his stay in Tehran, Stalin studied the general condition of the Iranian political elite, the influence of the British on it, got acquainted with the state of the army. It was decided to organize aviation and tank schools, give them the equipment to organize the training of Iranian personnel.

Post-war device. The American president proposed to dismember Germany after the war on the 5 autonomous state formations and establish international control (in fact of England and the United States) over the most important German industrial areas - Ruhr, Saar and others. He was supported by Churchill. In addition, Churchill proposed to create a so-called. "Danube Federation" from the Danube countries, with the inclusion of the South German territories. Practically, Germany was offered to return to the past - to dismember her. This laid a real "mine" for the future device of Europe. However, Stalin did not agree with such a decision and proposed to refer the German question to the European Advisory Commission. The USSR as a contribution received the right after the victory to attach to itself a part of East Prussia.

Security issues in the world after the war. US President Roosevelt proposed the creation of an international organization (this issue has already been discussed with Moscow) on the principles of the United Nations. This organization was supposed to provide lasting peace after the Second World War. The committee, which was supposed to prevent the start of a new war and aggression from Germany and Japan, included the USSR, the USA, Great Britain and China. Stalin and Churchill generally supported this idea.

War with Japan. The Soviet delegation, given the repeated violations by the Japanese empire of the Soviet-Japanese 1941 treaty on neutrality and the help of Germany, and also meeting the wishes of the allies, declared that the USSR would enter the war with Japan after the final defeat of the Third Reich.

In general, Stalin won the Tehran Conference:

- did not give London and Washington to push through the "southern strategy" - the Allied offensive through the Balkans, forced the Allies to promise to open a second front;

- the Polish question was resolved in the interests of Russia;

- Germany did not allow to kill and dismember, which would create an instability zone on the western borders of the USSR. Moscow was favored by a single German state as a counterbalance to Britain and France;

- in Japan he gave himself to persuade, but in reality, Stalin himself wanted to take historical Russia's revenge for the war of 1904-1905, to return the lost territories and strengthen the position of the USSR in the Asia-Pacific region.
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  1. bomg.77
    bomg.77 28 November 2013 08: 07
    - Germany did not allow to kill and dismember, which would create an instability zone on the western borders of the USSR. Moscow was favored by a single German state as a counterbalance to Britain and France;
    The Germans should thank Stalin, for the preservation of Germany, I think if they were divided into five parts, the unification of Germany would not have happened, for so many years ..
    1. Lindon
      Lindon 28 November 2013 08: 34
      Stalin understood that without creating a counterweight to the Anglo-Saxons in Europe, all the forces of Europe would be thrown against the USSR. Therefore, Stalin included France in the victorious countries, and Keitl, upon signing the surrender, declared with surprise: "That the French also defeated us?"
      The future showed that Stalin was a visionary - a bunch of Germany-France completely undermined the influence of Britain on the continent. The EU is completely in the hands of the Berlin-Paris ligament. And what was France’s exit under De Gaulle from NATO - only when Sarkozy returned !!!
      1. bomg.77
        bomg.77 28 November 2013 11: 07
        Quote: Lindon
        Stalin included France in the victorious countries and Keitl, upon signing the surrender, declared with surprise: "That the French also defeated us?"
        Stalin, it seems to me, included France for the future UN Security Council in the hope of having a majority with China. The truth, France took the other side., Yes, and he pulled China up.
    2. tilovaykrisa
      tilovaykrisa 29 November 2013 14: 21
      Joseph was generally categorically against the division of Germany, he, unlike those who came after him, was a wise man and knew that historically Germany was not an enemy of Russia, unlike the Britons.
  2. Cormorants
    Cormorants 28 November 2013 08: 24
    Stalin, well done!
  3. Lindon
    Lindon 28 November 2013 08: 25
    Churchill was so furious as Stalin outplayed him on all counts. The main thing Stalin managed to persuade Roosevelt. How then can one say that Stalin was a near-minded person?
    All this was the result of long political games that began on the eve of the war in Europe. Stalin proved himself a brilliant strategist.
    1. LION
      LION 28 November 2013 10: 04
      I am rereading the book "Tehran Yalta Potsdam". The article refers to the first part. It seems to be just a recording of the meetings, but how the character and mood of Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill can be traced.
      Stalin. When will you open the second front?
      Churchill. Do you know how difficult it is? Let's take Rome better in Italy.
      Voroshilov. We know. Hundreds of rivers have already boosted the view we have.
      Stalin. But still?
      Churchill. Turkey must have entered the war.
      Roosevelt In May 1944, Operation Overlord was scheduled. We won’t be able to before. We have fights in the Pacific. Stupidly there are no ships. We do not have time to build.
      I conveyed this in my own words. But the impressions are as follows.
      Churchill lies and yulit. Roosevelt is honest, open and sympathetic to the USSR and Stalin. And he seems ashamed of Churchill, whom he and Stalin repeatedly besiege.
      Stalin oppresses his line and demands that he answer the question of truth and simply draws an honest answer from the interlocutor. No politicking.
      It seemed to me that Roosevelt and Stalin found a common language from the first minutes of the meeting and found common and convenient solutions on each issue.
      And as in Potsdam, the world and property of Germany were divided, just a song.
      1. Evgan
        Evgan 28 November 2013 10: 12
        And who knows how many landing craft were needed for the success of Overlord? Churchill was right in his statements about the opening of a second front in one - this operation should be crowned with success. And for success, self-confidence was needed. For me personally, a key indicator of some Yankee and Briton uncertainty, even in June 1944, is Eisenhower's note prepared in case of a landing failure in Normandy.
        I do not condone Churchill - of course, he would very much like to extend his influence to the Balkans to the detriment of the attack on Germany from the West. But they had difficulties. And do not forget that in 1943 in the same France the Wehrmacht was much stronger than in 1944.
      2. George
        George 28 November 2013 12: 45
        Quote: LION
        And as in Potsdam, the world and property of Germany were divided, just a song.

        Collecting witty remarks of the leader.
        A couple of examples:
        When they decided what to do with the German navy, Stalin proposed to divide, and Churchill made a counter proposal: “Flood”.
        Stalin replies: "Here you are, and drown your half."

        In the negotiations, there was debate about the post-war borders, and Churchill said:
        “But Lviv has never been a Russian city!”
        “But Warsaw was,” Stalin objected.
        And the last one:
        After the Tehran Conference of the 1943 of the year, at which Roosevelt and Churchill experienced strong pressure from Stalin on the opening of a second front and on other allied agreements, they began to tell the following.

        Churchill said in the morning before the next meeting:

        - Today I dreamed that I became the ruler of the world!

        “But I dreamed,” said Roosevelt, “that I became the ruler of the Universe!” What did you dream about, Marshal Stalin?

        “But I dreamed,” Stalin answered leisurely, “that I did not confirm either you, Mr. Churchill, or you, Mr. Roosevelt.”
        1. Andof odessa
          Andof odessa 28 November 2013 15: 15
          To the statement of the Germans transmitted through Sweden that if the Soviet troops continue to use such inhumane weapons as "Katyusha" they use their stocks of chemical weapons, Stalin replied that in the case of the use of chemical weapons by the Germans, the Germans did not raise the issue of the use of chemical weapons.
        2. kaktus
          kaktus 28 November 2013 16: 30
          Well, as a former seminarian, Stalin was closer to God good
          1. George
            George 28 November 2013 17: 21
            Quote: kaktus
            Well, as a former seminarian, Stalin was closer to God

            In the fall of 1936, a rumor spread in the West that Joseph Stalin had died of a serious illness. Charles Nitter, a correspondent for the Associated Press news agency, decided to get information from the most reliable source. He went to the Kremlin, where he handed over a letter to Stalin in which he asked: to confirm or deny this rumor.
            Stalin answered the journalist immediately: “Gracious sovereign! As far as I know from foreign press reports, I have long left this sinful world and moved to the other world. Since the messages of the foreign press cannot be relied on with confidence, if you do not want to be deleted from the list of civilized people, I ask that you believe these messages and not disturb my peace in the silence of the other world.
            26 October 1936. Sincerely, I. Stalin. "
  4. SPLV
    SPLV 28 November 2013 09: 04
    I always liked this photo. Very picturesque faces of the three. It immediately becomes clear who beat whom in the negotiations.
  5. svskor80
    svskor80 28 November 2013 09: 58
    Stalin understood what purpose he was striving for and therefore pushed the solutions he needed. This understanding is very much lacking for us now in modern life.
  6. Standard Oil
    Standard Oil 28 November 2013 10: 27
    It’s a pity that Roosevelt died so early, and if he remained in power, and not the stupid cowboy Truman, we could agree on a normal, and not through gritted teeth. Of course, he is not eternal either, but he clearly sympathized with the USSR, unlike the pathological Russophobes of the British who were just looking for somewhere to spoil. And a single and neutral Germany would be a much more convenient option than a divided one. By the way ..... (there are simply no words) Gorbachev could agree with the Germans that the condition for the withdrawal of Soviet troops and German unification would be refusal to join NATO and pursue a neutral policy, the Germans would love to wave anything, and this ram (Gorbachev), under the honest (!) word of the US President about the non-expansion of NATO, the troops brought out, just NO COMMENT, probably they were laughing at the whole White House apparatus, The State Department and the CIA, Mykhaylo Sergeyevich, come to us in Ryazan, we’ll talk heart to heart, we will beat painfully, but carefully. But Stalin, what can I say, he is already a synonym for quality and rationality by himself. But one was enough for Mykhaylo All works must be multiplied by zero.
    1. east
      east 29 November 2013 21: 55
      There is a version that Roosevelt was poisoned ...
  7. Grbear
    Grbear 28 November 2013 11: 46
    It is customary to "smear" Stalin's policy with different colors, but the country has withstood such a war that has never happened on the planet, and God forbid, ever.

    Simply put, without delving into the intricacies of choosing a leader: lucky - the country is flourishing, not lucky - is bent, and if the leader is a traitor, the country will be bent, as if prosperous. hi
  8. Poruchik 90
    Poruchik 90 28 November 2013 13: 01
    The huge victory of the USSR and the great merit of intelligence!
  9. Yarosvet
    Yarosvet 28 November 2013 13: 02
  10. twister
    twister 28 November 2013 13: 10
    Stalin was right !!!
    1. yan
      yan 28 November 2013 14: 55
      Historical experience shows that Stalin was always right
  11. yan
    yan 28 November 2013 13: 15
    A large historical study suggests itself under the general title "Stalin's victories in the diplomatic field during World War II, and their impact on the fate of modern Europe"
    1. Antas
      Antas 29 November 2013 00: 22
      There is an excellent book: the author Nikolai Starikov, called "Stalin - we remember together! These moments are there and much more.
  12. Ddhal
    Ddhal 28 November 2013 13: 22
    Thanks to the author. The article is wonderful, what you need to relax from real politicians.
    When the general features of awareness are transformed into a real awareness of the scale of the events that take place, this is a transition from a modern negative to a more comfortable field of knowledge.
    History is a wonderful science. It is a pity that only a few relate the past to the present and make the right decisions.
  13. groin
    groin 28 November 2013 14: 53
    Stalin outplayed them because they could not count him. And Putin is the same. Two leaders who appeared in power, contrary to their statements. Stalin passed his universities behind a thorn, you yourself know Putin. Neither of them can be miscalculated by their analytical supermen, it is only clear to us (scoops).
  14. Amfitsion
    Amfitsion 28 November 2013 15: 18
    Not quite right, I would say. about the Balkans ....
    Allies still did not have the opportunity to open a full Second Front there, logistics and the supply shoulder are insurmountable. How, pray tell, to plant millions of groups there, with tens and hundreds of thousands of pieces of equipment? And the terrain in the Balkans is mountainous, it would have been much easier for the Germans to defend themselves. Italy has demonstrated this.
    Across Europe, the paradox is that, oddly enough, the German groups in France in 1943- were relatively weak, in the 44th they were much stronger, in Normandy, for example, 11 German tank divisions fought (and of which 5 are elite tank SS ), in the 43rd Germans simply had no place to take such forces (the military industry of Germany developed to its full potential only by 1944 ...) But there is one thing, but the most important and fundamentally BUT: in the 43rd the allies did not have the most important thing that determines the success of all planning - namely, absolute dominance in the air. Without him, no Second Front.
  15. Cutter
    Cutter 28 November 2013 19: 12
    And I liked the article about pilots. Which drove the delegation to Tehran (from Baku). This is a commander of long-range aviation and a special-purpose commander. Represent the mass headquarters! Themselves at the controls !!! Interestingly, our Commander-in-Chief in our time would be able to?
  16. DZ_98_B
    DZ_98_B 28 November 2013 20: 39
    There was a great war. There was a time of great people !!!!
  17. Marat
    Marat 28 November 2013 21: 00
    Stalin defended the interests of the country, both on the battlefield and at the negotiating table. One can only guess how Nicholas2 or the representatives of the Provisional Government would behave in this situation, if Russia were in the camp of the victors of the First World War. As Sharikov used to say, we would get a shish with butter .
    1. hummel83
      hummel83 6 December 2013 12: 09
      There is nothing to guess here - if, as a result of the wars with Napoleon and with Turkey (1877), we did not get anything, but all the buns were received by the Anglo-Saxons and Germans. And in the second case, doing nothing at all. And the Alexandra were more serious rulers than their unlucky descendant. And about the interim government and there is no talk - this is essentially a collective hump
  18. makeev.dmitry
    makeev.dmitry 28 November 2013 21: 19
    Interestingly, among the 100 names in the "name of victory" competition is the name of the leader? This show is illegitimate without him
    1. bomg.77
      bomg.77 29 November 2013 04: 16
      Quote: makeev.dmitry
      Interestingly, among the 100 names in the "name of victory" competition is the name of the leader? This show is illegitimate without him
      He didn’t! They know that he has no competitors. It's funny)) They did not include the Generalissimo on the list. That's what the fear of the truth does!
  19. nik221276
    nik221276 28 November 2013 21: 43
    "- the Polish question was resolved in the interests of Russia;"
    Stalin did well that he did not agree with the proposals of the Anglo-Saxons in Poland!
    but one of the points of the future Polish device was superfluous:
    "It was decided to satisfy the territorial appetites of Warsaw at the expense of Germany (Prussia)"
    In vain the Poles were so awarded with lands, how do they relate to us now ..? Who are they after that?
    The lands of Prussia also had to be annexed to Russia as Königsberg ..
  20. vladim.gorbunow
    vladim.gorbunow 29 November 2013 12: 56
    Naive, to say the least. By chance, apart from Tehran, there was no place on planet Earth for a conference. And since January 43, the Americans have been conducting oil development in Iran, then in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf, unilaterally transferred all monetary payments to $ (compensation for Britain's energy supplies during the fuel crisis). To the timid objections of the British, they replied that the Red Army had defeated the Germans in Stalingrad and on the Transcaucasian Front of the Russians had been pumped to the limit with American weapons, Studebekers and Airacobra. And that's the real power in the Middle East. In terms of today: What is Day D? - several Hollywood films and computer games. But their oil ambitions are a path to ruling the world by controlling oil production and globalizing the dollar. Here is such a "tiny" gain. I have no doubt that the USA and the USSR worked hand in hand, pushing Churchill back into isolation over and over again. Their secret alliance was concluded in the early thirties. The Soviet Union was highly dependent on American aid and technology. Did Churchill Want the Southern Option? If I wanted to, then what I did. In fact, England was simply sabotaging military action, especially at the last stage. After all, military activity meant to bow to the dominions. And the Empire was crumbling. Gandhists in India fought on the side of Japan, English possessions in the west. the Atlantic was captured by the Americans, Canada and Australia were reliably switched over to themselves. The Zionists were preparing for hostilities with Britain in Israel. And in Egypt, after the war, German agents came to power. However, the sincerity of Churchill's hatred of the landing in France is beyond doubt. Everything is on the surface. To land in Normandy, the Americans must first occupy England. Occupation, even a mild one, has its own laws. This is the loss of sovereignty and interference in the internal affairs of an occupied country. That was brilliantly confirmed in the summer of 45. The winning leader in the world war lost the election !!? Tell this story to the watered technologists, their last brains will break. The Americans avenged the unthinkable provocation. an attempt to confront the Soviet and American armies. It's more difficult with the USSR. Of course, the creation of a mono-ethnic Poland instead of a loose education is an achievement, they began to hate us there purely in Polish. In general, we were given the honorary right to lay down 4 million soldiers on the battlefields and gain the reputation of an "Army storming the sky" And most importantly, every war day carried away civilians. There was just famine in the USSR, the Germans captured 2/3 of the agricultural land. The principle of unconditional surrender was introduced unilaterally by the Allies at a conference in Morocco. The War of the British Succession, which began in the early thirties both financial and economic, included a hot phase of WWII. And it ended with Churchill's Fulton repentance speech and the Bretton Woods monetary system.