Military Review

China continues to build the maritime component of the nuclear triad

The US Congress on Economic and Security Relations with China a few days ago published its new report. According to the commission, as early as next year, the People’s Liberation Army of China will begin operating new JL-2 ballistic missiles (Junlan-2 - Big Wave-2). A few months ago, there were reports in the American press that in 2014, the first hikes of new Chinese strategic submarines would begin. Thus, over the coming months, China’s strategic nuclear forces will undergo significant changes, resulting in a fundamental change and strengthening of the maritime component of the nuclear triad.

From the available information, it follows that the sea part of the Chinese nuclear forces is the weakest and significantly inferior to the air and ground. At the moment, the PLA Navy has only one nuclear-powered submarine with ballistic missiles (SSBN). The only submarine of the 092 project (Xia-class according to NATO classification) was built in the eighties and has since been operated with great restrictions by Chinese sailors. A characteristic feature of the first Chinese SSBN project became numerous problems, due to which most of the time the only submarine of the 092 type resides most of the time at the base. In addition, this submarine has relatively weak weapons. It carries 12 JL-1A rockets, which are capable of hitting targets at a distance of up to 1700 kilometers and therefore belong to the class of medium-range missiles. To solve the problems of nuclear deterrence like weapon not enough, especially given the fact that in the ranks there is only one submarine carrier.

At the end of 2006, the first information about a new project of Chinese ballistic missile submarines appeared. As it turned out a little later, the submarine discovered by the satellites belongs to the 094 project, which received the NATO designation Jin-class. To date, Chinese factories have built three such submarines of the planned five. In this case, none of the new submarines has not yet been involved in the "nuclear shield" of China. The main reason for this is the problem with the creation of a new ballistic missile. The JL-2 project has been plagued by setbacks for several years. Only in 2012, the Chinese defense industry managed to make several successful test launches, thanks to which the program to develop a new strategic missile got off the ground.

As follows from the data of the Commission of the US Congress, the tests and fine-tuning of the JL-2 rocket are close to completion, which will enable the launch of mass production and operation of missiles in the naval forces in the foreseeable future. The new JL-2 rocket uses the latest developments of the Chinese industry, which made it possible to achieve quite a lot of success. A two-stage rocket with a launch weight of about 23 tons is equipped with a solid-fuel first-stage engine and a second-stage liquid-fuel engine. According to open data, the range of the rocket reaches 8000 kilometers. The type of warhead and its power is unknown.

The commencement of the operation of the JL-094 2 submarines of the project will allow China not only to strengthen the naval component of the nuclear triad, but to literally re-create it. The commissioning of all five planned submarines will lead to the fact that at a time will be on duty until 60 ballistic missiles. The total number of warheads is questionable, because It is not known how many warheads each JL-2 rocket carries. However, the total number of missile warheads placed on the submarines of the 094 project will in any case exceed 60 units.

China carefully conceals information about its nuclear potential, so it is impossible to say exactly what the proportion of missiles on a SSBN will be in the structure of all strategic nuclear forces. According to various estimates, no more than 200-250 carriers with nuclear warheads are deployed in the Chinese armed forces. Thus, while maintaining the existing quantitative aspects of the ground and air parts of the nuclear triad, the adoption of all five new submarines will increase the number of deployed carriers by 20-25%. So far, of course, we are not talking about the operation of all five submarines. In the coming years, only three submarine missile carriers will be accepted into the Navy of the People’s Liberation Army of China. However, the 36 ballistic missiles placed on them can have a tangible impact on Chinese nuclear forces.

Not so long ago, fragmentary information about the new Chinese SSBN project with the code designation “096” appeared. According to reports, the submarines of this project will carry not 12, but 24 missiles. In addition, there are rumors about the creation of a new ballistic missile with a longer range. Given the characteristics of the appearance and announcement of information about the state of the Chinese armed forces, one can make the most courageous assumptions. For example, the construction of the head submarine of the 096 project can already be underway. The existence of such a submarine is bound to have the greatest impact on the numerical aspects of the marine part of China’s nuclear triad, since one 096 can carry as many missiles as two 094s.

Recent ones news About the Chinese program to create SSBNs and missiles for them add up to a single clear picture. Apparently, China has mastered all the technologies necessary for the construction of strategic submarine missile carriers and ballistic missiles for them, and therefore will begin to implement new plans in the near future. The logical continuation of the commissioning of several SSBNs is the organization of regular trips. It is in patrolling at a large distance from the coast that the main task of strategic submarine rocket carriers lies. After leaving the base, the submarine is capable of launching rockets at targets at enemy territory at the right time.

Thus, in the event of the launching of regular outlets into the sea, the submarines of the 094 project will not only be more useful than the only ship of the 092 project, but will even ensure the normal functioning of the naval component of the nuclear forces. The technical condition of the only submarine of the 092 project and its almost constant presence on the base (even without taking into account the low characteristics of the JL-1A missiles) does not allow to fully accomplish the tasks inherent in the SSBN.

Thus, despite the mass of work lasting several decades, China has only now been able to create a full-fledged maritime component of the nuclear triad. The result will be the emergence of a new deterrent factor, directed against potential adversaries. At the same time, however, China declares no first use of nuclear weapons, and also does not intend to use them against non-nuclear countries. In the light of such statements, the list of countries that should take into account the new Chinese SSBNs consists of only a few paragraphs. Therefore, nuclear powers should take into account the recent successes of China and draw appropriate conclusions.

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© Collage: Voice of Russia
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  1. Stiletto
    Stiletto 28 November 2013 09: 11
    "Therefore, the nuclear powers should take into account the recent successes of China and draw appropriate conclusions."

    Yes, the conclusion is simple: if you want peace - para bellum.
    1. Canep
      Canep 28 November 2013 10: 14
      If there are three centers of power in the world, then such a construction of the world order will become very unstable. The leaders of all three powers will suspect their colleagues of a secret alliance against it. This situation already led to the 2nd World War, then there were the USSR, Great Britain and Germany. All three signed between themselves some pieces of paper and everyone suspected each other of a secret alliance, the result of 55 million corpses.
      1. Thunderbolt
        Thunderbolt 28 November 2013 17: 59
        the world is heading towards bipolarity, the task of Russia is to prepare for a strategic geopolitical jump, come on, Misha, you can if you want. (The attacking bear overtakes any horse at the final attack distance, PY!)
  2. lotar
    lotar 28 November 2013 10: 02
    Most likely, a war awaits us in the future. It does not matter what the reason for the far-fetched or dictated necessity is, the main thing is that it will affect the fate of many people. I hope that by that time, despite all the embezzlers and other criminals, our country will be able to defend its wealth, and then multiply them. Notice by the main asset, I do not mean natural resources, but people living in this country.
  3. pahom54
    pahom54 28 November 2013 10: 18
    Yes, you don’t have to be a wise guy here, so as not to see how China forces an increase in its offensive power. I emphasize - it’s offensive, and it personally bothers me personally, I don’t know if it worries DAM and GDP. China’s claims to different islets are a game, a test of strength, an analysis of the reaction of probable opponents ... Note that there is no mention of claims to Russian territories loudly, and this worries me even more.
    It is quite obvious that our rulers need to carefully review the military doctrine, the main enemy has long moved from West to East, no matter how much they talk about friendship and how many joint projects they build ... China is dangerous, very dangerous primarily for Russia , because he has a deadlock with his population, and Russia has attractive territories and resources.
    I will express the opinion of a purely kitchen politician: it is now necessary first of all to strengthen the Russian Far East and the emerging army Arctic groups, that is, protecting the Far East and the North Arctic is a task of paramount importance. And Europe, being fueled by the United States, is not as dangerous as China, even taken together. The morale of Eurostat soldiers is incomparable with the morale of Chinese warriors.
    1. ed65b
      ed65b 28 November 2013 19: 25
      Quote: pahom54
      fighting spirit of the Chinese warriors.

      Tell me dumb, where did they show this fighting spirit WHERE ?????? a movie about Jackie Chan. laughing
      1. pahom54
        pahom54 29 November 2013 12: 46
        for ed65b
        Not so much was expressed ... Not fighting spirit, but frenzy and desire to master the vast expanses of the world, multiplied by millions of people who want to live better than now ...
    2. timer
      timer 28 November 2013 23: 11
      It’s bad both to overdo it and not to do it. There is no need to panic. Yes, China, as a steam locomotive in a song, runs ahead. And Russia stands. This is very bad, since we have little time left for reorganization. We need to follow both of China and deal with , within the framework of the defense strategy, by building up a barrier both on the border and on China itself. To develop the industry of the Far East and Primorye, to attract human resources of indigenous nationalities to work with various incentives, to oust the Chinese from our territory under various pretexts (only do it smartly and cunningly) to strengthen the Northern Fleet and the land group, in China itself to support the Russian diaspora, increase the interest of the Chinese in Russian culture, language, develop Russian business in China. Our intelligence actively interferes with the Chinese in the development of promising defense technologies. The essence is to act in 3 directions.
  4. ed65b
    ed65b 28 November 2013 11: 46
    The commissioning of all five planned submarines will result in up to 60 ballistic missiles being on duty at a time

    What right is it that all 5 boats are year-round and will be on duty? bullshit full.
    The author relies on rumors, “there are rumors, there are rumors and toothless old women are spreading them in the corners” there are rumors that the devil himself is in the service of the United States, and in Altai they found a Bigfoot, and you also have gas in your apartment?
  5. Romanychby
    Romanychby 28 November 2013 14: 36
    Maloriki Chinese, Th:) They lifted the country and now begin to feel the neighbors: who is capable of what. The main thing is not to miss the liver;)
  6. indiggo
    indiggo 28 November 2013 15: 12
    not everything is so rosy for the Chinese, they built boats, but these submarines do not go on duty so far, and they are unlikely to go soon. they have problems ... so for now this is purely arbitrary.
    1. andr327
      andr327 28 November 2013 20: 44
      problems, alas, not only with the Chinese, but also with us. "Bulava" is somewhere in the state of fine-tuning, and the strategic aviators are not at the level, and the Strategic Missile Forces are mainly on duty at the old Topols and Satan. Rearmament is not proceeding by leaps and bounds. For 2014, there are only 22 new missiles (not enough even for one division).
      The Americans are on duty at the Minutemen from the 80s of the last century, and nothing new is really visible.
      So the Chinese are moving at a good pace. Their progress is significant. And it becomes dangerous to laugh at their problems, they solve them. They now have a base in electronics, and in mechanical engineering, and they have the personnel to solve problems.
      1. POBEDA
        POBEDA 1 December 2013 02: 37
        And it doesn’t matter when the poplars with the minuteries are made. They carry out their tasks and that’s enough! After all, you don’t care whether you are banged from a gun or from a gun printed on a 3D laser-guided printer. The result is one!
  7. voliador
    voliador 28 November 2013 20: 49
    All of those. problems can be solved. Of course this is time, but if there is a desire and means, it is feasible. And the Chinese have both.
  8. chunga-changa
    chunga-changa 28 November 2013 22: 11
    Submarines with nuclear missiles are not threatening us. We are threatened by tank divisions and those "not-bad" RSD JL-1A, so less panic, let's turn on the brain. Go to Siberia, Transbaikalia and the Far East, live there for at least a couple of years, I'll tell you that paradise. Then live in central china. And everything will fall into place, but it is better to live in a booth in a normal warm climate than seriously aiming for permanent residence in the vastness of our homeland north of Baikal. Normal people live in China, and they think in a more southerly direction, at least Kazakhstan, and even better America, where there are ten times more of them than we have. Have you heard what America would be worried about this? Look, they are preparing to fight seriously.
    1. Asan Ata
      Asan Ata 29 November 2013 00: 16
      No guys, we have 100 degrees winter-summer difference, it’s better to go to Africa, well, they’re on) (er. stop
  9. uzer 13
    uzer 13 28 November 2013 23: 33
    In China, such work to improve military equipment is carried out sequentially and brings results.
  10. dv-v
    dv-v 29 November 2013 04: 36
    no, well, we got it already "I look in the book and I don't see anything but a fig")):

    - 23t per 8000km? Poseidon, before the tridents, 60-70gg development with 30t of weight 5600km maximum range. who is there who and what nae ...?

    Yes, or Trident-1 from 32t to 7400 - I have not heard something about the tremendous successes of Chinese chemists and manufacturers in this area.

    - cool know-how, straightforwardly simple and logical - solid fuel and liquid stage on one rocket, in one pu: different temperature and other operating conditions, storage conditions. I will be very surprised if this will not burn, explode and sink.
  11. sawmill
    sawmill 29 November 2013 05: 09
    Neighbor China in the 21 century will be safer than Germany's neighbor in 20.
    If we draw historical parallels, then Germany and I had a period of kissing in a hickey, large volumes of trade, the training of their pilots and tankers in our schools.
    Now with China the same story.
    But there is a difference. In the prewar years, the country managed to create models of weapons that predetermined victory, and industry was created that could produce these weapons in sufficient quantities. In general, the country was preparing for the inevitable war.
    Can we now consider what is happening in our country a preparation for the inevitable war with China?
    Or have we surrendered already?
  12. mvg
    mvg 2 December 2013 20: 29
    the voivode weighs under 200 tons, even a little more, and the mace is 80 and flies up to 10 tons, does Mei China throw sparrows? here on the site there was an opinion that 092 was standing at the pier, because they are afraid to let out whether fanaticoff is not enough, especially in China it’s restless, there are 2 parties that are fighting for power