Military Review

Mine war on the roads of Chechnya

51
Mine war on the roads of Chechnya

The lingering nature of the hostilities in Chechnya, the specifics of their conduct, the instability of the situation, the peculiarities of the physical-geographical conditions and even the national ones directly influence the nature and extent of the mine warfare. If, at the stage of bringing in troops and conducting active battles for the city of Grozny and other settlements of Chechnya, from December 1994 to summer 1995, mine-blasting barriers were used by illegal armed groups (IAF) in rare cases, mines were installed unprofessionally and even without fuses , then from July – August of 1995, mining operations became significantly more active.


In the classical understanding of a mine war involves the use of mines unlimited in scale, place, time and type of hostilities. In Chechnya, it has a number of features.

1. Instead of the traditional minefields, which form the basis of the classical barrier system, guided and unguided land mines, individual mines and groups of mines, as well as hand grenades mounted on braces, are the most common.

2. The bulk of the mine-explosive barriers were placed on the roads, so the road mine war was fought first of all.

3. The main means of warfare are not engineering mines, as usual, but artillery and aviation ammunition, hand grenades, adapted using improvised means for use as landmines, traps.

4. The impulsive nature of mine warfare, the dependence of the activity of the illegal armed formations on mining on the military-political conditions, the nature of the actions of federal forces, weather conditions.


The main parameters of a mine war are characterized by the volume of mine-explosive obstacles. These volumes consisted of mines, land mines and other explosive devices used by the illegal armed groups and federal troops, as well as from those unexploded explosive objects and abandoned ammunition that remained after the hostilities.

The federal troops set up mine-blast barriers only to cover base areas, roadblocks and important objects. As a rule, these are controlled minefields from the sets UMP-3, VKPM-1 and VKPM-2. In rare cases - minefields from mines of OZM-72 in unmanaged version. All barriers were carefully fixed.

Illegal armed formations established mainly landmines and individual mines, sometimes primitive anti-personnel and mixed minefields (in the areas of settlements of Bamut, Argun, etc.), whose true volumes are difficult to estimate. At the same time, the number of land mines and mines found, as well as the number of explosions on them, characterizes the scale of the mine war. The analysis shows that the maximum number of explosions occurs in July, September, November 1995, and the minimum - in January, 1996. Of the total number of explosions per year, about 30 percent are on grenades with banners, installed by their troops.


Along with the quantitative increase in the use of illegal armed formations of mine-explosive barriers (MVZ), there has been a significant improvement in the quality of the means used. These facts indicate that the enemy has reached a new level of mine warfare.

Unexploded explosive objects (GP) pose a serious danger to troops and civilians. These include dropped aerial bombs and ammunition that have passed the bore, for some reason did not work, as well as left in the firing positions and field depots ammunition, not powered. The entire territory of Chechnya, especially those areas where active hostilities were conducted, is literally packed with explosive objects. Their volumes can be characterized to some extent by the number of GPs found and destroyed, although the intensity of this task is different and depends on the situation.

We give the following data. The units and subunits of the engineering troops explored and cleared 54 thousand hectares; 1060 buildings and structures; 793 facility (in the interests of 16 ministries and departments); 780 km of power lines; 775 km of roads.

Total discovered and destroyed: 11600 engineering mines; 99200 artillery shells; 75400 mortar mines; 1280 ATGM; 86500 grenade; 195 aerial bombs; 195925 other GPs.
These figures characterize the scale of the mine war on the roads of Chechnya, indicate a great danger to the troops and the civilian population, show the urgent need for active counteraction and to minimize losses in personnel and equipment.



For the mining of roads, illegal armed formations used guided and uncontrolled land mines, anti-tank and anti-personnel mines. For example, in the period 11 of July to 8 of August 1996, 85 of land mines were used against federal forces, of which 76 were detected and neutralized by sappers. Preference was given to wire-driven land mines for defeating military equipment and personnel of the assault force on armor.

The bomb usually consisted of one or more artillery (aircraft) ammunition, electric detonator, additional detonator and control line (Fig.1). They were installed on the side of the road at a distance from 2 to 8 m from the roadway. During the explosion, a powerful fragmentation flow and an air shock wave were formed, inflicting damage to personnel in a radius of up to 70 m. In some cases, the explosion completely disabled the equipment and crew.

Most land mines were installed on the ground surface or in the ground with a camouflage layer thickness from 5 to 20. Sometimes they were hiding in a broken, burnt vehicle thrown on the side of the road. As the control line of the explosion is usually used wire control lines from the ATGM. The distance from the place where the gunman was watching the road and choosing the target was up to 500 m.

On the mountain roads of the illegal armed groups, landmines were planted in the crowns of trees growing near the road (22 percent of explosions of the total number for the period of hostilities in the Czech Republic) or on rocky slopes near the road (fig.2). With the explosion of such land mines amazed personnel in the radius 6 – 8 m.

To prevent the advancement of federal troops along the channels of mountain rivers, the enemy often used land mines and anti-tank mines set up in water.

In localities, illegal armed formations often used controlled land mines, driven by a working electrical network. In the roadway they put (as a rule, in an non-removable position) a charge of mass 5 – 10 kg. In located on the pole of the electric lighting, the ceiling was mounted fragmentation mine (Fig.3). The control lines led to the power plates and detachable devices of electrical networks. At the entrance of the equipment of the federal troops in the affected area, voltage was applied to the electric detonator. Explosion of a landmine hit the technique and personnel in the radius 4 – 8 m.

As a rule, landmines were covered by small-arms fire. weaponstherefore, the works on their neutralization were difficult and dangerous. The commanders of engineering and sapper units, which ensured the conduct of hostilities, successfully carried out the task of demining roads. Some officers have in their account more than ten landfills of an illegal armed formation. High professional training of sappers, and first of all commanders of subdivisions, made it possible to successfully ensure the passage of convoys of troops.
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  1. axay032
    axay032 29 November 2013 06: 43 New
    11
    What kind of article is this? Instructions for the manufacture and installation of landmines? The editors of the site you at least see what you print!
    1. Canep
      Canep 29 November 2013 12: 38 New
      +3
      That's for sure. And they didn’t write how to make explosives out of aluminum powder and diesel fuel, How to make an electric detonator, and so that it explodes from a cell phone ringing. Dear administrators, please do not publish teaching materials for terrorists. Well, at least the level of this information can be described as amateurish.
      1. MAG
        MAG 29 November 2013 12: 56 New
        10
        Do not panic about anything secret in the article. All this is in nete and in more detail who needs it will find. Regarding the mining of roads, those roads that are not controlled at night or their length is too long are mined. Landmines on trees are for armored infantry, if in the mountains, then for reconnaissance and not an experienced signalman in the group (which is immediately treated with p ... no). Anti-probe mines were launched on sappers, and yes, they were mainly controlled to accurately and for sure, and therefore the most important thing on the road is speed — how many people we flew around the corners)))))
        1. Canep
          Canep 29 November 2013 15: 25 New
          +1
          Quote: MAG
          On sappers, tactile mines and yes mostly controlled

          Only managed. For the operation of a probe fuse, you need electricity (taken from the control circuit) in an autonomous mine with electricity there will be problems.
          1. MAG
            MAG 29 November 2013 16: 28 New
            +2
            You know better)) you have your own subtleties. What I saw, I’m writing)) 2 grids with wires to the battery through some kind of turbidity to an electric fuse in 120 minutes and under it there’s no withdrawal. I went to ird for sappers and a dog .. I (with all due respect to them) spied something)))
            1. GEORGY RUSSIAN
              GEORGY RUSSIAN 11 January 2014 13: 41 New
              0
              I also walked many kilometers along the roads, with engineering intelligence. A good school. But do not describe the device in more detail. No need.
          2. GEORGY RUSSIAN
            GEORGY RUSSIAN 11 January 2014 13: 40 New
            0
            will not, the battery "crown" holds the voltage for a long time. But there are options that are simpler and more reliable, it all depends on the power consumption in standby mode.
      2. GEORGY RUSSIAN
        GEORGY RUSSIAN 11 January 2014 13: 35 New
        0
        amateurism, these are the methods described by you. Forget about it, you will burn yourself in production.
      3. bask
        bask 11 January 2014 14: 02 New
        0
        Quote: Canep
        teaching materials for terrorists.

        They already know everything.
        And they cook them (Wahhabis) not from books or on the internet ...
        And the NATO Arab and Turkish experts ... bombers.
        And usually in terrorist training camps abroad.
    2. GEORGY RUSSIAN
      GEORGY RUSSIAN 11 January 2014 13: 33 New
      0
      what embarrassed you here, there aren’t any instructions here, the situation and methods of guerrilla warfare at that time are simply described. Here, if they described the methods by which traps were made with the aim of destroying the reconnaissance commander in motion, or manufacturing a homemade detonator that would fire from touch, or an explosive device that detects light, etc., then resent.
  2. antibanukurayza
    antibanukurayza 29 November 2013 07: 54 New
    +3
    You are right ahau032, before that I did not know anything about the methods and tactics of installing land mines, but now I know :) There is no guarantee that a potential terraryuga does not look at your site and does not get "useful" knowledge from there.
    1. fartfraer
      fartfraer 29 November 2013 08: 32 New
      18
      what is he right in that even before this article on the site terrorists set mines and svu in this way? wake up, all this has long been known))) poor fellow, I suggest you not write in Russian so that terrorists do not learn the alphabet and did not comprehend the essence of the Russian spirit)) funny children, the right word
      1. GEORGY RUSSIAN
        GEORGY RUSSIAN 11 January 2014 13: 44 New
        0
        All field terrorist commanders were trained according to our charters and with our instructors, so they don’t know the Russian spirit by hearsay. Let them see what we know about the Russian spirit soldier
    2. washi
      washi 29 November 2013 12: 12 New
      +2
      Quote: antibanukuraza
      You are right ahau032, before that I did not know anything about the methods and tactics of installing land mines, but now I know :) There is no guarantee that a potential terraryuga does not look at your site and does not get "useful" knowledge from there.

      Terrorists and military know. And use. That's not all.
      Unfortunately, our military began to recall the experience of the Second World War, Angola, and Afghanistan only after heavy losses.
      1. Pehmore
        Pehmore 19 January 2014 00: 45 New
        0
        Unfortunately, you are right, the experience was not even taken into account in Afghanistan, although it was very difficult to get at least the first experimental Italian mines in Angola, to extract, to describe. They knew. They knew back in 77.
  3. Ddhal
    Ddhal 29 November 2013 07: 57 New
    0
    Mines - a shame on humanity. The most vile weapon ..
    1. kagorta
      kagorta 29 November 2013 09: 19 New
      +4
      I do not agree, mines are weapons of weak versus strong.
      1. Ddhal
        Ddhal 29 November 2013 11: 13 New
        +4
        You say "weapons of the weak against the strong" ....
    2. DimychDV
      DimychDV 29 November 2013 10: 36 New
      +1
      And Princess Diana thought so. And where is she now? ..
    3. rodz
      rodz 29 November 2013 20: 58 New
      +4
      you are not quite right ... the fact is that you confuse mine weapons installed as defensive weapons and subversive land mines used by terrorists ...
      the fact is that a mine in itself will not hurt anyone if you do not try to cross the line that it guards ... and terrorist bombings of various explosive devices have nothing to do with mines as such ...
      1. GastaClaus69
        GastaClaus69 29 November 2013 22: 52 New
        +2
        The same can be said for example about the machine. He can be held in the hands of both a psychopathic terrorist and a disciplined soldier.
        It doesn’t kill weapons; people kill!
  4. mirag2
    mirag2 29 November 2013 07: 58 New
    +5
    That's interesting.
    Yes, in fact, everything that is described here is understandable intuitively. And when there is a desire to install a land mine so that as many people as possible would suffer, then you can not think of such "terrible" schemes yourself.
    So the article is a plus!
    And so, now on the weapons site do not discuss automation schemes, for example?
    1. DimychDV
      DimychDV 29 November 2013 10: 39 New
      +2
      On May 9 in Kizlyar, about 10 years ago, or something, during the ceremonial passage, the MONK worked - so they almost died halfway ... Then they found all the witnesses - they installed something in a bush ... of a well-known person ... A military city, and nobody thought of cops or sappers to call.
      1. combat192
        combat192 29 November 2013 10: 56 New
        +5
        ДимычДВ RU Today, 10: 39 ↑ New
        On May 9 in Kizlyar, about 10 years ago, or something, during the ceremonial passage, the MONK worked - so they almost died halfway ... Then they found all the witnesses - they installed something in a bush ... of a well-known person ... A military city, and nobody thought of cops or sappers to call.

        2002 Kaspiysk.
  5. makarov
    makarov 29 November 2013 08: 19 New
    +4
    Quote: DDHAL
    Mines - a shame on humanity. The most vile weapon ..


    I completely agree with you, but it should be recognized that it’s very effective.
  6. ed65b
    ed65b 29 November 2013 09: 13 New
    +1
    In addition to installing mines and landmines with spirits, a good reference point was taken for undermining by radio signal as a sight for example a pillar or tree. The main thing in the formidable as the seasoned used to say is not to go but to drive at full speed with a particularly lonely car. then even with a blast there is a chance to stay alive.
    1. 31231
      31231 29 November 2013 19: 58 New
      +2
      A friend in Chechnya in columns fell a couple of times under the side. Well, at least in armor it was a mechanic. And as a guide, he said they had a sweetie with a bright candy wrapper. Or a bright subject. So he saw the sweets twice and managed to pull his head into the behi armor.
  7. Professor
    Professor 29 November 2013 09: 50 New
    +1
    MRIs do not cope very well with this threat. It is a pity that they were not in Chechnya.
    1. Saburov
      Saburov 29 November 2013 11: 08 New
      +6
      Professor can’t cope with 152mm land mines, MRAP will wind up like a rag, there, even Merkava’s rollers will be torn off, it’s most of the 152mm land mines that were used to blow up the columns.
      1. cth; fyn
        cth; fyn 29 November 2013 12: 07 New
        +4
        but still, whatever one may say, mine protection is needed, by the way, this may not be the notorious MRAP, but for example, good provision with engineering troops, radio signal suppressors, skating rinks, drones, cellular bottoms of cars they invented a lot of things, but they use little.
        1. washi
          washi 29 November 2013 12: 14 New
          +2
          Nobody canceled the dogs
      2. Professor
        Professor 29 November 2013 12: 22 New
        +2
        MRAPs hold up to 25 kg of trotyl (not all of course) and Merkava is not MRAP, but against 100 kg of landmine there is no passive protection. However, this does not mean that it is necessary to neglect protection against IEDs weighing 10-20 kg.
        1. Canep
          Canep 29 November 2013 12: 54 New
          +4
          Good to you Professor! Your MRAP is just an armored truck. If you saw an explosion of 25 kg of TNT, you would not argue that MRAP can withstand it. Here I somehow came across pictures of a car that withstood the explosion of 226 kg.
          And I got the impression that the fighters simply dismantled it and scattered parts, the paint as if it had just been from the factory, the tanks are not dented, the engine crankcase, not a single trace of the explosion, and there is no funnel with a diameter of 15 meters. But the explosion of 7 kg under the tank:

          Here we have a twisted metal of a crumpled casing, is distorted by a cut and a funnel of 2-3 m in diameter.
          1. Professor
            Professor 29 November 2013 18: 49 New
            0
            Quote: Canep
            Your MRAP is just an armored truck. If you saw an explosion of 25 kg of TNT, you would not argue that MRAP can withstand it.

            It would not be bad if he was mine. Nevertheless, 21 kg holds:

            Armored car Mbombe 6x6
            In other words, Mbombe can withstand an explosion of 10 kg of TNT anywhere under the body or under any wheel, provide protection against IEDs with a capacity of 50 kg of TNT at a distance of 5 meters from the epicenter of the explosion.
            The Marauder can withstand 8 kg TNT under the chassis and 14 kg TNT under any wheel.
            Matador can withstand 14 kg TNT under the chassis and 21 kg TNT under any wheel.
            Mbombe can withstand 10 kg TNT under the chassis and 10 kg TNT under any wheel.

            Quote: Canep
            Here I somehow came across pictures of a car that withstood the explosion of 226 kg.

            I doubt that there was 226 kg, I saw that I made a land mine weighing 150 kg with Merkava ...
            1. Firstvanguard
              Firstvanguard 29 November 2013 23: 15 New
              -1
              MRAP holds up to 25 kg of TNT

              they also hold a vertically delivered grenade from RPG-7 ??
              The Marauder can withstand 8 kg TNT under the chassis and 14 kg TNT under any wheel.
              Matador can withstand 14 kg TNT under the chassis and 21 kg TNT under any wheel.
              Mbombe can withstand 10 kg TNT under the chassis and 10 kg TNT under any wheel.

              Fresh food, yes ....... with difficulty wassat It is much simpler and cheaper to come up with a handicraft method to entomotent entrap MRI. hi
              1. Professor
                Professor 29 November 2013 23: 19 New
                +2
                Quote: Firstvanguard
                they also hold a vertically delivered grenade from RPG-7 ??

                They also do not hold a tactical nuclear charge, but the fact is that these MPs saved more than a dozen lives.
          2. 31231
            31231 29 November 2013 20: 03 New
            +2
            It is only with the Jews that tanks carry one and a half tons of land mines.
            Although I as an industrial bomb, I will connect the NLD with the VLD on the Carrot kilograms from 60-80 explosives.
          3. APASUS
            APASUS 1 December 2013 21: 04 New
            0
            Quote: Canep
            And I got the impression that the fighters simply dismantled it and scattered parts, the paint as if it had just been from the factory, the tanks are not dented, the engine crankcase, not a single trace of the explosion, and there is no funnel with a diameter of 15 meters.

            The engine flew away and all the pipes remained !! Here are the clowns !!
          4. bask
            bask 11 January 2014 14: 14 New
            0
            Quote: Canep
            Here I somehow came across pictures of a car that withstood the explosion of 226 kg.

            Sapper:this is complete.
            Here is the detonation of the head MRI in Afghanistan M-ATV Oshkosg 150 kg in t / e.
            From MDI, one piece.
            MCI 2 is designed to undermine up to 10 kg in heat / power, under the hull. NATO standards.
            In South Africa, up to 25 kg in t / e (maybe South African people lie all as one.
            M-ATV after an explosion of 150 kg.
    2. tchoni
      tchoni 29 November 2013 13: 24 New
      +1
      There was no patch. Abizhash ..... Fedral, of course not MPAP in the full sense of the word, but even so ...
    3. bask
      bask 30 November 2013 00: 25 New
      +1
      Quote: Professor
      RAPs are not very bad at coping with this threat. It is a pity that they were not in Chechnya.

      Although, it was known in advance that the bearded will actively use mining and the installation of landmines.
      There was an experience of war in Afghanistan and Angola, Zimbabwe.
      In Angola, South Africa, actively using MRAP, by our specialists, such vehicles were captured and studied, but no conclusions were drawn. And the soldiers continued to die in the unarmored Urals and KamAZ trucks.
      There is no ideal defense against mines, but if, they began the construction of the MDI in the 80s with the USSR, it was possible to save many thousands of lives.
      1. bask
        bask 30 November 2013 00: 32 New
        0
        MPCV Buffalo.

        Y.Rhodesia ,, Crocodile ..

        Classics of the casspir genre

        And dozens more models.
    4. GEORGY RUSSIAN
      GEORGY RUSSIAN 11 January 2014 13: 48 New
      0
      Who are MDIs?
  8. KEKS44
    KEKS44 29 November 2013 10: 59 New
    +1
    Mines, land mines - a terrible thing, but cheap and cheerful. You don’t know where it lies and when it will explode. I remember that in the Chechen Republic in 2006, MCP 291 SMEs (for example, Borzoi, Shatoisky district) conducted IRD. Czechs radio-controlled land mine exploded - 125 mm shell. Three people - two fighters and an officer died. What remained of them after the explosion fit on one raincoat tent.
  9. cth; fyn
    cth; fyn 29 November 2013 12: 10 New
    +5
    I fundamentally disagree with the statement that mines are the weapons of the weak, mines are an effective and terrible weapon and are used by all and sundry, and even such calls as our Army, the Chinese Army, the American Army, but it’s impossible to call them weak because they may well destroy our little planet, each individually.
    1. KEKS44
      KEKS44 29 November 2013 12: 46 New
      +3
      Quote: cth; fyn
      I fundamentally disagree with the statement that mines are weapons of the weak

      I completely agree. In modern warfare, without them, nothing at all, neither strong nor weak.
    2. GastaClaus69
      GastaClaus69 29 November 2013 22: 44 New
      +1
      It is just necessary to be more responsible for mine clearance after the end of hostilities, it is too painful for civilians to suffer from them.
  10. Monster_Fat
    Monster_Fat 29 November 2013 12: 32 New
    0
    Yes, what was so "secret" that the author published that the "fearful" ones immediately began to complain? The use of land mines is shown in much more detail in the well-known film "The Lord of the Storm".
  11. Aleks tv
    Aleks tv 29 November 2013 13: 26 New
    +5
    Mines in themselves are terrible weapons.
    Surprise and suspense, here are the criteria for their effectiveness.
    When installing them, the most sophisticated fantasy is used.

    In the mountains there is still a fuva cloud.

    One of the troubles was an explosion on their own ammunition.
    The feds passed - they set.
    VV-shniki passed - delivered.
    Passed GRU-shniki - set.
    Specialists passed - set.

    Bookmark cards were handed over to their maximum ... under the jurisdiction of the ministries.
    Those. the feds could follow the route of specialists and fall into established traps ...
    Not to mention the intrigues of the Czechs themselves.

    For a long time there will still be an "echo", unfortunately.
    1. Canep
      Canep 29 November 2013 15: 29 New
      +5
      Quote: Aleks tv
      The feds passed - they set.
      VV-shniki passed - delivered.
      Passed GRU-shniki - set.
      Specialists passed - set.

      Then after the fight, these brave guys went for medals and orders, and sappers went to take off all these gifts, you will not see them in the queue for tzatsk.
      1. Aleks tv
        Aleks tv 29 November 2013 15: 48 New
        +6
        Quote: Canep
        and the sappers went to remove all these gifts, you will not see them in the queue for the tsatskis.

        For sappers - a separate RESPECT. It has always been, is and will be.
        And not just mine clearance.
        These are working bees, they plow like Papa Carlo ... whose war, whose not war, they always have a Job.
  12. tchoni
    tchoni 29 November 2013 13: 28 New
    +1
    These are especially suspicious uncles. In mine blasting, you can download entire instructions from the Internet.
  13. antikilller55
    antikilller55 29 November 2013 15: 34 New
    +1
    In other films, they show more and more interesting than described in the article. The author didn’t write anything terrible, who needs it and doesn’t find it ... Mines and snipers are most apprehensive ...
  14. qwert1707
    qwert1707 30 November 2013 21: 43 New
    0
    My company told me that in the first Chechen ... When they changed their location ... why didn’t they buried them in the ground ... from trotillus to high-explosive shells ... and then they themselves were blown up ...
    He himself had to deal with the undermining of the funeral in Ingushetia in 2007 ... the fuse was made from a syringe ...
    But besides mines ... while still at work, I came across a non-detonating shot from the seven, grenades from the grenade launcher, AGS ... mortar mines ... which is no less dangerous than specially installed mines ...
  15. La-5
    La-5 1 December 2013 17: 58 New
    0
    Our armored personnel carriers held mines and land mines quite well, which cannot be said about the BMP.
  16. The comment was deleted.
  17. Nikolai N
    Nikolai N 5 December 2013 23: 05 New
    0
    Glory to the native Engineer Engineer Troops. When I didn’t get into the Navy but got into the Sappers, I experienced it first and then I understood. Glory to the Minesweepers
  18. Ulairy
    Ulairy 11 January 2014 22: 16 New
    0
    Something I didn’t get it again, what ... are you discussing on the site? TTX min? Basics of creating a minefield? Or an article about recognition mined plots? I remember, during my service, ten explosive sappers for life sappers paid for the passage of one pathos vest on the armor with the AKS on the bend of the elbow ...