Events in the North Caucasus are developing clearly not according to the Kremlin scenario. The coveted and promised peace to the peoples in connection with the upcoming Olympic Games in Sochi did not come, although the bandits in the forests and mountains are pressed in full. The region is literally flooded with internal troops and police, operations follow one after the other. However, the thundering series of explosions in Volgograd and Makhachkala, the incessant shelling and killing of representatives of the authorities once again convince us that terrorism has long left the forests and mountain caves, stepped onto the streets of cities and more and more often comes to our homes.
Behind any terrorist attack is always a specific idea. In the forest and the mountains never go for the money, because there are actually suicide bombers, and they do not need the dead. Another thing - for the idea. The leaders of terrorist organizations are obsessed with the idea, usually associated with the seizure of power. The current North Caucasian terrorism (“jihad” I will only name it in quotes) is no exception, it also has a specific end goal. This is the formation of a world caliphate - a theocratic state based on Sharia. Even during the Wahhabi aggression in Dagestan in August 1999, its organizers and commanders Khattab, Shamil Basayev and local religious fanatic Bagautdin Magomedov clearly stated their goal - a single Islamic state from sea to sea (Black and Caspian) with further access to Russian open spaces. Freed from the power of kafirs, the Caucasian peoples will live according to the laws of the prophet, and the leaders of the militants promised to the fallen "soldiers of Allah" a direct road to paradise. Power on earth and the death reward in the other world are the driving mechanism of the self-proclaimed “jihad.”
It would seem that there is nothing easier to realize that terrorism in the North Caucasus is primarily religious in nature. The days of the “fighters for independent Ichkeria”, which will become a member of the UN, have passed, will open embassies near the White House and the Champs Elysees and will issue a freely convertible currency depicting a wolf. The current ones do not want to integrate into the global world, but to remake it according to fundamentalist canons, to destroy the godless Russia and the West. However, with the recognition of this fact, we have problems - either because of incorrectly understood political correctness, or because of a lack of understanding of the essence of things.
Terrorists are not millionaires
For example, the current commander in all respects of the joint grouping of troops (forces) in the North Caucasus region, Lieutenant-General Sergey Melikov believes that terrorism on the territory operatively subordinate to him has no religious overtones.
In an interview, he said: “Many refer to the ideology of Wahhabism. But I think that the determining factor is enrichment. Extortion, blackmail, kidnapping for ransom are the traditional gangster methods of gain. Religious ideas are just a convenient cover for true motives and an effective way to recruit young people. In most cases, ordinary mountaineers replenish the ranks of gangs also for mercenary motives: there is no place to work in the villages, and families need to be fed - they agree to carry out simple tasks for the so-called fighters for the faith first, and then simply fall into the trap. ”
From the words of the general, it turns out that the majority of bandits are unemployed poor people, even without criminal tendencies. They do not realize the dangers and unlawful nature of their actions, just big children who went to the forest to work. It is worth explaining to them that they are wrong, how they will add up. weapon and return to peaceful constructive labor.
Partly the commander of a group of rights: among the bandits there are indeed misguided, deceived, desperate, but they do not constitute the backbone of illegal armed groups, shoot to the end, prefer to blow themselves up with the call "Allah Akbar" surrender. They receive not so much money, as emissaries and recruiters promise, and willingly repeat some anti-terror specialists. Actually, life in a gang is hunger, cold, hardship, death and fear.
More soberly, in my opinion, the Minister of Internal Affairs of Dagestan, Major General of Police Abdurashid Magomedov, assesses the situation. He explicitly admits: "One of the main reasons for the outflow of young people to the forest is the religious illiteracy of the population." The Minister notes: “People, especially young people, are greatly influenced by those who have received spiritual education abroad. Foreign countries generally have a strange effect on many. We have repeatedly faced a situation where quite law-abiding citizens loyal to the state, who went abroad to study at Islamic universities, return home completely different, with a system of values and attitudes alien to Dagestan. Among those who take up arms, a significant number of graduates of religious schools in Egypt, Syria, Pakistan. "
The problem of terrorism lies primarily in the realm of unfulfilled Muslims' religious inquiries or their distorted understanding of the essence of Islam, says Magomedrasul Saaduyev, one of the influential spiritual leaders of Dagestan, imam of the Makhachkala mosque. In his opinion, it was precisely the religious illiteracy of the population that became the breeding ground for the spread of any pseudo-religions and pseudo-ideologies. After all, the very idea of a world caliphate, in all honesty, for the modern civilized person sounds like pure nonsense. All people, nations and races are different, they cannot be adjusted to the same denominator by force and fear.
The Imam suggests a way out: “Pseudo-ideology based on pseudo-religion can be defeated only by a true ideology based on true religion. What is necessary to expand the network of basic Islamic educational institutions: institutions, universities, which need to attract competent scholars from Arab countries, pay them a decent salary. The state should support and spread the truth about religion. ”
Judging by the latest statements of the current head of Dagestan, Ramazan Abdulatipov, he fully agrees with Magomedrasul Saaduyev. Recently, Abdulatipov decided to build an Islamic educational center and to ban the departure of residents of the republic for religious studies abroad.
Despite the opposition of the security forces and local authorities, the construction of an Islamic educational center in Kabardino-Balkaria, where the bandit underground is very active, is in full swing. “I am surprised when our intelligentsia, some residents of the republic all the time say why and who needs this center, are outraged by the construction. I am convinced that the evil that is happening now, we will win only with knowledge, ”the rector of the center under construction, Sharafutdin Chochayev, comments on attempts by certain forces to freeze the construction site.
These belated steps by the authorities cause the distrust of many citizens, including those in highly responsible positions in power structures. The main reason for fear of any manifestation of faith is the atheism that has been planted for decades. Today, its fruits have appeared everywhere, including the so-called Russian Wahhabism, which it is time to recognize as a phenomenon and study. In my opinion, its essence can be explained briefly: a holy place is never empty. If a void is formed in the soul of a person as a result of the expulsion of God from there, it will be filled with pseudo-religion, whether it is Wahhabism or Satanism.
"Know the truth"
How were religious issues resolved in the old days, especially during the period when the Russians conquered and conquered the Caucasus? After all, then there was an imamate led by Shamil Gimrynsky.
The governor of the king in the Caucasus, General Alexei Yermolov, highly appreciated the role of religion in the task entrusted to him - bringing the tribes and peoples inhabiting the Caucasus under the monarch's hand. He was convinced of the power of faith, knew well history the region and believed that the enlightenment of the highlanders with the light of truth would have been able to soften their mores and hearts. Before the eyes of Yermolov there was an example of Alexander Kazem-bek. An Azeri by nationality, but most likely a Kumyk (of Tatar origin), he was the son of Astrakhan who was exiled under Astrakhan for his relationship with the rebels of the Derbent sheikh. Under the influence of Scottish missionaries, he adopted the Christianity of the Presbyterian Church, became one of Europe's largest scholars, orientalists and turkologists, the first dean of the Faculty of Oriental Languages at St. Petersburg University. Until the end of his days, Alexander did not get tired of thanking Yermolov for helping him determine his choice of path.
By and large, Islam came to the Caucasus not so long ago, especially in the western part, it retains formal characteristics, and the ancestors of many mountain peoples were Christians. So the project of Yermolov for the Christianization of the Caucasus was not so utopian as it seemed at first glance. But the initiatives of the general did not find understanding in the Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church.
The Orthodox general never fought Islam as a religion, treated it with due respect, clearly distinguished the traditional and destructive current. Renowned researcher Yuri Ilyashenko-Magay writes: “Yermolov welcomed the fact that true Muslims, opposing the expansion of the Western ideology of profit, condemn usury, preaching justice and non-possession in their communities. This is precisely the reason why the governor of the Caucasus cares about opening new mosques and maintaining old ones in good condition. ” This could not but arouse respect even of such fierce opponents as the first imam of Chechnya and Dagestan, Gazi-Magomed and his successor Shamil.
Being an educated man, Yermolov was well versed in theological issues and more than once demonstrated his willingness to debate with Islamic ulama and adherents of his branches. Ilyashenko-Magay points out: “Addressing the crafty leaders of the rebels, who allegedly advocated for the freedom of their peoples, but in fact pursued their personal vested interests, Alexey Petrovich usually quoted the Gospel to them:“ Know the truth, and the truth will set you free. ” When in response, they arrogantly asked: “From what will he liberate ?! We - mountaineers from time immemorial were free ", Yermolov usually answered them with a bitter smile:" No, you are in captivity! In captivity of their own lies, greed, hypocrisy and cruelty! You just can not understand that the more freedom you have, the more you must have your personal service to your own people and sovereign, who has taken you under his high protection! You still have no responsibility before God and people, but I will achieve that you will have it! ”
Another example. Once during the siege of a large Darginsky village of Akush, the Russian forces of three infantry battalions and 500 Cossacks managed to break the resistance of 15 thousands of defenders of the village, forcing them to surrender. Among the petty officers who came out with an expression of obedience was one Qadi, who, at the sight of Yermolov, began frantically screaming, insulting the dignity of the Russian soldiers and urging his fellow villagers to continue the resistance.
But the general had considerable patience. Leaning on the hilt of his saber, he silently read a prayer to himself, looking straight into the eyes of the raging old man. Unable to bear his gaze, he stopped short and fell silent. Only after that the governor of the Russian tsar stood up and raised his voice, drawing the attention of the elders to the unacceptable impudence of the qadi. Yermolov demanded an assessment of his action. The mountaineers recognized that nobody authorized the old man to insult the winners, threaten and call for war. After that, they silently tied a Qadi and beat him to death with sticks.
After a long deliberation, they decided to compensate for the failure of the Christianization of the Caucasus “according to Yermolov” in St. Petersburg by “correct” Islamization. To this end, Stavropol and Nalchik created a prototype of the current united spiritual administration of the Muslims of the North Caucasus. The stake was made on the loyal Russia of Kabardian imam Umar Sheretlokov. The project was based on proposals developed by the Adyghe prince, colonel of the Russian army Khan-Giray.
More than once, special missions, headed by imams and muftis - natives of the Volga region, were equipped in the Caucasus. The Secretary of the Kabardian Interim Court, Yakub Shardanov, in particular, 1840, directly asked for this: “So that they could convict Shamil and his followers of the false interpretation of Alcoran on the spot and in the mosques.” The most successful missionary trip to the mountain auls of Chechnya and Dagestan, the famous Tatar theologian Sheikh-ul-Islam Tadjetdin Mustafin, which lasted for more than five years, can be called a meeting with Shamil and an open dispute with him as his ultimate goal. However, the Imam dodged, threatening the Alim with death. This best demonstrates who would be the winner of a theological dispute.
The tsarist authorities also distributed spiritual literature among the mountaineers in the form of Koran publications, proclamations and works of loyal Russia Alim and muftis of the Arabic language of the treatise “Strung pearls admonition of the people”, as well as the Kavkaz newspaper, where articles of former Shamil supporters who defamed Shamil were published. image of a fighter for Islam.
As a result, a subtle combination of spiritual and ideological work with military, administrative and economic measures brought victory for Russia to pacify the Caucasus.
Among the overt failures are the arrest and expulsion to Russia of Kunta-haji Kishiyev, an authoritative Chechen sheikh, the founder of the Sufi order of zikrists, which still exists today. Kishiev, in opposition to the harsh Shamil's teachings, called on the Chechens to put up with the Russian expansion, to recognize the power of the tsar, while retaining the faith and the people themselves as the main value. By the way, the current leader of Chechnya, Ramzan Kadyrov, is an adherent and a follower of Kishiyev, recognizing him as a gospel, that is, a saint. This is where a lot of work for ideology and special propaganda specialists opens.
The importance of the religious trend is ultimately recognized by General Melikov. In one interview, he noted: “It is not enough to hold force actions to curb the activities of illegal armed groups. It is necessary to combine power methods with non-military measures. In particular, it is necessary to improve the work on informational and ideological counteraction. This direction is very promising, although poorly studied and, unfortunately, not enough used in the conduct of counter-terrorism activities. The enemy is strong, but you can win it by skillfully combining military operations and non-military measures. ”
I will add that the physical destruction of the leaders of the gangs will not solve the problem of terrorism. Others will immediately replace them. In order to achieve a convincing victory in the war on terrorism, it is necessary to correctly understand the plans and motivation of the enemy. And before this, many of our leaders, as practice shows, are still far away.