The Islamic Party of Turkestan claimed responsibility for the fatal crash in Beijing's Tiananmen Square in October 2013. Then a car crashed into a group of pedestrians at high speed, which subsequently caught fire. Five people were killed. The Chinese authorities called the incident a terrorist attack, noting that it was behind the "Islamic Movement of East Turkestan", also known as the "Islamic Party of Turkestan". A spokesman for this separatist group, who identified himself as Abdullah Mansur, said that the "jihadist operation" in central Beijing on October 28 is just the beginning of a series of attacks against the Chinese leadership. The Islamic Party of Turkestan operates in western China, in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. A significant part of the population of this region is made up of Uyghur Muslims, who accuse the authorities of persecution and attempts to oust them from historical lands. 
China is one of the few countries in the world that, on 99%, is mono-ethnic with a single Han group. The relatively prominent ethnic groups in approximately 1% of other Chinese population groups include: Uighurs, Mongols (northwest), Tibetans (southwest), Miao (south). By the very small size of the People's Republic of China can be attributed to the same north-west except 9 million Uygurs, Kazakhs (St. 1,3 million), Kyrgyz, Dungan, Tatars, Uzbeks, Tajiks and 13 other micro-ethnic groups, even ... 11 thousand. ethnic Russians  who have lived there since the 1917 events of the year.
Until recently, Xinjian was known for a markedly superior number of representatives of the Turkic ethnic groups with a predominance of the Uighurs. In general, atheistic China in its north-western region had a serious Muslim area of worshipers. Finally, the region of China was able to subordinate to itself only in 1955. At that time, only about 200 of thousands of Chinese lived in Xinjiang, which was 10 percent of the region’s population. At the same time, the creation of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region as part of the People's Republic of China was announced.
After 1991, the process of the collapse of the USSR, the separation of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan with obtaining all forms of political, economic, social, spiritual, cultural and religious independence, the Uyghur nationalists in China began to talk about separatism - the separation of Xinjiang from China and foundation of the independent Republic of East Turkestan. At the same time, on this basis, the first mass ethnic unrest took place in various regions of the northwestern region. In the suburb of Kashgar, the village of Barin, the reason for the 1990 uprising was the prohibition of believers to visit the mosque, in 1995, the imam’s dismissal caused mass protests in the city of Khotan, and in 1997 the police and the army pacified the unrest in the city of Inine on the border with Kazakhstan.
China then reacted completely unconventionally to these events. No bombing of Uyghur regions, mass shootings of Islamic activists and their accomplices, ethnic cleansing, resettlement of Uyghurs in the style of a la Stalin somewhere near Harbin or somewhere else, chemical attacks in the spirit of Saddam Hussein and other forms of aggressive actions against dissatisfied Sinization ethnic groups. In the Yellow River Valley, one of the most densely populated regions in the world, the construction of a hydroelectric station was planned. Millions of its rural inhabitants were threatened by flooding. The Chinese government and invited them to voluntarily-forcibly, in a communist manner to relocate to Xinjiang. We from our Soviet history know such mass migrations to the war: forced for Koreans, Germans, Chechens, Turks, etc .; relatively voluntary for refugees, factories, theaters, universities. Then virgin lands at the end of 50's, BAM - at the end of 70's. What did China achieve with these methods?
The demographic composition of Xinjiang gradually underwent significant changes. If in the 1949 year there were more than 90% of the Uygur and other Turkic population, now it is only 45%. The number of ethnic Chinese, who constituted less than 1949% of the XUAR population in 7, increased six decades later to 40% . Equalization of ethnic parity: out of 26 million of the population of the province, only 9 million began to fall on the Uighurs and the supeetnos “Han” became prevalent in the region of the law-abiding Beijing. The activation of the socio-economic life of the area noticeably intensified: its transfer from a purely agrarian province to industrialization was realized. Oil fields and oil development were discovered, the population of Urumqi from 700 thousand increased to almost 3 million in a short period, and now they are Han about 70 percent of its population.
The author accidentally turned out to be a tourist in the center of the ethnic conflict in Urumqi in 5-10 in July 2009. The first incident was presented in the form of a bloody massacre, when more than a thousand Uigurs late in the evening after an unsuccessful protest rally aimed at the independence of the XUAR from China, attacked the Chinese who were unaware of a possible act of aggression. At first, the crowd was targeted by exceptionally young Han Chinese men, and then, according to the reports, men, women, old people, and children began to fall under their fists. As it turned out later that night, 5 was killed on 158 on July and over eight hundred completely innocent people were injured, overwhelmingly han, and not only men, but also women, old people, children ... Police in those days detained 1434 of a human being  suspected of having participated in the 5 pogroms of the 2009 number of the year.
The question immediately arises: why did almost all foreign tourists get the impression that the Chinese government was not ready for such an aggressive turn of events from both sides? Why didn’t have enough police here, troops to contain possible mass ethnic unrest? Where did this confidence come from that everything would be under control, knowing that the Uighurs want autonomy? Yes, now, as we have already noted, more than half of the population of Urumqi is Chinese. But is this a guarantee that everything will be stable? Perhaps, in Beijing, the government of the Celestial Empire decided to show itself to the world as great democrats and was delayed for two days with a response — the timely introduction of additional troops into the city engulfed in interethnic massacre? Either the tightening of countermeasures was beneficial to the authorities in order to show the true face of Uygur religious terrorism of the Muslim persuasion?
What would you like to see in this extreme situation from the country of which you are a citizen? For example, the United States immediately comes with its “gunboat” diplomacy: for the violation of the rights and freedoms even of a single American citizen may appear fleet with aircraft carriers - do not touch the Americans! Was it believed, until the last moment, that at least somehow Kazakhstan should have reacted to the fact that the lives of thousands and thousands of its citizens are threatened with beating? And the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic, being not created yesterday by an organization, had to skillfully take into account and calculate what
- business with Xinjiang by the citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan has been established for more than ten years. Consequently, ours here with their Kazakhstani passports is more than enough;
- that in times of crisis and unemployment, the number of Kazakhstanis who have tried to solve the issues of employment and earnings through shuttle business trips to Urumqi will increase significantly. And, given that the train goes to the nearby region of China, planes fly, buses, private cars, taxis go to the Kazakh and Chinese borders: therefore, up to ten thousand, if not more, Kazakhstanis can stay in Xinjiang;
- as the Uighurs and Kazakhs speak similar dialects of the Turkic language group, which for the Chinese have a completely different sound and no understanding of the meaning. And in the context of inter-ethnic conflict, anything that does not sound in Chinese, but in Turkic, can look ally to the enemy, although you are not Uighurs;
- knowing that the number of citizens of Kazakh nationality in the republic exceeded 67%  according to the results of the last census, it is mainly from among the representatives that the number of people willing to earn extra money on the shortage of goods and the difference in prices in Urumqi and Kazakhstan will increase. In Moscow, Russia, as is well known, it is more difficult for Kazakhs to go shopping for goods: with registration, and with high prices, with time-consuming, with police, and with skinheads because of Asian appearance;
- as outwardly, the Kazakhs as a whole differ from the Chinese, exposing themselves to an additional threat of attack.
When will our government of Kazakhstan start to really care about the safety of its citizens in hot situations (points)? Moreover, again, the overwhelming majority of our visitors to China are small and medium-sized businessmen who help the republic to saturate the commodity market in the face of a shortage of their own production.
7 July on the streets while some Chinese, although already without sticks. They were intensively selected again by the police, which appeared as if from under the ground. Some of these sticks, it seemed to me, I later clearly saw the soldiers patrolling the streets of the city. At least, in addition to the traditional black plastic police sticks, the soldiers also had sticks from the cuttings for shovels. This caused me surprise and one more question - did the special forces of the PRC (according to rumors, the troops arrived from almost all the provinces of the country) really be so unarmed?
As already noted, China is one of the few mononational countries of the world where one ethnic group, Han, dominates massively, and the minority population is almost one percent of the population (the same figure of one percent of other ethnic groups in Japan, Korea; for comparison, in Russia 80% of Russian population). Anyway, one percent is 13 by millions of people, of whom the Uighurs, Tibetans, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Uzbeks, Vietnamese, Miao, Tatars, and others, are particularly numerous in their regions. Will one representative of another ethnic group stand Din against one hundred people of another? Objectively, no. The Urumchian events showed that only one arithmetic in a specific region of the republic is not enough. Maybe that’s why China, having relaxed, didn’t show itself effectively ready to solve such problems in a jiffy?
What are the main reasons for the 2009 summer events? There could be several of them. On June 26, a massive ethnic wrestling took place at a toy factory located in the south of China, in the city of Shaoguan, Guangdong Province. As a result of the incident, according to official figures, two Uighurs died, at least 118 people on both sides received injuries of varying severity. On the Internet, there was a version of the incidents of this event - the sexual harassment of the Uygur to the Chinese woman. But there is unofficial (Uigur) information that in Guangdong, near 5000, the Han people attacked a hostel where 600 Uigur workers lived. The attack turned into a mass beating, including with sticks, during which not two but before the 160 Uigur workers died. Find confirmation of this information from independent sources failed.
And the July events in Urumqi were sort of like revenge for the Uighurs who died at the hands of the Chinese in Shaoguang. But it is alarming too, the unusually high number of deaths in Xinjiang - under 160 people against those two in Shaogun. With spontaneous street disturbances, such statistics usually do not happen, the case is limited to beaten, wounded.
In this regard, it is possible to surmise that the non-governmental “World Uighur Congress”, headed by the large, sixty-year-old Rebiya Kadeer, who had left for US treatment and received asylum, was most likely guilty of organizing the July riots. It is she who, according to the Chinese authorities, directs all anti-Chinese actions from abroad, dreaming of the presidency of independent East Turkestan.
Rabia was shown on local television. She allegedly had been waiting for the right moment to take to the streets with a protest against the beating of the Uygur in Guangdong, but with the secretive overtones of protest against the intensive sinification of the Uyghur region of the PRC. There is another suggestion confirming this phenomenon. The protest rally began suspiciously late - at about 8 in the evening, in general, preparation for going to bed. 5 is July, the first day of the riots were burned dozens of cars, buses. Meanwhile, arson car is not so simple. Just a match and lighters for this is clearly not enough. It is necessary for this to use large containers for reliable effect, such as cans, bottles of gasoline. And, perhaps, not one. Need paper, rags. Such things - the blanks for the "Molotov cocktail" just are not carried with them. Therefore, were the fires then, again, systemically prepared?
Probably in another, the social factor of the Uigurs' growing rancor against the Chinese. Formally, Xinjiang is declared Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR). The law of the People's Republic of China "On the regional-national autonomy" is in force, which spelled out all the norms relating to the attitude of the CPC to non-Han ethnic groups living in the territory of the republic. This law is more than liberal, and the norms set forth in it are strictly enforced, upholding the rights of the national minorities, including the Uighurs. In the city, for example, all the inscriptions are in two languages: Chinese and Arabic for Uygur Muslims, as if emphasizing the equality of ethnic groups, and they created conditions for a certain autonomy in language, traditions, and in the confession of Islam.
But there are still significant differences in the socio-educational level and in terms of employment of the Chinese and Uighurs. In general, the Chinese in Xinjiang are more educated, there are more of them in higher education institutions, with higher education, they are more widely represented in offices, in management offices of firms and companies, being what are called “white collars”, and the Uigurs are mainly engaged in agriculture, trade, to cooks, in public services that do not require a high level of education, there are more of them in the village. The tacit social superiority of one over the other in ways of employment, in obtaining respectively different wages, conditions, place of work, in the standard of living, is evident.
It is also possible that Beijing itself partly provoked the Urumqi events of July 2009 by the fact that the police, the state security organs, the army did not actually attach any serious significance to a possible surge of emotions of interethnic conflict, to let it flare up, and then subject Uigurs to large repressions, contributing, thereby further China's northwest China.
What is my prediction of the situation? It is known that the Uighurs are one of the famous stories of the Turkic peoples of the Great Steppe, who was not in particularly close, allied relations with the Chinese in the past. Moreover, the Uyghur state that was formed in the 8th century partially in the modern Chinese West in the past, in fact, blocked the empire’s trade routes to Samarkand, Bukhara and further to Constantinople, which in fact could change the very strategic development of Chinese civilization. There is an opinion that because of this, the possible way of wide contacts in China’s orientation towards Central Asia - Europe became blocked and the Middle Kingdom for many centuries became “southern” oriented to the warm seas of Southeast Asia. From my point of view, today's Uygur separatism, calling for the creation of an independent East Turkestan, will again be able to cut off China from Kazakhstan and other countries of Central Asia, and with them from direct road and railroad, oil, gas and other very profitable ways of the country Russia, Europe, demanding for all this money, benefits. I do not think Beijing will allow it. Moreover, in the country, the Chinese authorities have officially announced the fight against the "three forces" operating in Xinjiang: separatism, terrorism and religious extremism .
But the Uighurs will stand their own way, seeking independence, and with it the dividends from their super profitable territorial position on 1,66 million square kilometers. (1 / 6 parts) of modern China. So, apparently, the continuation of inter-ethnic confrontation between the Uighurs and the Han in Xinjiang, in Urumqi will follow.
And on teletypes, we again see a message in November of this year that “nine people armed with axes attacked a police station in Xinjiang province in western China. All the attackers - the Chinese Uygurs - were shot dead. As reported by Xinhua, as a result of this attack, which took place near the city of Kashgar, two policemen were killed and two more were injured. ” This year riots broke out in Xinjiang three times - in April, June and August. .
Consequently, peace with Uigur Islamic terrorism can not wait.
1 Islamists claimed responsibility for the Tiananmen state of emergency http://rus.azattyq.org/archive/news/20131124/360/360.html?id=25178202 from 11.2013.
2 Learn Xinjiang / Ding Xiaolun (compilation and text), in Russian. - Urumqi. Xinjiang Art Photography Publishing House, 2006.- 150 p.
3 Tragedy in Urumqi. Natig Nazimoglu. Baku. http://regionplus.az/ru / articles / view / 470.
4 Pogrom in Urumqi. http://www.neonomad.kz/ sobytiya / mir / index. php? ELEMENT_ID = 5645.
5 The population of the Republic of Kazakhstan has reached 16 million 402 thousands of 861 people. http://chinghiskhan.yvision.kz/tag/
6 Zolotukhin SA, Babayan G.M. Socio-political ethnoconflictology: theoretical and applied aspects (on the example of the July 2009 events in Urumqi, XUAR, PRC) // Formation of democracy in the post-Soviet space: problems and prospects. International Scientific Conference. Mesrop Mashtots University, 21-22 in May 2010, Stepanakert, Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. 2010. - S. 110-116.
7 http://www.nr2.ru/inworld/470886.html. In China, the Uighurs attacked a police station with axes. The attackers were shot dead, two policemen were killed.