17 November 1983, the Zapatista movement originated in Mexico. Over the past 30 years, they have achieved autonomy for 100 Thousands of Indians and have become the basis of the alter globalization movement. Vlast has figured out how Zapatistas live in the jungles of Chiapas in the era of the triumph of globalization.
21 December 2012, the whole world was waiting for the next apocalypse. Adherents of eschatology in their predictions about the end of the world referred to the ancient Mayan calendar. Hundreds of esoteric fans went to Mexico to sort out stories civilization, which calculated the beginning of a new time cycle. However, instead of the end of the world, tourists saw an endless column in 50 of thousands of Indians: this was the first large-scale action of the Zapatista in the past year and a half. All of them were dressed in traditional pasamonta masks, similar to balaclava. Without slogans and banners, the Zapatistas walked through the streets of the cities of San Cristobal de las Casas, Palenque, Okosingo, Altamirano and Las Margaritas. In the official communiqué addressed to the whole world, the Zapatista Indians explained that with this march they wanted to remind the Mexican authorities and, in particular, the newly elected President Peña Nieto of their existence.
Zapatistas are ordinary members of the Zapatist National Liberation Army (SANO) and residents of the villages under its control, about 100 thousand people. The exact figure is known only by the Zapatista: for security reasons, the data are not disclosed. The movement was named after the national Mexican leader, revolutionary Emiliano Zapata, who revolted against the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz in the early twentieth century. Zapatistas live in the northeast of Chiapas, in the foothills and forests of the Lacandon jungle, the largest green area in Mexico. They control about 15% of the state, whose total area is almost 74 thousand square meters. km
Lakandonsky Selva has long been an apple of discord for various forces. Its forests and valleys stretch across 3 million hectares and represent a collection of resources, some of which belong to the state, some to foreign capital, and the rest is shared by wealthy landowners and Native American communities, including zapatista. Selva is producing oil, gas, rocks. 42% of territory turned into pastures and arable land. Another valuable resource is hydropower. Due to the abundance of mountain rivers and hydroelectric power stations built on them, not only Chiapas, but also the neighboring states remain lit. Tourists visiting the Mayan architectural heritage are another income item. The Indians are trying to earn extra money on the sale of souvenirs, coffee and honey: the proceeds from trade are their main profit.
De jure, the right to live in a selva is in different Indian communities, but due to the special recognition of the status of lacandons on the ground, choli groups and targets were subjected to massive forced relocation to infertile territories, which exacerbated the ethnic conflict. In fact, from the problems around the division of the Lakandonian jungle between various groups of Indians, the Zapatista movement begins (see the reference below).
Today, settlements in the state are divided into three types. The first ones are traditional, they are under the auspices of the authorities: residents receive subsidies, participate in special government programs and pay taxes.
The second type is autonomous, the main role in which is played by selected elders. Some of them sympathize with the Zapatista, but for various reasons do not consider themselves to be movement. Some do not like the Zapatista order (prohibition or special education), someone is afraid of repression by the authorities for participating in the Zapatista project. However, among the autonomous there are those who, for certain resources like additional land and monetary contributions, provide electoral support to the Institutional Revolutionary Party, which has ruled Mexico for most of the twentieth century (the current president, Enrique Peña Nieto, is a member of this party). Some Indians in unemployment are also hired as "White Guard" fighters.
Zapatist settlements are the third kind of communities with their own orders. Over the 30 years of independence, the rebel Indians formed a "good government", secured a comfortable life, learned how to cure serious diseases, and organized their schools, where everyone is invited to learn the "lessons of autonomy." Those who wish are located all over the world. For example, Chilean Natalia Arkos and Italian Alessandro Zagato in February 2013, formed a research group to study the political and aesthetic aspects of modern revolutionary movements, and are now studying zapatista. The first work experience "in the field" was a week-long living in a zapatistsky settlement (the Zapatisty themselves call them snails) La Garrucha.
In total, the territory of Chiapas controlled by zapatista is divided into five zones. In the center of each zone - its own "snail". La Realidad - near the city of Las Margaritas, Oventique is located closer to the main tourist city of the state, San Cristobal de las Casas. Three more: La Garrucha, Morelia and Roberto Barrios. Each "snail" and adjacent territory is governed by its own government - the junta. All five junts are united by the general command. The distances between the "snails" are several tens of kilometers, which, due to lack of transport, travelers and members of settlements often have to overcome on foot. This, according to observers, delays the adoption of collective decisions.
Since 2003, the Zapatistas have created a good government junta, which is in every snail. The entire governance structure consists of the local government, municipalities and the junta, which brings together several municipalities. At each level, there are selected representatives by industry - men or women, there is an elder who is responsible for territory and demography. If they do not cope with their duties, they are re-elected. As a rule, rotation takes place every two years, and usually the current elder offers several candidates, and residents write on the paper the name of the elect. But it happens that several people participate in the elections at once, and the one who collects more becomes an elder, the next one - responsible for collective work and further on the list of positions. If someone recommends a person to any position, it is not accepted to refuse from work. There are no unified rules, it all depends on the desire and experience of the inhabitants of each particular village. There is a regulation, but it also changes depending on the decision of the assembly.
At the municipal level, there are advisers who are responsible for education, medicine and collective work. The junta monitors the work of the municipality and counts the economic resources. There are also security commissions responsible for the security of settlements and money circulation. All decisions at each level are made by collective meetings until the decision is approved by a majority. Veto right is provided. For common decisions, the elders go to the neighboring “snails,” and if they feel they don’t represent the opinions of the whole community, they return for another discussion. Assemblies can last several days.
Justice is administered by the elder, or a judge is chosen in the community. Their task is to listen to both sides and find a solution that will suit both. The most frequent crime is theft, the punishment is the restoration of damage and additional time for collective work. Police and army are not welcome in the communities. If a crime is serious, for example, murder, a judge or elder may decide to surrender the offender to the authorities, because there are no prisons or other institutions of punishment in the communities.
Economic autonomy is ensured by collective work. Communities have their own banks for specific needs, such as emergency treatment in the city. In the settlements, exchange and donation is developed, but money also exists - most often Indians sell their wares: embroidered clothes, bags, jewelry. Also produce and sell shoes, coffee and what is grown in collective work - whether animal products or chili. Agree on the price in the commune, the income can be used for the development of works or for social projects, the construction of schools and gardens. Each team has its own regulations, its own agreements, in accordance with which the distribution of profits.
Education, like everything else, differs from autonomy to autonomy. Zapatist schools are engaged in a certain system, but in each commune set their subjects, their schedule. Kindergartens are in every settlement. They look after children under five years old. Subjects in schools are practically repeated by the state, but they are taught by other methods. In autonomous schools, in contrast to state schools, they also pay much attention to agriculture and animal husbandry, they spend a lot of time "in the field". Training is designed to further benefit the settlement in which children grow up.
“As for higher education, San Cristóbal has a CIDECI university that enrolls young people from zapatista communities. They usually study agronomists, mechanics, study computer graphics and information security,” said Mexican Sofia Olkhovich, who joined zapatista in 1994 was in 20 years of age, before that she studied anthropology in Mexico City (she did research in Chiapas and was inspired by the ideas of the movement).
Indians, including university graduates, can constantly enter and leave a Zapatist organization or other autonomies. “Some leave because they don’t stand up: they want money, security, do not waste time on common problems, or just have a drink,” explains St. Petersburg resident Elena Korykhalova, who for several months together with her friend Oleg Myasoedov has been shooting a documentary film about zapatista (for the first time representatives of the movement in December 2012 of the year during the "silent march"). “Migration is not prohibited in any way, often the community itself sends someone to find out how this or that work is done, so that the person will transfer his knowledge to the village,” Korykhalova said. Young people who leave the community, most often come back - can not stand the urban environment. However, if someone leaves without warning, it is more difficult for him to return to the settlement.
The settlements have their own clinics and "health houses". Ill persons are sent to government hospitals only in the event of surgery or serious illness. The right of free medicine for Indians in government clinics is, but with a document proving your identity. It is not forbidden to have it, but not all of it.
Zapatistas also receive help from sympathetic organizations and members of the alter globalization movement. The connection with them has been established thanks to the main public person of SANO - sub-command Marcos, who still remains the military leader. But his role, according to researchers, is greatly exaggerated by the media. “As a person, he is undoubtedly charismatic. It was not part of the original plan, but it doesn’t particularly prevent horizontal decision making,” said Oleg Yasinsky, a 20 journalist who has lived in Chile for years, who became the first translator of Marcos’s works into Russian. “The sympathies of foreign intellectuals and the world press to Marcos’s charisma have very little influence on the actual solution of issues within the Zapatist communities,” Yasinsky said. “Marcos himself writes. But all key issues are really discussed and solved not by Marcos, but by assemblies, where his opinion is authoritative, but not indisputable. "
Today, Mexican television breeds rumors: Marcos fell ill, left, died, it is generally a few people. “This was the initial idea before the 1 uprising of January 1994 of the year. As Marcos himself admits, nothing came of this. Partly the mask was invented to avoid leaderism in motion. But the masked too recognizable leader came. So zapatism it is necessary to struggle with zapatism, "- indicates Yasinsky.
International support takes many forms. For example, Chilean Natalia Arcos and Italian Alessandro Zagato became participants in the first round of the Small School project, which ran from 12 to 16 in August 2013. Zapatistas have invited over a thousand people from all over the world to whom they have been told all the details of their lives, ranging from the organization of power to the rights of women in the community. “During the week we were guests in the family of indigenous Indians, sharing daily work with them. We worked in the fields, processed maize, gathered medicinal plants in the jungle, baked tortillas and talked about politics,” the researchers share. “It’s not at all easy — even impossible — to get to the zapatista without their invitation and confirmation.If you are still allowed to stay, do not forget: this is exactly for the duration of your project.You can be an international volunteer or an observer, work in the field of health, education or “You can also learn Mayan languages and the history of the Zapatist movement, but the visitor has a visitor. Zapatistas have to be careful not to become part of a large tourist route." Careful selection of observers is also necessary because of the instability of the relationship between the Sanano and the Government of Mexico. Every kilometer you can meet a government military base, and if you are a foreigner, there is no legal visit to the Zapatist communities.
Residents of the communities, as noted by Arkos and Zagato, "are interested in each person, seek to find out everything, share experience": "What the zapatistas want to teach them is to develop various forms of autonomy in the context of their own lives. Their goal is not just to be a kind exception, but become part of the global transformation process. "
Another form of informing the world about the problems of the movement is the organization of an international movement of volunteers who work in Chiapas and are observers. They are organized by the Fry Bartolome de las Casas Human Rights Center. The main task of the observers, who are selected by the center, is to protect the Indian settlements by their direct finding and to fix any violations of the rights of the indigenous population. “The organization has such a position: the volunteer is only an observer. His presence keeps the authorities from illegal actions,” Elena Korykhalova and Oleg Myasoyedov say. “Sometimes illegal actions are performed in the presence of a volunteer. Then the volunteer should document what is happening as accurately as possible. The volunteer cannot take active steps action, since he is a foreigner, it is safer for him and eliminates responsibility for the consequences. In the worst case, he can exacerbate the conflict by his inexperienced mediation, s military, and for this may be deported. " In any case, the final authority is the Zapatistas, who decide how long the observer will remain in the settlement, and whether his presence is necessary at all.
“The Zapatist project is not unique, and not even the first,” says Elvina Erofeyeva, a researcher at the Center for Judicial and Legal Reform. “What Zapatista and Marcos tried to do has been around for decades in Guatemala and in the neighboring state of Oaxaca, where social and economic indicators. "
Examples similar to zapatista can be found in the neighboring states of Michoacan, Veracruz, as well as in Ecuador, Guatemala, Peru. According to the employee of the Educational and Scientific Mesoamerican Center. Yu. V. Knorozova Olga Rakova, the majority of other Latin American countries are countries with very strong internal social tensions. "Foci of resistance, including ethnic, are practically everywhere where there is an indigenous Indian population living more or less autonomously, and where there are challenges from both the state and private economic and political interests. In many Mexican states, in particular, Michoacan and Guerrero, the Indian communities are very strong, the powerful Indian movement has existed in Peru since the mid-twentieth century, and it also happened in 1980 in Guatemala. There are cases of Indian resistance in Colombia and Brazil. Th, successfully fighting for their rights, "- Rakova said.
However, despite the prevalence of similar movements in Latin America, it was the zapatisty that became the world-famous brand, and the sub-command Marcos turned into an icon of the alter-globalist movement. Moreover, the ideas of life in closed communes based on the principles of self-government and the ethical code turned out to be so in demand in the global era that the zapatista movement can rightly be considered a twin brother of world globalism. Same as the global information disclosure movement like Anonymous or the leftist radical art. It is not for nothing that the Zapatistas dream of inviting Julian Assange and Nadezhda Tolokonnikova to new projects in the framework of the “Little School”.