“It has always been curious what kind of crap are" 1-X42 "and" 1-X45 "? Maybe somehow share? Interested in the opinion of practice. I was always interested in practical work using sighting and observation complexes T-80 ”.
I want to immediately apologize to Aleks TV for unconsciously misleading him, the second “hrendelpupina” is called 1Г46 ..., and 1Г45 belongs to CoC (Cobra). Well, it's "annoying little things." And I also want to thank and congratulate him on very interesting articles about the modernized T72B3 tank. But back to the topic.
I was very lucky, I entered the Kharkov Guards Tank School at the time when our army was preparing for rearmament. And the command, knowing that the days of the T64 on the conveyor were “numbered” and soon the new “single” tank would go to the troops, decided to prepare us, the future tank “Kraskoms”, as specialists of the “wide profile”. On each course we studied schools and practically mastered various types of tanks, leaving the “profile” machine Т64. And as a result, during our studies, we were given the opportunity to practically shoot with a regular projectile from T64B, T72, T80B and T80UD and an “insert” from T62 ... And honestly, I am very grateful to the teaching staff of the Kharkov Guards Higher Tank Command Order of the Red Star of the school of the school of the school for the schoolchildren of the schoolchildren. their work, they taught us "not for fear, but for conscience," since the professionals themselves were excellent. But the department of fire training stood out even against this high general background. Well, where else could the teachers themselves make out the new artillery blaster to draw a general device for us cadets or to “arrange” at the repair plant to make a split effective model of a recoil brake or roll in a tank gun? And Colonel Boyko? With his "Twins", which he gave a shout to the shooting shift, if someone smeared or did something wrong - he "jerked off", and he shouted it while on the tower, and was heard at a distance of 100 meters inside the tank, while the engine was running and systems and wearing headsets ... and then clearly and clearly explaining why such a "trouble" happened ...
But my acquaintance with different models of tanks did not end there. During my service I was fortunate to serve on all our main types of medium and OB tanks.
Let's start with T64B. In terms of fire - a very good car, equipped with an 1-X42 sight, which we often called it with a second name - PDPS (Sight-Range Finder, Tracking Device), and in principle it is indistinguishable from the T80B, which thanks to a more advanced chassis and GT- The engine, which allows to move more smoothly, is even the best "fireman".
Here is his field of vision, that is, what the gunner sees is the tank guns when he looks through the eyepiece of the rifle sight.
Sorry, the image is not color, so it requires a little refinement. At the bottom of the sight there is a small panel where the information is displayed:
- about the readiness of the cannon for firing (in case of readiness a green light comes on);
- about the selected type of projectile (the luminous letters “O”, “B”, “H”, “U” appear);
- on how many targets reflected the laser beam and, accordingly, the measurement result will be obtained,
- measured distance in meters;
- On the inclusion of "commander target designation" (the red light comes on).
Everything is very informative and does not overload the gunner with excessive information.
In addition, the gunner carries out the measurement of the range with a laser rangefinder and firing from a tank gun using only the “Central sighting mark with a vertical bar” or as it is called in short - the “Central square”.
In the case when you need to manually enter data for shooting, this is done by turning the “ring” located above the control panel, a “horizontal bar” moves visually in the sight, which must be combined with the desired mark on the “aiming angle scale” of the desired type of projectile ... but this should be done very rarely, the main mode, of course, is automatic. With the automatic firing mode, a lot depends on the proper operation of the SLA (Fire Control System), one of its component parts is the TBV (Tank Ballistic Calculator), in which firing conditions are measured (recorded) by sensors of firing conditions, namely corrections to wind, speed target movements and tank roll are entered automatically, and manual corrections are entered for air temperature, change in initial velocity depending on the batch of charges, atmospheric pressure, barrel bore wear, temperature charge round.
Based on certain algorithms, a TBV generates calculated values of aiming angles in the vertical and horizontal planes and gives commands to the actuators of the cannon and turrets. The gun not only automatically becomes at the desired angle of throwing, but also turns at the desired angle of lead, the “central square” remains stationary. Due to which shooting is carried out as follows (simplified):
- the gunner leads to the selected target "Central Square";
- without being distracted from the aiming, it is convinced that the type of the loaded projectile corresponds to the chosen target;
- pressing the button on the “control panel” measures the range;
- then, making sure that in the field of view a green light is burning - “Ready” and holding the “Central Square” on the target, it fires a shot.
With the T72, things are not so simple, with a general high reliability, this machine is less effective precisely in terms of fire. Let's start with the fact that it has a TPD-1K sight (Tank Scope-Range Finder).
His field of view:
Here, too, a small explanation is required - under the number 9 there is a “luminous rangefinder mark”, a brightly burning ringlet, which can be located anywhere in the field of view. In automatic mode, this “ring” is aimed at the selected target and is measured by pressing the button on the PU. The fact that the measurement took place is indicated by the fact that the “range scale” starts moving and stops with the desired mark against the “index”, at this moment “the central square moves in a vertical plane up or down. The firing data is entered using a “corrector”, for which the commander uses a special table that finds the desired value of the amendment, reports it to the gunner and the gun already performs the necessary manipulations ... Also, unlike the automated system T64b and T80B, the lateral corrections to wind and speed targets are automatically not developed by a ballistic corrector.
The very same shooting is as follows:
- the gunner suggests a “distance measuring ring” at the selected target and presses the button for measuring the range;
- at the end of the “ranging scale” movement, the gunner suggests “a central square on the target,” or a square on the side scale, depending on the movement of the target and the tank, and he should choose the correction for lead-ins himself, as a result, the gun becomes the desired angle throwing, and on the lead angle;
- looking up from the eyepiece, he looks at the panel of “choosing the type of projectile” in order to understand that the type is chosen correctly (in principle, this can be not done);
- making sure that the light of the “Ready” signal is lit above the ranging scale, produces a shot.
So, the time needed to make a shot from the T72 has to be spent more than when firing from the T64B or T80B, in addition, the LMS with the “corrector” is less accurate than with the TBV. Therefore, I believe that thanks to a more sophisticated sighting system and LMS, the “old” tanks T64B and T80B have more chances in the confrontation with the “not modernized” tank T72.
And honestly, it would be interesting to take a look at the “biathlon”, in which both modernized and non-modernized T72B and T80B would compete, a lot would become clear.
So it is, of course, good that the T72B3 tanks are now equipped with Sosnoy-U and the SLA, but if such a complex were equipped with the T80B tanks in the case of the Russian Armed Forces, the output would be a more powerful machine.
The only huge drawback of the T80B and its PDP sight is that it allows you to shoot only the radio-controlled Cobra, but this is fixable. It is just necessary either to make the necessary modernization of the PDPS using the solutions and components used on the 1-X46 - PDPN (Sight Range Finder Observation Device) in order to fire guided laser-guided projectiles or to replace it entirely, which is simple as they are similar in size and sights themselves are made in Russia. This, by the way, will make it possible to remove from the tank a lot of unnecessary equipment of the old KUV, which will not only ease the weight of the tank, but also add free space inside the tank tower.
As a result, in the event of the failure of the Sosny-U tank, it will not lose the ability to use the CCU (Guided Armament Complex), what will happen on the T72BZ tank, as its standard optical sight does not allow firing the TUS (Tank-guided Projectile) ... Yes and retraining of personnel from PDPS to PDPN does not take much time, since they are very similar. And here I come to the logical conclusion that the modernization of our "old" tanks should be done differently. What is T72B3, was at the "level" in the year so 1995, now this is not enough. No need to try to “cram in the unshakeable” or poorly “crammed”, and, using the existing developments, to make the maximum unification of the tank fleet. Otherwise, our "new" tank will not be able to fight on equal terms even with Chinese cars. How to do it? You can, of course, go to the T72 “family” tank, but this path is not entirely correct. Residents of the Far East will confirm that the network of railways and highways in that region, shall we say, “does not reach world standards”, which raises the issue of operational maneuverability of tank units and formations very high. And at this stage, it can only provide T80 with DGT, this is the reality. The T-92 T-90 B-5 engine, similar in power, unfortunately does not have the same reliability, besides, the presence of a liquid cooling system is not the best in a region where temperatures fall for a long time and stay below -80 degrees Celsius ... So to abandon ТXNUMX, as from the “base chassis” - is irrational.
We must follow the path of creating a "unified fighting compartment" on the basis of the T90MS tank turret. This means that such a tower must be equipped with:
- AZ, adapted to accommodate BPS "increased power", including T80. Alas, the Ministry of Health, having a slightly larger capacity, also has a number of design flaws, namely, a larger lesion area, more complex and less reliable cable drives, requiring constant adjustments, as well as more reducing displacement, if necessary, m. from department of management in fighting;
- sighting and command complex "Sosna-U";
- additional sight 1Г46 PDN;
- unconditional installation of STV (Tank Armament Stabilizer) and SLA of the type T90MS;
- additional command device, such as TKH5;
- closed LSD;
- a new installation of the “paired” machine gun, which would allow firing from it at the moment when the gun is at the loading angle;
- more advanced means of communication and control, allowing to transmit the necessary information both in voice and in graphic mode, and having “guaranteed durability” of at least 2 hours.
In addition, it is necessary to strengthen the booking by installing additional booking modules throughout the entire hull. There is no doubt the need for an APU, I think, better by the type of Shilka ZNS 23-4.
On tanks with engines of at least 1200 hp The installation of the GOP (Hydrostatic Transmission) is necessary, which will increase maneuverability and cost effectiveness.
Yes, such an upgrade, of course, will not be the most “cheap”, but it will allow to achieve a lot. And most importantly, to provide our army with quite modern tanks to fully equip the Armed Forces with tanks based on Armat. It is possible to carry out such modernization on the production base of the Omsk plant, freeing UVZ from these works.
I really hope that the current leadership of the Ministry of Defense will take a different look at the problem of the re-equipment of our Armed Forces. Our soldiers and officers deserve to serve and, if necessary, to fight on modern technology, which would more fully allow them to realize their capabilities.
In the preparation were used
1. Technical specification and maintenance instruction about. 219, 1 Book.
2. Technical specification and maintenance instruction of the T72B tank.
3. Instructions for use sight 1А40.