Military Review

Forty-fifth Expedition to Mars

14

- What is the minimum information at the maximum cost?

- These are launches of space stations to Mars.


18 November 2013 was launched from Cape Canaveral by launching the Atlas-V launch vehicle from the MAVEN automatic interplanetary station designed to study the atmosphere of Mars.

All systems of the SLC-4 launch site worked perfectly - in 13: 18 local time, the vicinity of the cosmodrome shook from the powerful hum of the RD-180 (Russian-made engines used in both stages of the Atlas-V launch vehicle). The 300-ton fire-breathing harness broke away from the launch pad and, sharply increasing its speed, rushed up to meet the stars. After 27 minutes after the launch of the reference near-earth orbit, the engines of the accelerating Centaurus block were launched: MAVEN picked up the second cosmic velocity and entered the departure trajectory to Mars.
The first corrective maneuver is scheduled for December 3. After months of 10, September of 22 of 2014, the station, having flown in the icy black of 300 million kilometers, is to go to the Martian orbit. The scientific mission will begin with a calculated Earth 1 duration.

The launch of the MAVEN program was one of the main intrigues in the 2013 space launches of the year - the complete or partial suspension of US government operations from October 1, 2013 put the planned expedition to the Red Planet at risk, despite the complete readiness of all technical systems of the rocket-space system, and also a successful “time window” for launching to Mars. There was a real threat of disrupting all the scheduled dates and postponing the launch of MAVEN to 2016 year.

And this is despite the fact that the spacecraft itself had already been at Cape Canaveral since August, undergoing intensive training for flight, and a ready Atlas-V launch vehicle was waiting inside the cosmodrome assembly department!



The absurd situation was saved by NASA lawyers, who found a “loophole” in the laws, according to which the launch of the interplanetary probe meets the criteria that exclude MAVEN from the list of forced budget cuts. The five-year work of the staff of the University of Colorado and the space research laboratory at Berkeley University was not in vain - the interplanetary station costing 671 million dollars (the 485 million cost the creation of the probe itself, 187 million were spent on pre-launch preparation and purchase of Atlas V ) was safely sent to the target.

MAVEN became the 45 mission to Mars and the tenth NASA orbital scout in the vicinity of the Red Planet. The name of the probe is a complex abbreviation of Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN, which fully reflects the tasks of the upcoming expedition. MAVEN is designed to study the atmosphere of Mars - a thin gas envelope, whose pressure in the near-surface layer is only 0,6% of the Earth’s atmosphere, and its gas composition is completely unsuitable for human breathing (the Martian atmosphere is almost completely carbon dioxide).


Snapshot of the apparatus "Viking", 1976 year

But even this flimsy atmosphere continues to disappear continuously - the small gravity of Mars is not capable of holding the gas envelope around the planet. Every year, the cosmic wind "blows" into outer space its upper layers, condemning Mars to becoming a frozen stone block, similar to the Moon or Mercury.

But when should it happen? And how was Mars in the distant past, when its gas envelope was not so much discharged yet? What are the rates of extinction of the Martian atmosphere in absolute terms?

This is exactly what the MAVEN apparatus should find out: moving around Mars in an elliptical orbit with the 150 km pericenter and 6200 km apocenter, it must determine the current state of the upper layers and the nature of their interaction with the solar wind. To establish the exact rate of loss of the atmosphere, as well as the factors influencing this process. Determine the ratio of stable isotopes in the atmosphere, which should "shed light" on history Martian climate. Indirectly, this will be able to answer the question: did conditions exist in the past that allowed the presence of liquid water on the surface of Mars?

The only thing that NASA experts are saddened is that due to its extremely elongated orbit, the new orbital probe cannot be used as a repeater for the signals of the Mars rovers.


MAVEN is being tested in a centrifuge.


On board the 8 probe of the most modern instruments:
- a set for studying particles and fields (three analyzers of particles of the “solar wind”, a sensor of Langmuir waves (plasma oscillations) and a pair of induction magnetometers);
- UV spectrometer, which allows remotely determine the parameters of the atmosphere and ionosphere of a distant planet;
- neutral and ionic mass spectrometer to study the isotopic composition of the atmosphere of Mars.

Impressive scientific equipment and life support systems, including an orientation system, an on-board computer, solar batteries and Earth communications equipment, providing data exchange at speeds up to 10 Mb / s - all fit in an 2,3 x 2,3 x 2 meter body (probe width with uncovered solar panels - 11 m). The mass of instruments, systems and scientific equipment - 809 kg.

Was Mars like Earth in the distant past? MAVEN will definitely find out this question. The main thing is to reach your destination safely. And this, as practice shows, is very difficult ...

Flight Chronicles to Mars

Mars is the most visited and most studied celestial body, overtaking even the closest Moon by these criteria. Researchers are attracted to many things: a relatively short flight time (even with existing technologies - less than a year). Suitable surface conditions: the absence of extreme pressures and temperatures, acceptable background radiation, illumination and gravity. Of all the planets, Mars is most suitable for the search for extraterrestrial life (even if in the distant past), and in the future it is suitable for landing on its surface of a manned expedition.

However, the path to the Red Planet is littered with accidents and debris of spacecraft: just over half of the 45 launched expeditions reached the Red Planet. And only a few were able to complete the planned program.

Space does not forgive haste and the slightest mistake. Many of the "explorers of Mars" failed in their mission at the start. This mainly refers to the space race 60-x, when, on the instructions of the party and the government, it was necessary to start up the vehicle at any cost and achieve priority in space. As a result, Mars 1960А, 1960В, and Mariner 8 stations died in the Earth’s atmosphere due to rocket crashes.

Even more stations could get into the reference orbit, but could not reach the departure trajectory: someone got stuck on the DOE, like Phobos-Grunt, and later returned to Earth in the form of a dazzlingly bright race car; someone did not gain the necessary speed for a flight to Mars and disappeared without a trace in the open spaces of heliocentric orbits (Mariner 3). In total, only 45 (including MAVEN) was able to exit from the 31 launched probes to the calculated trajectory to the flight to Mars. To the credit of our country, the first of the spacecraft to head for the Red Planet was the Soviet probe Mars-1 (1 was launched in November of 1962). Unfortunately, the following paragraph tells about it.


The layout of the interplanetary automated station Mars-1

This nightmare begins during the many months flight to Red Flight. One wrong command - and the device, having lost its orientation, loses the possibility of communication with the Earth, turning into useless space debris. There was a similar nuisance with the Mars-1 station - nitrogen leakage from the orientation system cylinders: communication with the station was lost at a distance of 106 million km from Earth. Another device, Zond-2, suffered from incomplete opening of solar panels: the resulting power outages caused the onboard equipment to fail, and Zond-2 quietly died before the eyes of its creators. According to ballistic calculations, 6 August 1965, unguided probe was supposed to pass in the vicinity of Mars.

The Japanese Nozomi probe was very hard and terrible dying in the open spaces of space. The absence of its own launch vehicle of the required power became a bad omen when sending an expedition to a distant planet, however, the ingenious Japanese hoped to gain the necessary speed due to complex gravitational maneuvers in the vicinity of the Earth and the Moon. Of course, everything did not go according to plan - “Nozomi” lost its course. The Japanese managed to calculate the new trajectory and again send the station to Mars, even if it was late on schedule for 4 of the year. Now the main thing - to hold out in open space for a long time. Alas ... A powerful solar flare damaged the fragile probe filling. By the time of approaching Mars, hydrazine froze in the tanks - it was not possible to give out a braking impulse, and “Nozomi” passed in despair 1000 km above the surface of the Red Planet, and did not reach the near-Martian orbit.

Under very offensive circumstances, the American Mars Observer probe (1993) was lost - the connection with it was interrupted just a few days before arriving to Mars. The most likely cause is an explosion of the engine due to leakage of fuel components.

The first who managed to overcome the difficult distance and transfer a photo of the Red Planet close by was the American probe Mariner 4, which flew in the vicinity of Mars in July 1965.

A number of vehicles was lost already in Mars orbit.

27 March 1989 was lost to the Soviet station Phobos-2, by which time 57 was already in Mars orbit. During his work, Phobos-2 transmitted to the Earth unique scientific results on the thermal characteristics of Phobos, the plasma environment of Mars and the erosion of its atmosphere under the influence of the "solar wind." Alas, it was not possible to fulfill the main task of the mission - landing Phobos Pro-F and DAS mini-probes on the surface of Phobos.

In 1999, the American station Mars Climate Orbitter was killed under curious circumstances, burnt on the very first orbit in the atmosphere of the Red Planet. An internal NASA investigation revealed that the working groups of specialists used different measurement systems - metric and traditional Anglo-Saxon (feet, pounds, inches). Since then, NASA has a ban on US units of measurement - all calculations are made exclusively in kilograms and meters.


The landing platform flaps close around the folded rover Opportunity, 2003.

Very big troubles are waiting for someone who dares to land on the surface of Mars - the insidious atmosphere is too weak to rely on the strength of parachute lines, but still too dense to approach the surface at cosmic speed. This sounds unusual, but Mars in terms of landing is one of the most complex celestial bodies!

Landing occurs in several stages: brake engines, aerodynamic braking in the upper atmosphere, slowing down a parachute, again brake engines, engines of soft landing / inflatable "airbags" or a unique "air crane". A separate line is the problem of stabilization.

The heaviest of man-made objects that could be brought to the surface of the planet was the Mars Rover MSL, better known as the “Curiosity” - an apparatus with a mass of 900 kg (weight in the gravitational field of Mars - 340 kg). But, we admit honestly, the flight specialists and outside observers were stunned by the complexity of the landing pattern and the problems encountered during descent in the atmosphere of the planet. 500 thousands of lines of software code, 76 squibs in a certain sequence, separation of the rover from the platform hanging in the air when the jet engines are turned on and soft lowering from a height on nylon cables. Fantasy!


Planet Mars: no water, no vegetation, populated by American robots.
Self-portrait of the rover "Curiosity"

A lot of heroes could survive the vibration and enormous overloads at the stages of launch and acceleration to Mars, withstood the brutal cold of outer space, but they died while trying to land on an insidious celestial body. For example, the Soviet Mars-2 crashed, becoming the first man-made object on the surface of Mars (1971 year).

The first station that made a soft landing on the surface of Mars was the Soviet Mars-3. Alas, due to a corona discharge, 14 seconds after landing, the station failed.

The European probe Beagle-2003 (the landing module of the Mars Express orbital probe) disappeared without a trace in 2 - the device boldly stepped into the crimson atmosphere of the planet, but after that it didn’t contact…

Mars safely keeps its secrets.

PS As of 21 in November 2013, there are two rovers on the surface of the Red Planet - Opportunity (MER-B) and Curiosity (MSL). The first one worked in those conditions already 3586 days - in 39 times longer than the estimated period and crawled over the 38 surface of kilometers during this time.
There are three spacecraft in Mars orbit: the Mars-Odyssey, the Martian orbital reconnaissance aircraft (MRO), and the Mars-Express European probe. The Odyssey lasted the longest - its mission has been going on for the thirteenth year.

A new shift rushes to help the veterans - the Indian probe Mangalyaan (launched on 5 in November 2013), as well as the aforementioned MAVEN. Hopefully, in the near future, Russia will also take an active part in the "Martian regatta" - for 2016 and 2018. Two joint Russian-French expeditions “ExoMars” are planned (a cooperation agreement was signed on 14 in March on 2013). In the same year, 2018, an updated and more advanced Phobos-Soil 2 station should go to Mars. This time everything goes well.


HiRISE high-resolution camera aboard the Martian Orbital Scout (MRO)


Forty-fifth Expedition to Mars

Traces of the rover "Opportunity", filmed by an MRO camera



Panorama of Greely Haven. View of Cape York and the crater Endeavor. The panorama was obtained by the Opportunity rover during the wintering season in 2012.
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  1. Apollo
    Apollo 21 November 2013 09: 14 New
    +3
    quote-18 November 2013 of the year from Cape Canaveral, the Atlas-V launch vehicle was launched with the automatic interplanetary station MAVEN, designed to study the atmosphere of Mars.
    Theme video

    1. xetai9977
      xetai9977 21 November 2013 11: 02 New
      +8
      I wish you success in all scientific expeditions going to the vast expanses of vast space!
  2. lazy
    lazy 21 November 2013 09: 27 New
    +3
    well, God forbid that it could fly, everything happens on the way. I’m wondering why none of the descent vehicles were planted in the area of ​​the polar caps, aren't the scientists interested in how much frozen carbon dioxide there is, but how much water? or is it a serious technical problem? maybe ours should try? polar explorers in our honor wink
  3. Nitarius
    Nitarius 21 November 2013 09: 28 New
    -12
    NASA lies and not extreme!
    That ours with the Moon are SILENT and do not say that NASA at the expense of people's taxes is NEAB ..et.
    No one is telling the truth!
  4. Veter
    Veter 21 November 2013 12: 15 New
    +4
    In the same 2018, the updated and more advanced Phobos-Grunt 2 station should go to Mars. This time everything will be successful.


    3 times Ugh! So as not to jinx it
  5. Aaron Zawi
    Aaron Zawi 21 November 2013 16: 05 New
    +5
    For the best minds of mankind there is an endless field of complexity and interest. Space exploration! Instead, they are developing resources for mutual destruction. Nonsense.
    1. Santa Fe
      21 November 2013 18: 41 New
      0
      Quote: Aron Zaavi
      Instead, they are developing resources for mutual destruction.

      What are not starships?
      1. saturn.mmm
        saturn.mmm 21 November 2013 23: 08 New
        +2
        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
        What are not starships?

        Yeah, at subsonic speed. And of course, UFOs are no less, if where to see.
        Author Planet Mars: no water, no vegetation, populated by American robots.
        Self-portrait of the rover "Curiosity"

        Self portrait? It’s interesting who set up a mirror for him there.
        1. Santa Fe
          22 November 2013 01: 59 New
          +2
          Quote: saturn.mmm
          Self portrait? It’s interesting who set up a mirror for him there.

          This is a clipping from a PIA16239 High-Resolution image. Self-Portrait by Curiosity Rover Arm Camera square, made on 84 day stay on Mars.

          The panorama is a collage of several pictures (well, you probably noticed - there, like a fisheye, the proportions are slightly distorted)
  6. saag
    saag 21 November 2013 16: 24 New
    +1
    Quote: Aron Zaavi
    boundless in complexity and interest field of activity. Space exploration!

    Indeed, all because of hydrocarbons, don’t know, for example, on Titan, you simply throw a hose into the nearest lake, turn on the pump and pump, you don’t have any drilling rigs with hydrogen sulfide, Greenpeace stocks and other things :-)
  7. Justme
    Justme 21 November 2013 18: 52 New
    0
    And now I would like to see a detailed article on the topic
    And when our space industry returns to a capable state
  8. studentmati
    studentmati 21 November 2013 20: 04 New
    +1
    Glad for world science! Glad for the creators of the RD-180!
    It is sad that we are falling, in the literal and figurative sense ...
  9. The comment was deleted.
  10. Pashhenko Nikolay
    Pashhenko Nikolay 21 November 2013 20: 19 New
    0
    It seems that Spirit is still alive on Mars, it’s stuck only. It is peeling around, waiting for help.
    1. Santa Fe
      21 November 2013 21: 25 New
      +1
      Quote: Pashhenko Nikolay
      It seems that Spirit is still alive on Mars, it’s stuck only. It is peeling around, waiting for help.

      it was stuck in a sand dune
      The last Spirit signal was received in the spring of 2010
  11. uzer 13
    uzer 13 22 November 2013 00: 58 New
    +2
    The surface of Mars. Frame from a video mounted from satellite photographs.
  12. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 22 November 2013 01: 11 New
    0
    Quote: Aaron Zawi
    For the best minds of mankind there is an endless field of complexity and interest. Space exploration! Instead, they are developing resources for mutual destruction. Nonsense.

    10000
    A Martian manned expedition on a ship with a nuclear power engine is estimated at about 100-150 billion dollars.
    1/4 ... 1/6 of the annual military budget of the United States or an amount equal to spending on cosmetics in China for the year :)
  13. abdrah
    abdrah 22 November 2013 04: 30 New
    0
    If the Americans did not lie and did not rivet photos and films, as about flying to the moon, then somehow it is suspicious. With such an abundance of urgent financial problems, send the ship to Mars. Maybe they have already found something interesting there and want to fuck everything in one mug? For example, Martian weapons .. smile
    1. postman
      postman 22 November 2013 12: 44 New
      +1
      Quote: abdrah
      how about flying to the moon it’s somehow suspicious.

      do you have these "riveted"?

      Quote: abdrah
      If the Americans didn’t lie

      2014 (in my opinion) will finish the Google contest, not one but three mines of the Lunokhod will go to the landing site of Apollo and the Lunokhod of the USSR.
      It will be cool when we see pictures of Apollo. I wonder what Velors and apologists will moo?
      Probably about the weight and size layout?
  14. postman
    postman 22 November 2013 12: 39 New
    0
    Quote: Author
    Mars - the insidious atmosphere is too weak to rely on the strength of parachute slingsbut all still too dense to approach the surface at cosmic speed. It sounds unusual, but Mars in terms of landing is one of the most complex celestial bodies!

    You continue to repeat this mistake from the article (comment) to the article (comment)
    1. About landing
    1.1. The device of the inflatable passive braking system of the last stage of the launch vehicle

    1.2. On one September day in 1966, 20 North Vietnamese soldiers, who were completely surrounded by parts of the US Marine Corps in the village of Hye San, were surprised to see an amazing sight in their optical sights. An American transport aircraft C-000 fell out of the clouds, sharply dived towards the surrounded infantrymen and sank over an even strip of land cleared from debris to a height of about two meters, which in itself was a risky trick. But the miracles did not end there: a small parachute appeared from the open cargo hatch, like a powerful arm pulling out a pallet with cargo from the bowels of the transporter, which a moment later plowed the ground under the plane.
    2. About approaching the surface at cosmic speed?
    it’s not very clear, but where (to which celestial body) can one approach at cosmic speed?
    The forces of gravity will not tear?
    You can of course, and so: "The spacecraft hit the moon back in 1959, but this happened in the absence of the descent vehicle, and the impact on the lunar surface ended in complete destruction of the spacecraft. However, the special (volumetric) arrangement of the pennants allowed some of them to be intact."
    What's the point?
    3.About one of the hardest to land
    Yes?
    you would be on Jupiter ...
  15. postman
    postman 22 November 2013 12: 40 New
    0
    Quote: Author
    Mars - the insidious atmosphere is too weak to rely on the strength of parachute slingsbut all still too dense to approach the surface at cosmic speed. It sounds unusual, but Mars in terms of landing is one of the most complex celestial bodies!

    You continue to repeat this mistake from the article (comment) to the article (comment)
    1. About landing
    1.1. The device of the inflatable passive braking system of the last stage of the launch vehicle
    http://img.findpatent.ru/56/562353-s.gif
    1.2. On one September day in 1966, 20 North Vietnamese soldiers, who were completely surrounded by parts of the US Marine Corps in the village of Hye San, were surprised to see an amazing sight in their optical sights. An American transport aircraft C-000 fell out of the clouds, sharply dived towards the surrounded infantrymen and sank over an even strip of land cleared from debris to a height of about two meters, which in itself was a risky trick. But the miracles did not end there: a small parachute appeared from the open cargo hatch, like a powerful arm pulling out a pallet with cargo from the bowels of the transporter, which a moment later plowed the ground under the plane.
    2. About approaching the surface at cosmic speed?
    it’s not very clear, but where (to which celestial body) can one approach at cosmic speed?
    The forces of gravity will not tear?
    You can of course, and so: "The spacecraft hit the moon back in 1959, but this happened in the absence of the descent vehicle, and the impact on the lunar surface ended in complete destruction of the spacecraft. However, the special (volumetric) arrangement of the pennants allowed some of them to be intact."
    What's the point?
    3.About one of the hardest to land
    Yes?
    you would be on Jupiter ...
    1. Santa Fe
      22 November 2013 16: 24 New
      +1
      Quote: Postman
      The device of an inflatable passive braking system of the last stage of the launch vehicle
      http://img.findpatent.ru/56/562353-s.gif

      If everything is so simple - why did the Yankees need an enchanting "air cock"
      Or the landing of the "Pathfinder" - they slowed down, slowed down - and all the same crashed at a speed of 100 km / h, only the inflatable cushions were saved
      Quote: Postman
      You continue to repeat this mistake from the article (comment) to the article (comment)

      What mistake? I read this in the findings of the Augustine Commission.
      Quote: Postman
      About approaching the surface at cosmic speed?

      At 73 hours and 35 minutes, having made two turns in an elliptical selenocentric orbit, the astronauts switched on the main engine of the ship, which worked for 9 seconds and transferred the ship into an almost circular orbit with a height of resettlement of 112,1 km, a height of settlement of 112,7 km and a circulation period of approximately 2 hours.
      During the flight in a circular orbit, the astronauts continued shooting the moon, the Earth and navigation experiments. At the sixth turn, Bormann ordered to stop all experiments in connection with overfatigue of the crew.


      try to do such a trick around Mars.
      ETOGES what fuel economy! - during the descent to Mars it will be necessary to hang on a rocket engine in the gravitational field of the planet. And here you can get close to the surface itself
      Quote: Postman
      you would be on Jupiter ...

      Well, you would have remembered the Alpha Centauri
      The same Ganymede, Moon or Titan is much easier in terms of landing
      1. postman
        postman 22 November 2013 21: 12 New
        +1
        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
        - slowed down, slowed down - but crashed vseravno at a speed of 100 km / h, only airbags saved

        EVERYTHING NORMAL:

        YOU DO NOT LEARN:
        It should also be noted one fundamental difficulty of all expeditions to Mars - this is the signal delay. The time for which a signal from the Earth reaches the “red planet” (or vice versa), 14 minutes, which means that, even wanting to intervene in the landing process, it is likely to be late.
        Did not use parachute (purely) because of this and because of the winds

        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
        try to do such a trick around Mars.

        compared the ass (Mars) and the finger (moon), nothing like that about gravity (difference)

        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
        And here you can get close to the surface itself

        Mars is not for you the Moon and not an asteroid, such a trick will not work


        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
        The same Ganymede, Moon or Titan is much easier in terms of landing

        GRAVITY, you always try to compare Lilliputians (satellites) with Golevers (planets)

        And THE ATMOSPHERE (for landing, for braking) - THIS IS ALWAYS GOOD !!!!
        - free and on site
        - heat sink and heat protection
        - Archimedean force
        1. Santa Fe
          22 November 2013 21: 53 New
          0
          Quote: Postman
          you always try to compare the midgets (satellites) with the gulivers (planets)

          And how do the sizes of Titan and Ganymede compare with the sizes of the "terrestrial" planets? The same Mars or Mercury? wink
          Quote: Postman
          EVERYTHING NORMAL:

          What is normal? Pathfinder crashed into sand at a speed of 100 km / h, jumped five times on an air cushion.
          Quote: Postman
          compared the ass (Mars) and the finger (moon), nothing like that about gravity (difference)

          Space speed there is also not 8 km / s

          The satellites are capable of flying at any altitude (how much is the minimum orbit with short-term stability - less than 200 km?) - the danger is not that gravity will break them. but that they burn out in the atmosphere.
          Quote: Postman
          even wanting to intervene in the landing process is likely to be late. Did not use parachute (purely) because of this and because of the winds

          fool
          But what about Huygens on Titan? there was generally a delay of a couple of hours.
          Or numerous landings on Venus, where the winds are abruptly
          Quote: Postman
          - heat sink and heat protection

          It's good
          Quote: Postman
          - Archimedean force

          On Mars, negligible
          1. postman
            postman 23 November 2013 15: 06 New
            0
            Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
            The same Mars or Mercury? wink

            Even we confuse.

            How many times does the weight of a person on Jupiter exceed the weight of the same person on Earth?
            ANSWER: Only 2,55 times.
            And how many times is Jupiter larger than Earth?

            NOT DIMENSIONS, but gravity (g) WELL AND MASS:
            The acceleration of gravity at the equator of MARSA is equal to 3,711 m / s² (0,378 Earth);




            Now we will agree that on Earth the astronaut-traveler weighs exactly 70 kg. Then for other planets we get the following weight values ​​(planets are arranged in order of increasing weight):
            Pluto 4,5
            Mercury 26,5 (compare SIZE with MARS)
            Mars 26,5
            Saturn 62,7
            Uranus 63,4
            Venus 63,4
            Earth 70,0
            Neptune 79,6
            Jupiter 161,2
            Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
            Space speed there is also not 8 km / s

            Well you pppppyoXXX !! Must
            Well alienate like this:

            (substitute here the M-mass of the planet and its radius)
            first space velocity for
            MARSA is 3,6 km / s and the second is 5,027 km / s.

            Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
            But what about Huygens on Titan? there was generally a delay of a couple of hours.

            Acceleration of gravity (G) on Titan =1,352 m / s (in sq.), at P = 1,5 atm Earth.

            DO I NEED TO CONTINUE? (You can swim in his atmosphere)

            Atmosphere of titanium is about 400 kilometers in thickness and contains several layers of hydrocarbon "smog", which is why Titan is the only satellite in the solar system, the surface of which cannot be observed through a telescope.
            Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
            On Mars, negligible

            Come on ,
            Archimedes Law: FA = Vρg.
            The atmospheric pressure on Mars is 200 times less than on Earth.
            Since the atmospheric pressure p = ρgh (and g on Mars is 3 times smaller), then the air density will be 67 times less.
            1. Santa Fe
              23 November 2013 15: 36 New
              0
              Quote: Postman
              Mercury 26,5 (compare SIZE with MARS)
              Mars 26,5

              And on Titan - 10 kg! What about the heavier Ganymede?
              Quote: Postman
              Space speed there is also not 8 km / s
              Well you pppppyoXXX !! We must alienate it this way:

              But what’s wrong? Like I said - at times less. Gravity is not dangerous.
              Quote: Postman
              DO I NEED TO CONTINUE? (You can swim in his atmosphere)

              How about landing on Venus. Where there are winds, and the stabilization problem (with g = terrestrial!) And a communication delay of 10 minutes. And nevertheless, they successfully parachuted
              Quote: Postman
              then the air density will be 67 times less.

              Down the drain such a force of Archimedes.
      2. postman
        postman 22 November 2013 21: 24 New
        +1
        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
        If everything is so simple - why did the Yankees need an enchanting "air cock"

        The technology turned out to be quite simple, but at the same time brilliant! It uses a huge parachute, "air crane" and other interesting things. Nand landing will take only 7 minutes, these minutes are called "7 minutes of horror"

        EVERYTHING (!) Is the same as in "ARMOR FALLS FROM THE SKY"
        Rocket brake flash

        Landing phases of military equipment landing using a parachute-reactive system. Not far from the earth, solid propellant jet engines sharply slow down the descent. Thanks to the "rocket" brakes, it is possible to increase the speed of descent, which makes the machine less vulnerable when landing.


        http://www.popmech.ru/article/14076-bronya-padaet-s-neba/photo/30738/#foto
        1. studentmati
          studentmati 22 November 2013 21: 27 New
          0
          Quote: Postman
          Not far from the earth, solid propellant jet engines sharply slow down the descent.


          Thanks to the mechanical probe? How's the landing?
  16. postman
    postman 22 November 2013 21: 16 New
    +1
    Forty-fifth Expedition to Mars
    Martian Chronicles



    Recently, NASA’s extraordinary interest in the exploration of Mars has been noted; a feeling is being prepared of the imminent landing of astronauts on the Red Planet. Numerous devices have studied Mars up and down, NASA experts are interested in everything: orbital scouts conduct detailed surface mapping and measurements of the planet’s fields, descent vehicles and rovers study the geology and climatic conditions on the surface. A separate issue is the presence of water on Mars - according to the latest data, the devices still found signs of water ice. So it is up to the small thing - to send a person there.

    Since 1996, NASA has organized 11 scientific expeditions to Mars (of which 3 ended in failure):

    - Mars Global Serveyor (1996) - the automatic interplanetary station (AMS) 9 has been in Martian orbit for years, making it possible to gather as much information as possible about this distant mysterious world. After the completion of the mission to map the surface of Mars, the AMC went into repeater mode, ensuring the operation of the rovers.

    - Mars Pathfinder (1996 g.) - “Pathfinder” worked on the surface of the 3 of the month, the rover was used for the first time during the mission.

    - Mars Climate Orbiter (1999 g.) - an accident in Mars orbit. The Americans mixed up in the calculations of the unit of measurement (Newton and pound of force).

    - Mars Polar Lander (1999 g.) - the station crashed while landing

    - Deep Space 2 (1999 g.) - the third failure, AMC is lost under unexplained circumstances.

    - Mars Odyssey (2001 g.) - was looking for traces of water from the Martian orbit. Found. Currently used as a repeater.

    - Mars Exploration Rover A (2003 g.) And Mars Exploration Rover B (2003 g.) - two probes with Mars Spirit (MER-A) and Opportunity rovers (MER-B). "Spirit" stuck in the ground in the 2010 year, after which it failed. His twin still shows signs of life on the other side of the planet.

    - Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (2006) - “Martian orbital reconnaissance” surveys Martian landscapes with a high-resolution camera, selects the best places for future landings, explores the spectra of rocks, measures radiation fields. The mission is active.

    - Phoenix (2007 g.) - "Phoenix" explored the polar regions of Mars, worked on the surface for less than a year.

    - Mars Science Laboratory - 28 July 2012, the rover "Curiosity" began to perform the task. The 900-kilogram apparatus must crawl 19 km along the slopes of the Gale crater, determining the mineral composition of the Martian rocks.
    1. Santa Fe
      22 November 2013 21: 56 New
      0
      at that time I did not know about Augustine and the tactics of flexible Path
  17. twister
    twister 28 November 2013 13: 38 New
    0
    I believe that it is enough to send one expedition to Mars to understand that it’s not worth the hell!