Military Review

The weapon of the century. Top Submarines

Rating from the magazine "Popular Mechanics"

The most revolutionary: the project 705 "Lyra"

This история looks like a legend. But the fact that the "Alpha", almost invulnerable to the weapons of that time, literally turned all the American ideas about underwater navy and anti-submarine weapons - this is already true.

The concept of the 705-th project was formed at the end of 1950-x. A small automated submarine with a reduced crew was supposed to be a kind of underwater interceptor capable of catching and hitting any target. By a special decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Chief Designer Mikhail Rusanov was allowed to deviate from the existing rules and rules of shipbuilding when designing a machine.

The phenomenal speed of more than 40 units was supposed to be achieved due to the high power of the power plant with small size and weight of the ship. The body is welded from titanium. To make the boat compact, radically reduced crew size. For the first time in history, an integrated automated control system was used on a submarine. All combat and technical means of the ship were controlled and controlled from the central post. The galley was even mechanized. The highly professional crew of the ship consisted of 24 officers and six midshipmen.

The power plant "Alpha" more than half a century ahead of its time. The heart of the ship became a fast neutron reactor with liquid metal coolant (LMT). Instead of water, lead and bismuth melt flowed in its cooling circuits. Fast neutron reactors are safer than traditional reactors and have a high power density, and the LMT makes it possible to quickly bring the power plant to maximum power.

“Alpha” could accelerate to full speed in just a minute, turn at full speed 180 degrees in just 42 s, to enter the shadow zone of the target systems of the enemy ship. The speed of more than 40 nodes allowed to go away from the torpedoes. At full speed, the car made a terrible noise and was easily noticeable to the acoustics, but its detection plunged the opponent into fear: it was almost impossible to resist Alpha in a duel.

In service of the Soviet fleet consisted of six boats
705 th project. The submarine of the future was too complicated
in operation. The prototype revealed cracking of welds of the titanium case. The nuclear plant "Alpha" had to be constantly maintained in working condition so that the temperature of the liquid metal band did not fall below 120 ° С. As a result of malfunctions on the K-123 boat, the reactor was shut down, the coolant froze, and the entire power plant turned into a radioactive pile of metal that cannot be recovered. Recycling of the reactor is not completed to this day.

The very first: Holland class

Powerplant: gasoline-electric
Length: 19,46 m
Displacement: 125 t
Maximum immersion depth: 30 m
Submerged Speed: 8 knots (14,8 km / h)
Crew: 8 people

Irish immigrant John Phillip Holland first guessed to install on the submarine two engines: electric for underwater travel and petrol for surface stages. This allowed the Holland boats to successfully manifest themselves in the Russian-Japanese war, and on the Russian and Japanese sides.

The very first atomic: SSN-571 "Nautilus"

Powerplant: atomic
Length: 97 m
Displacement: 4222 t
Maximum immersion depth: 213 m
Submerged speed: 23 node (42,6 km / h)
Crew: 111 people

The first nuclear submarine - that says it all. It differed from diesel-electric boats not only in the power plant, but also in its layout: the location of ballast tanks, equipment placement, and hull construction. The Nautilus became the first submarine to reach the North Pole.

The deepest: K-278 "Komsomolets"

Powerplant: atomic
Length: 110 m
Displacement: 8500 t
Maximum immersion depth: 1250 m
Submerged speed: 31 node (57,4 km / h)
Crew: 60 people

The world's only submarine project 685 "Fin" set a world record, sinking to a depth of 1027 m. Both durable and light hull were made of titanium alloy. At the kilometer depth, Komsomolets was practically invulnerable to any anti-submarine weapons invisible to sonar detection devices. The only ship of the 685 project was killed 7 on April 1989 of the year as a result of a fire.

Most prolific: Project 613

Powerplant: diesel electric
Length: 76,06 m
Displacement: 1347 t
Maximum immersion depth: 200 m
Submerged Speed: 13 knots (24 km / h)
Crew: 52 person

The 613 diesel-electric medium submarine of the project was built by the largest in the post-war history series in 215 ships. At its base, the 21 modification of the submarines was created, including an experimental boat with an air-independent power plant on fuel cells, a boat armed with cruise missiles, a submarine of the radar patrol and experimental boats for launching ballistic missile models.

Most popular: U-Boot Klasse VII

Country: Germany
Powerplant: diesel electric
Length: 66,6 m
Displacement: 857 t
Maximum immersion depth: 250 m
Submerged Speed: 8 knots (14,8 km / h)
Crew: 48 people

The submarine of the seventh class is known not only for a record number of built copies (during the Second World War, 703 machines were put into operation), but also for remarkable combat performance. The famous U-48 carried out 12 combat trips with a total duration of 325 days and sank the 51 ship and one warship.

The deadliest: Project 949A "Antey"

Powerplant: atomic
Length: 155 m
Displacement: 24 000 t
Maximum immersion depth: 600 m
Submerged speed: 32 node (59,3 km / h)
Crew: 130 people

In the world, submarines of the 949A project are called “aircraft carrier killers”. The huge ship with an underwater displacement of 24 000 t carries on board the 24 cruise missiles of the Granit anti-ship complex. One of the 11 ships of the Antey project was the Kursk K-141, which died in the Barents Sea 12 in August 2000.

The most awesome: SSBN-598 "George Washington"

Powerplant: atomic
Length: 116,3 m
Displacement: 6888 t
Maximum immersion depth: 270 m
Submerged Speed: 25 knots (46,3 km / h)
Crew: 112 people

With its appearance, the first atomic bomber "George Washington" completed the formation of the classical nuclear triad - a modern nuclear deterrence mechanism, in which the strategic arsenal of the state is located on land, at sea and in the air. The ship carried 16 two-stage UGM-27 “Polaris” ballistic missiles and could launch their depths of 20 m.

The biggest: 941 project "Shark"

Powerplant: atomic
Length: 172,8 m
Displacement: 49800 t
Maximum immersion depth: 500 m
Submerged Speed: 25 knots (46,3 km / h)
Crew: 160 people

A strategic strategic nuclear submarine nuclear-powered missile cruiser is armed with 20 three-stage solid-fuel missiles with a range of more than 8300 km with ten separate head units for individual targeting. Full submersible bomber rocket - 49800 t. Full power - 100000 hp
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  1. VX
    VX 21 March 2011 01: 20
    The photo does not depict U-boot klasse, but a modern submarine. Similar to the Vanguard submarine.
  2. Forward
    Forward April 5 2011 08: 57
    I think our submarines are by far the most advanced. No matter what
  3. Nicholas
    Nicholas April 10 2011 16: 04
    This is not so for a long time! We have long lagged behind our potential friends in quantity, quality and tactics.
    CARTRIDGE 7 September 2011 21: 58
    One of the 11 ships of the Antey project was the K-141 Kursk, which died in the Barents Sea on August 12, 2000 — it was more correct to write it was sunk by an American submarine ...
  5. dimarm74
    dimarm74 7 September 2011 22: 14
    Yeah ... the USSR had many classes .... Project 949A "Antey", this is a purely anti-ship version ... of course there are no analogues. Still, the optimal way is, of course, the multipurpose nuclear submarines 885 Ash ... but they are being built ... at such a pace that of course it does not inspire optimism. And their weapons:

    Ten torpedo tubes of caliber 650 mm and 533 mm are located on the sides of the boat in the area of ​​the fence retractable devices.
    8 vertical missile silos, each of which has 4 cruise missiles. [10] Replacing missile weapons, it is planned to reorient the boat to perform various tasks in a wide range - from hitting stationary ground targets with ZM-14E missiles to fighting enemy submarines with missile torpedoes and destroying aircraft carriers with ZM-54E anti-ship missiles.

    Total: 32 PU P-800 Onyx, X-35, X-101, ZM-54E and ZM-54E1 class ship-to-ship, ZM-14E class ship-to-ground.
    1. kesa1111
      kesa1111 7 November 2011 00: 29
      Missile armament: 24 anti-ship missile system “Onyx” (3 missiles in the mine), it is possible to use ASR, SAM missiles underwater launch, ultra-small submarines-robots.
      Torpedo armament: 8 TA caliber 533 and 650 mm. 30 torpedoes, missile torpedoes, missiles, false targets, naval mines.
  6. Tolia
    Tolia 2 November 2011 23: 24
    "Weapon of the Century. The Best Sumbarins"

    not a sump, but a SUBMARIN ..
  7. Denis
    Denis 14 November 2011 08: 10
    This allowed Holland boats to successfully prove themselves in the Russo-Japanese War, and on the Russian and Japanese sides as well.

    and how did they manifest themselves?
  8. Evgeny B.
    Evgeny B. 16 November 2011 23: 52
    Russia - the most important submarine fleet! All its banks are washed by freezing seas, so the surface fleet without icebreakers is just a target, and the underwater fleet is what you need.