Military Review

Why is Alexander Nevsky afraid today?

36
Why is Alexander Nevsky afraid today?By the 750 anniversary of the death of the Holy Prince


In Poland and in the West in general, as well as among many supporters of European integration in today's Belarus, the name of Alexander Nevsky causes strong irritation. If we talk about the Poles and Belarusian separatists - opponents of the Union State and rapprochement with Russia, then in this environment, Alexander Nevsky, along with Alexander Suvorov, is one of the most hated historical characters.

With generalissimo A.V. Suvorov is pretty clear about everything - it was he who defeated the Polish insurrection under the leadership of T. Kosciuszko, which broke out in Krakow in 1794 and then spread to other Polish and partially to Lithuanian-Belarusian territories. The Polish and Catholic Catholic Belarusian-Lithuanian gentry wanted to restore the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and their rule over the Orthodox Belarusians. The peasants did not support this uprising, and Suvorov did what he could do brilliantly - he quickly defeated the enemy, defeating Kosciusko in Warsaw. But in modern Belarus, T. Kosciuszko is proclaimed a national hero only on the grounds that he was born on the territory of Belarus and fought against Russia. Therefore, the identity of Suvorov is being attacked in the style of “the strangler and executioner of the Belarusian people”, although it is the Belarusian people who are obliged, first of all, to Suvorov for their liberation from noble bondage. There is a museum AV Suvorov in Kobrin, Suvorov School in Minsk, however, certain forces constantly make attempts to remove the name of the Generalissimo from the name of the military school, transforming it into a "gentry corps", and liquidate the museum.

In this sense, the similar and obvious hostility of the Poles and Belarusian “svyadomykh” in relation to the holy blessed Prince Alexander Nevsky seems far less understandable and reasonable: he did not fight with Poland.

However, the reasons for such an attitude become clear if we recall the interest shown by Pope Innocent IV to the personality of the Russian prince. This interest was not at all in the desire to establish a relationship with the famous commander. Pope, realizing that after the Mongol invasion, Russia was in an extremely difficult situation, he tried to take advantage of this and sent two letters to Alexander Nevsky when he was in the Golden Horde in 1247. He proposed to Nevsky to adopt Catholicism, to translate Rus into Catholicism, promising for this joint struggle against the Mongols by organizing general crusades against the Horde.

Not to mention the difficulties of the practical implementation of this plan, I must say that with such a scenario, Russia would become the scene of a fierce struggle between the Catholic West and the Horde, with quite predictable consequences.

Alexander Nevsky was well aware of the experience of such unions and crusades on the example of the Byzantine Empire. In the 1204 year, during the Fourth campaign, the crusaders intervened in the internal feuds in Constantinople, seized the city and power in Byzantium, plundering Orthodox churches, including Hagia Sophia. (From the power of the Crusaders managed to free themselves only in 1261 year.)

Alexander Nevsky did not respond to the first letter, and the second, returning from the Horde, gave a decisive refusal, after consulting with representatives of the ruling elite and clergy of Russia. According to some reports, the poisoning of Nevsky’s father, Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich, in the 1246 year in the Horde one year before the events described could have been connected precisely with the activity of Rome to incline Yaroslav to accept Catholicism and joint action against the Mongols.

Europe was seriously scared by the invasion of Batu. Contrary to the historical version rooted in Europe, the Mongols were not at all exhausted upon reaching the Adriatic coast. Batu turned back not because he was afraid of a battle with the European armies, but for a completely different reason. At that time, the great khan unexpectedly died, and Batu decided to hurry back: the division of the vast empire, including securing Batu’s right to control the conquered Russia, was much more important for the Mongol khan than the continuation of the conquest of Europe. No matter how strange it may seem to many of our lovers to put Europe at the center of the universe, for Batu it was simply a distant periphery. The underestimation of this fact is due to the fact that we still, unfortunately, pay much more attention to the history of England and France and to various events of little significance for Russian history like Bartholomew’s night and the struggle of the Red and White Roses, ignoring the much more important history of relations between Russia and Russia Hordes, events in the states of Genghisides, in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Commonwealth.

However, the departure of Batu did not mean that the Mongols would not return to Europe. They could come there in a few decades just as they came to Russia again after the battle of Kalka. Europe was not saved by its army or the weakness of the Mongol-Tatars, but by the resulting turmoil over the division of the great legacy of Chingizids among the nomadic invaders. Fearing their return, as well as knowing about the troubles in the east, Pope Innocent IV and courted Alexander Nevsky. The implementation of this plan, I repeat, could also lead to the division of Russia between Catholic Europe and the Horde. As a matter of fact, a similar scenario was subsequently implemented with the formation of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the western and southern Russian lands.

In 1385, the Grand Duke of Lithuania Jagiello concluded the dynastic Krevo union with Poland, converted to Catholicism, flattered by the royal crown. Since then, the expansion of the Poles and Catholicism into western and southern Russia, the current Belarusian and Ukrainian lands, began.

The emergence of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by the current Belarusian historians serves as a peaceful process of uniting the Polotsk principality with the Lithuanian princes, and supposedly natural because of the desire to resist the Horde and North-Eastern Russia (future Muscovy). At the same time, the facts show that this process was not so peaceful at all. True, the Lithuanian expansion to the weakened and devastated Russian lands was also carried out with the help of dynastic marriages, but it also threatened the existence of Russia, which Alexander Nevsky understood perfectly. When the Lithuanians began active raids on the Polotsk lands, in 1245, the prince launched a military campaign against them and defeated them. This is what is said in “The Life of Alexander Nevsky”: “At that time, the Lithuanian people multiplied, and Aleksandrov’s volosts began to ravage ... And he beat seven regiments of soldiers for one trip, many princes beat them, and took others captive ... And they became from that time they are afraid of his name ... ".

The Polotsk principality from the beginning of the XIII century led a hard struggle with the Crusaders. The first to fall was the Russian city of Kukeynos, which covered Polotsk. He burned it, but did not give the enemy the famous Prince Vyachka. It is symbolic that Vyachka after the incident went to the Pskov-Novgorod lands and died a few years later in a battle with the Crusaders during the defense of Yuriev. Then the crusaders destroyed the city of Gercik. Having lost control over the mouth of the Dvina, the Polotsk principality still stopped the advance of the Crusaders to Russia. In 1239, Alexander Nevsky took the wife of the Polotsk prince Bryachislav Paraskeva as his wife. The son of Nevsky and his relatives lived for some time in Vitebsk. Therefore, it is not surprising that Polotsk and Vitebsk warriors, among whom the huntsman Yakov Polochanin, took part in the battle against 1242 on Lake Peipsi against the Crusaders.

Thus, Alexander Nevsky did not allow the crusaders or pagan Lithuania to seize parts of the Russian lands, on which modern Belorussia was later formed.

And since the dynasties of the Lithuanian-Russian princes, especially those who converted to Catholicism and became the Polish king Jagiello, in modern Belorussia were almost declared pillars of the Belarusian statehood, Alexander Nevsky is their obvious historical antipode. His refusal to convert to Catholicism, as well as the defeat of the Lithuanians who tried to seize Russian lands, and the preservation of the unity and originality of Russia, even under the Mongol-Tatar protectorate, make him a figure so hated both for the Poles and for the current Russophobic part of the Belarusian society. The role of Alexander Nevsky is tried in every way to belittle: he is declared only a miserable servant of the Mongols, and his victories on the Neva and Lake Peipsi are minor and meaningless. At the same time, the defeat of the Lithuanian troops in 1245 and the letters of Pope Innocent IV are carefully ignored.

Alexander Nevsky is an Orthodox saint, for a long time Orthodox Belarusians and Ukrainians turned to him for protection with prayers, as a defender of the faith and commander. This religious and civilization confrontation passes through the centuries.

In 1894, thanks to the initiative of the hero of the Russian-Turkish war I.V. Gurko, who was then provisional governor-general of Poland, built the Alexander Nevsky Church on Saxon Square in Warsaw. At that time in Warsaw, there were approximately 42 000 Orthodox believers, many military for whom the name of Alexander Nevsky was sacred, and there were not enough Orthodox churches. Emperor Alexander III personally approved the project L.N. Benoit. Next to the temple, the 70-meter bell tower, which became the highest building in Warsaw, began to be erected.

The Alexander Nevsky Church has become a true pearl of architecture and art. Altar painted V.M. Vasnetsov, icons created by V.P. Guryanov and other best Russian icon painters. A large number of granite, marble, semi-precious stones, precious metals were used, 16 made the richest mosaic compositions, 14 bells were cast, the largest of which was the fifth largest in the whole Russian Empire. In total, according to independent experts, there were at least 2 000 items in the temple that are of significant value to world culture and art. 20 May 1912 of the year the cathedral was consecrated.

After the outbreak of the First World War, it was decided to evacuate the iconostasis and the most valuable objects of decoration from the temple. As soon as the Germans entered Warsaw, in 1915 the church was converted into a church and at the same time into a military church. A copper coating was torn off the domes, and an organ and rows of parishioners, Catholics and Lutherans, were installed inside the church. But so far no one could have imagined that the so-called enlightened Europe is much more prone to barbarism than the "barbaric" East that it criticizes.

In 1918, the Polish authorities, which had just gained independence, began to think about what to do with the cathedral. A request was sent to the art history department of the University of Vilna, which decided that the cathedral had no historical and artistic value. In 1922, the 70 bell tower was destroyed. In 1924, the fate of the grand cathedral was easily decided by those who claim to be “civilized”.

The decision to destroy the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral shocked even a moderate part of Polish society — many suggested that it be rebuilt, converted into a church.

In Soviet Russia, no one was going to intercede for the church. The “world community”, verbally condemning the Polish authorities, also did nothing to preserve the temple.

During 1924-1926, the temple was blown up and pulled apart. In order to give symbolism to this unpopular outside of Poland (and in Poland itself), the shares of the Warsaw authorities even issued special coupons. The Poles who bought them could be proud of having participated in the destruction of the cathedral with their personal means. The most valuable materials from which the cathedral was built were later used in the construction of various objects in Warsaw and even Krakow (including for the pedestal of the Pilsudski monument, which made the decision to destroy the church). It is curious that during the war years in 1942, the Germans renamed the place where the temple was, into Adolf Hitler Square.

The destruction of the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral was far from the only atrocity of the Polish authorities. Taking advantage of the weakening of Orthodoxy in Soviet Russia, in Poland only in 1918-1920 many Orthodox churches were destroyed. For example, in 1924-1925, in Lublin, the majestic Orthodox Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross was destroyed. These barbaric acts continued later. Thus, in the 1938 year, in the Kholmshchyna region, with the active participation of the police and troops, a large number of Orthodox rural churches were destroyed, whose parishioners were Ukrainians who lived here for many centuries. Not endlessly recalling Katyn, demanding repentance from Russia, modern Poland has not yet condemned its own excesses against the Orthodox population, the mass executions of captured Red Army soldiers and did not repent of anything. In many ways, unfortunately, this is because since the days of the USSR we have not posed these important questions for the Poles and Poland now: they treated Orthodoxy in the USSR with hostility, and the fact of the execution of the captured Poles to the Red Army did not want to publicize do not damage the credibility of the Red Army.

The Belarusians, who were outside the borders of the USSR under Polish rule, tried as best they could to protect the Alexander Nevsky Church in Warsaw. The forces were unequal, but still managed to save something.

Thus, in the St. Simeon's Church in Kamenets, near Xelovezhskaya Pushcha, in 1920, a three-tier iconostasis was installed, made in Warsaw at the beginning of the 19th century, of carved, dark, bog oak for the side chapel of the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Warsaw. The iconostasis survived and with the help of the regent of the choir of the temple in Kamenets, Semyon Korneluk was bought by the resident of the Pruska village Theodosia Traychuk in memory of his son-pilot who died in 1918 in France. Separate parts of mosaic panels from the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral were transported to the Polissya city of Baranavichy and they decorated the walls of an Orthodox church built in 1931 in honor of the Intercession of the Theotokos. Thanks to this, a small fragment of a unique composition by V.M. Vasnetsov, "He rejoices about you ..." and part of the mosaic N.A. Kosheleva “Spas with the builder”, which depicts L.N. Benoit holding a model of the cathedral. Something that was taken out into evacuation after the start of the First World War was preserved in the museums of Russia, but on the whole, the damage to Russian and world culture is irreparable.

For comparison, we can give, as they say, a mirror situation with the famous church of Saints Simeon and Helen, better known as the Red Church, located on Independence Square in Minsk near the Government House. The Belarusians not only did not demolish it during the Soviet era (although there were such attempts), but also carefully preserved it and then restored it. Now it is a valid Catholic church.

... But the name of Alexander Nevsky could not be erased completely from the consciousness and memory of the Belarusians. In the Grodno region, on the territory controlled by the Poles until 1919, the Poles of Alexander Nevsky Church in Vertelishki operated to the present day. And in Eastern Belarus there are temples of Alexander Nevsky. In Mstislavl, Mogilyov region, in connection with the 650 anniversary of the birth of Alexander Nevsky in 1858, they decided to build a temple, which opened its doors to parishioners in 1870 year. In this church of Alexander Nevsky kept an icon with a piece of his relics.

In 1896-1898 in Minsk, designed by architect V.I. Struev at the military cemetery was built the temple of Alexander Nevsky. This is practically the only Minsk Orthodox church that has retained its original appearance. The temple was built to perpetuate the memory of the heroes of the Russian-Turkish war 1877-1878. The names of 118 soldiers of the Kolomna Regiment and the artillery brigade who died for the liberation of Bulgaria are immortalized on white marble plates with gold. Officers and soldiers who fell in that war were buried in the temple and near it. The heroes of the Great Patriotic War, Belarusian poets Y. Kupala and Y. Kolas and other famous people also found their rest here. At the beginning of the 1960-s, they wanted to close the temple and set up a coffin-making workshop there.

The temple was able to defend. And in the summer of 1992, the construction of the Alexander Nevsky Church in Vitebsk began. Initially, he was called upon to become a temporary church until the restoration of the Holy Annunciation Church was completed (in which, according to legend, Alexander Nevsky himself was). But over time, fell in love with the townspeople, and he was left in the same place, although there were enough of those who wanted to demolish it.

It was the forces that opposed the idea of ​​the Vitebsk authorities and the public who wanted to demolish the temple and set up a monument to Alexander Nevsky on the already erected pedestal near the temple opposite the Yakub Kolas Theater. 11 projects were submitted to the competition for the installation of the monument to Alexander Nevsky. A lot of people participated in the discussion. The monument was supposed to symbolize the historical, cultural and religious community of the Russian and Belarusian peoples, to serve as a symbol of movement towards the further development of the Union State, the Eurasian Union.

To the greatest regret, in recent years, the cultural-historical policy in Belarus has begun to tilt towards Russophobia and nationalism.

The idea of ​​installing the monument to Alexander Nevsky was subjected to a powerful propaganda attack from the Ministry of Culture and the Academy of Sciences, some state newspapers, and from the opposition forces of Belarus.
The main point is that Alexander Nevsky is a Russian historical character, “and we are building a sovereign Belarus, and we don’t need other heroes”. According to the plan of the people, who in many ways now determine which monuments to be placed in Belarus and where to put them, Jagiello, other Lithuanian and Polish figures of the period of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth need to perpetuate. But - these are the very people who have dedicated their lives to tearing the Belarusians away from the Russian people. And if you install a monument to Alexander Nevsky, then in comparison with his life activity, the personality of Jagiello, who betrayed Orthodoxy and his people for the sake of the royal crown, will look very unattractive.

It was hoped that the monument to Alexander Nevsky will appear in Vitebsk in the year of the 1025 anniversary of the baptism of Russia as a symbol of Orthodoxy and the unity of nations, but the pedestal, alas, is still empty. But before the arrival of the heads of the Orthodox local churches in Belarus to participate in the celebrations of the 1025 anniversary of the baptism of Russia in Vitebsk, they wanted to erect a monument to the Lithuanian Prince Olgerd, one of the founders of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. After public protests, this idea has so far been abandoned, otherwise the situation would have looked completely unattractive.

On all of Belarus 12 September, on the day of memory of the holy Prince Alexander Nevsky, the divine services were held. He still stands guard over the western frontiers of Orthodoxy, causing fear and hatred among the enemies of the Russian land.
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  1. drop
    drop 18 November 2013 08: 50
    19
    Alexander Nevsky, Suvorov, Muravyov are our pride. In Belarus, the memory of the defenders of this country is honored, but not all. As in our society, there are certain figures who are even invited to work in the media (for example, Posner) who hate Russia and Belarus. My parents are from Belarus, I myself once headed state structures, I did a lot to create enterprises and design bureaus in this country. For one plant in Grodno, through the Supreme Soviet of the republic, he managed to transfer the village "Bershty" to the enterprise as a subsidiary farm. A year later, a container shop with modern equipment was created there, houses, a school, a kindergarten, and a pioneer camp were built. The money was allocated by my ministry. All those who left the village came back. My son was born in the maternity hospital of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra in Leningrad. Now this maternity hospital (building) has been transferred to the Diocese. Recently I went there, my memory pulls. I am fit for it. His son is a scientist, works at a large enterprise, and also heads a department at the Academy. We need to honor our saints and defenders with the fraternal people.
    1. Walker1975
      Walker1975 18 November 2013 16: 52
      -6
      Good. And how do you justify the fact that Alexander went to the Horde for a label on reigning? According to Gumilyov, did he generally fraternize with Batu’s son Sartak? Thereby, Batu, koltory burned Kiev and other Russian cities, poisoned his father; Mikhail Chernigovsky, who refused to go through the pagan rite in the Horde, was killed, but Alexander received reign.
      For me it is all the same as if during the Second World War the Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine went to Hitler to receive the right to "reign" in Moscow, and then would heroically fight, for example, with England, periodically participating in punitive campaigns against the partisans.
      1. Setrac
        Setrac 19 November 2013 00: 59
        +2
        Quote: Walker1975
        And how do you justify the fact that Alexander went to the Horde for a label on reigning?

        Apparently the "yoke" was not as heavy as it is being promoted.
      2. Sakhalininsk
        Sakhalininsk 19 November 2013 03: 08
        +2
        Quote: Walker1975
        Good. And how do you justify the fact that Alexander went to the Horde for a label on reigning? According to Gumilyov, did he generally fraternize with Batu’s son Sartak? Thereby, Batu, koltory burned Kiev and other Russian cities, poisoned his father; Mikhail Chernigovsky, who refused to go through the pagan rite in the Horde, was killed, but Alexander received reign.


        You know, the history of the so-called yoke has too many contradictions, which, upon objective analysis, generally make one seriously doubt many of the statements of historians.

      3. ermolai
        ermolai 19 November 2013 05: 51
        0
        read the real story and not the ITS, about tartatia, about the horde. nothing about the rank from the khan that he ate fair-haired. blue-eyed. not that the eugays were pushed into the disciples
      4. 11111mail.ru
        11111mail.ru 19 November 2013 17: 30
        +1
        Quote: Walker1975
        And how do you justify the fact that Alexander went to the Horde for a label on reigning? According to Gumilyov, did he generally fraternize with Batu’s son Sartak? Thus, Batu, koltory burned Kiev and other Russian cities,

        1. History has paid off. Tolerance of the Mongols was several orders of magnitude higher than in the catholicized West, and therefore Alexander Yaroslavich became a twin of Sartak Batyevich. But the Latins bummer!
        2. Long before Batu in 1169, a coalition of eleven Russian princes, led by Mstislav Andreyevich, the son of Vladimir-Suzdal prince Andrei Bogolyubsky, took and plundered Kiev, then the Vladimir-Suzdal land acquired the Vladimir Icon of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Feudal strife, you know ... Well, if the Orthodox did this, so why blame the Mongols?
        Quote: Walker1975
        For me it is all the same as if during the Second World War the Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine went to Hitler to receive the right to "reign" in Moscow,

        You are not the first nor the last in such reflections. People smarter than you, many have left their odorous mark in this field, for example, read AABushkov "Russia, which did not exist." Separated from the historical context, you can easily cross a snake with a hedgehog and enjoy the result.
        By the way, the mentioned Gumilev bore the name and patronymic LEV NIKOLAEVICH. In the works "Ancient Russia and the Great Steppe" and from "Russia to Russia" L.N. Gumilyov substantiated his point of view on the formation of the VELIKORUSSIAN ethnos, designating Alexander Yaroslavich Nevsky among one of the first RUSSIAN passionaries, as a result of whose activities the above-named ethnos was formed. THERE WAS NOT STILL AT THAT MOMENT RUSSIANS IN THE CURRENT UNDERSTANDING and not for you, such an ideal, about a specific act of a particular historical figure to pronounce a verdict!
      5. Evgenij.
        Evgenij. 20 November 2013 04: 49
        +1
        And how do you justify the fact that Alexander went to the Horde for a label on reigning?
        justify? For what? If you went, then it was so necessary! It's not for us to judge him!
        He saved Russia!
  2. Sakhalininsk
    Sakhalininsk 18 November 2013 08: 57
    15
    There is not any surprise at the fact of hatred towards Nevsky from the psheks and local liberal mongrels. After all, for all this fetid kodla, the hangman Vlasov, devoured by Mazep’s lice and other abomination and evil spirits, are role models. So you can safely expand the school history courses with a more detailed study of the life and accomplishments of the great Russian commander Alexander Nevsky, for the benefit of the children, and with mongrels you see the deadly attack of verbal diarrhea will be accomplished.
    1. vadson
      vadson 18 November 2013 17: 13
      0
      okay verbal
  3. Tatarus
    Tatarus 18 November 2013 08: 57
    +8
    I am more and more convinced that the term "Russophobia" is high time to be placed in the section of psychiatry. Moreover, it is advisable to end the treatment with a funeral.
  4. RussianRu
    RussianRu 18 November 2013 09: 18
    +9
    It is encouraging that the influence of liberals on the minds of the people is weakening. Such articles will only accelerate the process of washing out this rot (liberals).
  5. avt
    avt 18 November 2013 09: 52
    +9
    Good article . Well, the general "trend" to search for "aristocratic roots" among the "elites", when voluptuously looking for whether a passing prince has knocked his great-grandmother in passing, is quite understandable. Out of fear of reality, they seek to justify the inviolability of their power. with the Moscow "boyars" Batkin does not shine, and neither does he himself, so they mold themselves from the princes. Our Tushino-Romanov braid has also begun, other at once the Chingizids have become. laughing .
  6. The comment was deleted.
  7. borisjdin1957
    borisjdin1957 18 November 2013 10: 29
    13
    From the Don.
    Remembering Alexander Nevsky, one should not forget about his descendants. Especially about Ivan 3, who defeated Khan Akhmat, put an end to the Horde, and defeated the Lithuanian prince Alexander, after which the sunset of Lithuania began!
  8. The comment was deleted.
  9. AVV
    AVV 18 November 2013 11: 21
    +5
    It’s good that Aleksadr Nevsky did not accept the pope’s proposal to convert Russia to Catholicism, which is now passing to Muslims in Western countries, and there are a lot of gay lobbyists, and why do we need this gayropic policy promoting its rotten ideas to the Russian to the people !!!
  10. Ascetic
    Ascetic 18 November 2013 12: 08
    10
    In general, the Golden Horde was a unique civilization, part of the Chingizid empire. It is not just a "wild steppe" with nomad yurts, but also a country of cities. Suffice it to recall the ancient Bulgar which Batu Khan made the capital after returning from the campaign of 1235-1241, when Kievan Rus was defeated and enslaved. The Russian chronicles call him the Great Bolgar, and the eastern sources call him the "Golden Throne". In the 60s of the XIV century, the city was surrounded by an earthen rampart and powerful oak walls. It turned into one of the largest cities in Europe, where more than 50 thousand people lived.
    The heyday of the Bolgar was connected precisely with the era of the Golden Horde, directly with the first khans of the Ulus of Dzhuchi. Once the Vassal principalities entered the Ulus of Dzhuchi, the Golden Horde itself occupied a vast territory: from the Irtysh River and the western foothills of Altai in the east and to the lower reaches of the Danube River on in the west, from Bulgar in the north to the Caucasian Derbent Gorge in the south.
    This huge state itself was still divided into two parts: the main, western part, i.e. the Golden Horde itself, was called Ak (White) Horde, and the eastern, which included the western territories of modern Kazakhstan and Central Asia, was Kok (Blue) Horde. This division was based on the previous ethnic border between the Kipchak and Oguz tribal unions. . If the creators of the Golden Horde state were mainly the Türkic-Tatar and Mongolian elders of the Chingizids, assimilated soon by the local population, its ethnic base was made up of various Türkic-speaking tribes: Kipchaks, Oguzes, Volga Bulgars and Tatars, who moved from Central Asia to the West back in pre-Mongol time, and also came in the 20s and 40s of the XNUMXth century as part of the armies of Genghis Khan and Batu Khan.

    In 1247, Alexander Yaroslavovich Nevsky received a label for the Great Kiev reign in Karakorum. Heavy taxes were imposed on Russian lands - yasak (tribute), haraj (honorable), tamga (trade duty), susun and uluf (food and drink for Horde officials), konak (guest duty), kulush-koltok (emergency tax) and etc. Initially, tax collection was carried out by merchants-purchasers. But because of their many abuses, the collection of tribute and other taxes was entrusted to special officials - Darugs and Baskaks with a staff of assistants and military guards. They also made a census of the population of the principalities to more fully ensure the collection of tribute. Among the Russian princes at that time two parties formed. One party in Southwest Russia, led by Daniil Galitsky, relied on the Catholic West to fight the Mongols. Alexander Nevsky and the clergy staked on the Horde in the fight against the Western invasion. The main task of Russia, Alexander Nevsky considered the fight
    against the aggression of the crusaders from the west. Despite the severity of the Horde
    yoke, Russia retained its statehood, did not threaten the Russian people
    assimilation by the conquerors.
    The Mongols could not impose their language and culture on the Russian people, and did not try to assimilate the Russians. Aggression is
    the crusaders threatened not only state but also national
    the existence and cultural development of the Russian people. It was from northeastern Russia that the revival and formation of Russian statehood went in the bowels of the Golden Horde. And southwestern Russia, polished and catholicized under the rule of Poles and Germans, essentially degraded without creating a new Kievan Rus. Therefore, the Poles of Nevsky hate it.
    1. Klin klinovv
      Klin klinovv 18 November 2013 14: 07
      -6
      ascetic You are talking nonsense after reading fairy tales of other pseudo-historians.
      (In 1247, Alexander Yaroslavovich Nevsky received a label on the Great Kiev reign in Karakorum. Heavy taxes were imposed on Russian lands - yasak (tribute), haraj (priestly), tamga (trade duty), susun and uluf (food and drink for the Horde officials), konak (guest duty), kulush-koltok (emergency tax), etc.) --- explain why the source of this fie was taken.
      FOMENKO TUDY YOU FORCE.
      by the way so much always write write write
      1. Ascetic
        Ascetic 18 November 2013 14: 36
        +5
        Quote: Klin Klinovv
        In 1247, Alexander Yaroslavovich Nevsky received a label for the Great Kiev reign in Karakorum.


        After the death of his father, in 1247, Alexander went to the Horde to Batu. From there, following his previously departed brother Andrei, he went to the great khan in Mongolia. Alexander and Andrey returned from Karakoram in 1249
        link
    2. Nicholas C.
      Nicholas C. 18 November 2013 16: 49
      +5
      Quote: Ascetic
      the ancient Bulgar that Batu Khan made the capital after returning from the campaign 1235-1241,

      Stanislav, you usually have very accurate and thorough texts, but now you have used a more than dubious source. The capital of the Golden Horde is well-known - the Barn. In Bulgaria, Batu stopped at the return and only. Well, if you talk about where the khan is, there is the capital ...

      Relations between the Bulgar and the Tatars are curious. After the defeat of the Russian-Polovtsian troops on Kalka by two Tatar Tumens, Jebe and Subadei, the returning Tatar-Mongols were in turn defeated by the Bulgars almost to zero in the Battle of Baran. There were so many prisoners that the Bulgars changed them from the calculation: one Tatar - one ram. Therefore, revenge during the Batu campaign was terrible.

      Bulgar was the territory of the Golden Horde. However, in Velikaya Zamyatnya a number of territories tried to secede. Lithuania under Olgerd bit off the northern part of modern Ukraine from the Golden Horde. Timur is something in Central Asia. The Bulgar also announced about independence, and even managed to release his own money. But it was not the outskirts, and for the independence of the Bulgars one of the khans who quickly changed in Zamyatnya, Timur Khoja, burned to ashes. Later, the rebuilt Bulgar burned the Russian troops at the request of Urus-khan, who restored control over the Horde. Twice the Bulgars were ruined by the ushkuyniks. Until Timur finally destroyed Bulgars. Later there was old Kazan (the fact that grandfather Shaimiev "celebrated" the millennium is a very separate story). And the new Kazan is already the capital, with the help of Russia, the new khanate that separated from the Horde and created by Ulu-Muhammad. The Crimean Khanate was created in a similar way. This became possible after the death of Vitovt in 1430. After Vitovt, Lithuania weakened sharply. From this, her closest ally at that time, the Golden Horde, suffered even more, from which the east beyond the Volga immediately separated. Then the named khanates. Actually, the remnants are no longer called the Golden Horde, but the Great Horde. Later the Horde, allied with Lithuania, was defeated by the alliance of Rus, the Crimean Khanate and the Bulgars.

      It is interesting that the Bolsheviks in 1918 gave (left) the names of the Tatars to the Bulgars and Crimean Tatars. (There were more various Tatars in the empire).

      PS. There was a very serious problem with the nominal at that time title of the Grand Duke of Kiev and the real title of Grand Duke of Vladimir.
      =============================================

      I categorically do not accept articles where my country is called in Jesuit in the Austro-Polish manner Muscovy, and I consider any such author illiterate, no matter how relevant the topic raised. Any cultural person has already read, for example, Sigismund Herberstein, a diplomat from the time of Ivan the Terrible, to understand how they Jesuits officially addressed and titled the ruler of Russia, and how in propaganda.

      The Zhmudian origin of the Lithuanian princes is even less proven than the Norman origin of the Rurikovich. The author, it seems, did not read either the Ipatiev Chronicle, the Gustyn Chronicle, or the Velvet book with genealogies: genealogia.ru/projects/barhat/4.htm

      The state of Mindovga with its capital in Novogrudok was called Black Russia. And his first war, and for extermination, was with the neighboring Lithuanian (not Litvin) tribe of the Yatvyag. Mindovg for this even entered into an alliance with the Order.

      An interesting tradition: historians of the Litvin princes are called pagan names, not Orthodox.
      1. Ascetic
        Ascetic 18 November 2013 17: 27
        +2
        Quote: Nikolai S.
        . In Bulgaria, Batu stopped at the return and only. Well, if you talk about where the khan is, there is the capital ...


        Yes, the Bulgar was considered as the temporary capital of Batu after returning from the Western Campaign. Many sources, including Academician Vernandsky, have such a definition. The barn was founded later in the year 1250
        The first mention in the sources dates back to 1254 - in the book of Franciscan Rubruk “Journey to the Eastern Countries” (“a new city built by Batu on Ethilia” [1]). In the beginning, it was a nomad's rate, which eventually grew into a city. Sarai Batu was the main political center of the Golden Horde,

        Wiki
        1. Nicholas C.
          Nicholas C. 18 November 2013 18: 13
          0
          Quote: Ascetic
          Yes, the Bulgar was considered as the temporary capital of Batu after returning from the Western Campaign. Many sources, including Academician Vernandsky, have such a definition.

          Stanislav, I will not watch what is written on Wikipedia - I do not read. There are too many lies there, written by Svidomo and other propagandists. Sorry for my time to check.

          To my shame I did not read what I wrote about the capital of Batu AKADEMIK Vernadsky. It would be interesting to get a link. But his son G. Vernadsky, who, like, a historian, did not confirm your words: gumilevica.kulichki.net/VGV/vgv303.htm#vgv303para02
      2. Setrac
        Setrac 19 November 2013 01: 10
        0
        Quote: Nikolai S.
        The capital of the Golden Horde is well-known - the Barn.

        Sar Tsar, Sarai - the city of kings, apparently, this is the city of Volgograd - formerly Tsaritsino.
        1. Thunderbolt
          Thunderbolt 19 November 2013 01: 56
          0
          http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/brokgauz_efron/111422/%D0%A6%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B5%D0
          % B2
      3. Dovmont
        Dovmont 19 November 2013 20: 02
        0
        Accept my applause !! I agree with you 100%!
  11. samoletil18
    samoletil18 18 November 2013 12: 35
    +8
    What is the minus for the article? If I remembered the destruction of Catholic churches in the USSR, then this is a struggle with religion, and NOT WITH CATHOLICISM. And in Poland, Orthodoxy is very different and borders on Nazism.
    To the author +. I’ll add from myself: if you remove all the untruth from history, then nothing may remain (who said I don’t remember). And thanks to this LABOR, grains of truth come back.
    1. Archibald
      Archibald 18 November 2013 18: 29
      0
      Who needs such a story then?
  12. kaktus
    kaktus 18 November 2013 14: 45
    +4
    They are also afraid because: "Whoever comes with us with a sword will die by the sword. The Russian land has stood and will stand on that." good drinks
    1. Tatarus
      Tatarus 18 November 2013 15: 59
      +4
      Whoever comes to us with a sword will shout and receive drinks
      1. Setrac
        Setrac 19 November 2013 01: 11
        0
        Quote: Tatarus
        Whoever comes to us with a sword will shout and receive

        Who comes to us with what, that from that and that.
  13. Asan Ata
    Asan Ata 18 November 2013 16: 31
    +3
    A good brand is Alexander Nevsky. Modern. Against gayropic Catholicism, for an alliance with Asia. It should become the latest trend in ideology, I think. hi
    1. Tatarus
      Tatarus 18 November 2013 16: 48
      +5
      This is not
      Quote: Asan Ata
      brand name
      this is our saint. Hero of my people. Maybe you should not call his brand. He is rather a support for the national idea.
  14. Bagatur
    Bagatur 18 November 2013 16: 46
    +3
    Alexander Nevsky was well aware of the experience of such unions and crusades on the example of the Byzantine Empire. In the 1204 year, during the Fourth campaign, the crusaders intervened in the internal feuds in Constantinople, seized the city and power in Byzantium, plundering Orthodox churches, including Hagia Sophia. (From the power of the Crusaders managed to free themselves only in 1261 year.)


    They tried the cross of the dog, and they didn’t give a damn about Bulgaria. And the union was concluded by Tsar Kaloyan (1197-1207) with the Pope Inokenty III the war did not stop. The Ritzars, with all their insolence, rejected the proposal of Mirin and threatened that the country would be ruined. The Vedas, as they thought Bulgaria (having overthrown the power of Vizan in 1185) belongs to them rightfully. On 13-14.04.1205 in the vicinity of Adrianopol (Edirni, Odrin) Kaloyan killed them completely, the new emperor the Latin imperium was taken prisoner in Bulgaria, where he died (according to some data, they were killed by order of the king.
  15. Bagatur
    Bagatur 18 November 2013 16: 52
    +7
    Here is the memorial temple "Alexander Nevsky" in Sofia, designed by Pomerantsev. Raised in honor of Russia as the Liberator and the Ottoman yoke. The name was chosen in honor of Emperor Alexander II. Now it is the Patriarchal Cathedral of Bulgaria.
  16. paul72
    paul72 18 November 2013 17: 01
    +5
    I remember how in the beginning of the 90s Shushkevich’s statement (the then head of Belarus) was surprised that A.V. Suvorov is an executioner of the Belarusian people (something like that), and yet this Shushkevich is a whole academician. How many rot came out in the 90s, all sorts of Shushkevichs, Kravchuk and others like them
    1. Bagatur
      Bagatur 18 November 2013 17: 05
      +2
      Another executioner ... God did not give, and Alexander Vasilevich appeared to us ... they carried in their hands ...))))
      1. mechanic driver
        mechanic driver 18 November 2013 19: 36
        0
        This is you about Suvorov, and when Kostyushko and his hangers-on slaughtered all the Russians in Poland, it's kind of democratic, and when the soldiers of Suvorov came
        and seeing the atrocities happening in Poland refused to take prisoners, this is undemocratic.
  17. Archibald
    Archibald 18 November 2013 18: 23
    -12 qualifying.
    Alexander Nevsky (boyar Alekhandr Ꙗroslavich) is the adopted son of Khan Batu, a twin of the Tatar prince Sartak, fratricide and traitor of the Russian people, who continued the policy of his father (who called in 1245 for the Russian princes to recognize Batu as “his king”). Undertook the Mongol-Tatar invaders and thrashed Russian state power in order to maintain their own privileges.
    1. Orang
      Orang 18 November 2013 20: 04
      +1
      Exactly, exclusively for their privileges. It was necessary with a bare heel on a sharp saber. destroy the country and people. He did differently, for this he and his enemies and all sorts of homegrown clever people hate him.
    2. 11111mail.ru
      11111mail.ru 19 November 2013 18: 12
      0
      Quote: Archibald
      a traitor of the Russian people, who continued the policy of his father (who called in 1245 for the Russian princes to recognize Batu as "his king"). Settled under the Mongol-Tatar invaders and thrashed Russian state power in order to maintain their own privileges

      The first three words before the decimal point in this quote are your characteristics.
      The second sentence is a characteristic of your horizons regarding the history of OUR Motherland, composed of intellectual-democratic-liberal clichés.
      Firstly, it did not underlie it, but used to the advantage of the Vladimir-Suzdal land the fear of the Mongols among all Zahidnyak Latins. LN Gumilyov mentions that the stalemate in the battle of Rakovor was resolved by a small detachment of Mongols, about 300 horsemen, who did not even participate in the battle, but only indicated their presence. The "Germans" immediately faded away.
      The Russian state power, for your information, took shape almost 200 years later, during the reign of Ivan III.
      Tip: do not blindly believe what was written in those texts that you read. The head was given to a person, first of all, for the correct perception of information, and only then for wearing a headgear.
  18. klim44
    klim44 18 November 2013 19: 35
    -1
    The destruction of the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral was far from the only crime of the Polish authorities. Taking advantage of the weakening of Orthodoxy in Soviet Russia, in Poland only in 1918-1920 many Orthodox churches were destroyed. For example, in 1924-1925, the magnificent Orthodox church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross was destroyed in Lublin. These barbaric actions continued afterwards. So, in 1938, in the Kholm region, with the active participation of the police and troops, a large number of Orthodox rural churches were destroyed, parishioners of which were Ukrainians who lived here for many centuries

    You read like a balcony and you don’t even have the strength to be surprised. And how many churches were destroyed throughout the Soviet Union ??? Probably also the Poles were doing this.
  19. ZU-23
    ZU-23 18 November 2013 19: 39
    +3
    Tremble with fear ghouls, Nevsky will come for you)))
  20. GEO
    GEO 18 November 2013 21: 11
    +1
    Quote: Walker1975
    Good. And how do you justify the fact that Alexander went to the Horde for a label on reigning? According to Gumilyov, did he generally fraternize with Batu’s son Sartak? Thereby, Batu, koltory burned Kiev and other Russian cities, poisoned his father; Mikhail Chernigovsky, who refused to go through the pagan rite in the Horde, was killed, but Alexander received reign.
    For me it is all the same as if during the Second World War the Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine went to Hitler to receive the right to "reign" in Moscow, and then would heroically fight, for example, with England, periodically participating in punitive campaigns against the partisans.

    Do you know what the Horde was?
  21. GEO
    GEO 18 November 2013 21: 13
    0
    Quote: bagatura
    Here is the memorial temple "Alexander Nevsky" in Sofia, designed by Pomerantsev. Raised in honor of Russia as the Liberator and the Ottoman yoke. The name was chosen in honor of Emperor Alexander II. Now it is the Patriarchal Cathedral of Bulgaria.

    Thanks for the photo. Beautiful Temple.
  22. Enot-poloskun
    Enot-poloskun 18 November 2013 21: 31
    0
    It is believed that Alexander Yaroslavovich Nevsky was poisoned.

    Agents of the West.
  23. DesToeR
    DesToeR 18 November 2013 22: 05
    +2
    It feels like an article from the early 90s (to Batka, that is). Now in our country these "svyadomyh" from the chyrvona-white stsyagam, and from the Litsvinskaya pagonyas are beaten better than any of your Chubais-Serdyukovs. We, Belarusians, know well who we are and where we come from. And we are proud of our kinship with the Russian people. Although, to be honest, if our Old Man had at least 30% of the opportunities that your leaders have ...
    1. Evgenij.
      Evgenij. 20 November 2013 08: 27
      0
      By the way, yes, I also do not fit
  24. Brother
    Brother 19 November 2013 09: 08
    0
    The soul rejoices when I read such articles.
    I am not surprised why the Chmyr Poles are afraid of Alexander, because he didn’t even fight with them, but they already know everything, if he fought with them there would be no Poland, there would be a Polish region of the Russian Federation.
    In general, when we enter Poland again, and we enter there sooner or later, it will be necessary to erect monuments to Alexander along the road and build Orthodox churches naming them after him, so to speak, let them look and do not forget soldier !
    PS My plate is hanging on the wall, bought in Minsk (my family, my family is 70% Belarusians fellow ), with the image of the church mentioned in the article, I would never know about it, if not for the article, thanks to the author hi .
  25. Chervonets
    Chervonets 19 November 2013 10: 31
    0
    I will say for Belarus
    I live in Minsk and NEVER heard blasphemy either in conversations or in textbooks, either against Nevsky or Suvorov (although it is known about the latter that he suppressed the uprising).
    And what is it that our local "oval" ones grind in the kitchen, and a small ultra-radical part of them (although I have not even heard this) should not be considered public opinion EVEN THE OPPOSITION in Belarus.
    1. Orang
      Orang 19 November 2013 19: 16
      +1
      Well, thank God
  26. Vitmir
    Vitmir 19 November 2013 20: 05
    -2
    Some strange, even provocative article.
    Most of Belarus regards Nevsky in exactly the same way, that is, in no way.
    It is let the Russian brothers deal with him - who he was - a patriot of Russia or a Horde protege-collaborator.
    And nobody is going to erect a monument to him - we have enough great historical figures from the time of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, who have yet to erect monuments.
    And A.V.Suvorov - yes, they remember it with a bad word, despite all the Soviet propaganda, they remember as a strangler of the uprising, as well as the hanger-Muravyov ...
    It’s not worth it to impose someone else’s story on us;
  27. i.xxx-1971
    i.xxx-1971 20 December 2013 19: 25
    0
    Tired of discussing delusional versions of countless smart wipers. There was no Mongol yoke. There was a process of centralization of state power, in other words, the gathering of fragmented Russian principalities into a single whole, the formation of the Slavic state. Since not all princes understood and wanted this, the combined armed forces of the new state, Vladimir-Suzdal Rus, were involved. These armed forces were led at different times by Princes Yaroslav, his son Alexander, and other high-ranking comrades. Their allies were southern Slavs: the Pechenegs, Khazars, Polovtsy, who lived in the Wild Field (Rostov Region, Krasnodar Territory, Crimea ...), the so-called Horde. However, the princely army was also called a horde. The commander of the Russian army was called a khan, the official who performed the functions of secular power - the prince. The Western Slavs are Poles, Litvins, partly already Catholics, craving accession to the European Union under the yoke of the Pope, which in fact was then the main reason for their unwillingness to gather in one state with the Eastern Slavic tribes, professing Orthodoxy and paganism. There was a civil war, it was terribly mochilo without the right and the guilty. During the breaks, they went to Europe in order to spoil the next dad, dad sent knight dogs, they were drowned. Then they quarreled with the southern group, at the very least, together with the southern, they robbed the western ones until the end of the 15th century, even took Istanbul together. But then they threw the south with the common fund and finally messed up. While dealing with the south, the west strengthened, and the habit of living beautifully remained. I had to grow east. So the Soviet Union appeared.