Missiles on feed PU "Combat"
Naval firing, be it artillery, missile, torpedo, or any other, is always a kind of result, the final of a whole stage of training of a military team. Regardless of the class of the ship, it is a minesweeper or a missile cruiser. Adversarial firing is the peak of the combat training of the ship, the connection for the academic year. A shooting for the prize of the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy fleet - checking the effectiveness of combat training for the year of the entire fleet, an indicator of readiness to solve the tasks assigned to it. Each of these annual shootings is unique, one-of-a-kind, and due to the complexity of the execution conditions and the almost complete absence of elements of simplification, it is as close as possible to a combat situation. Such firing is allowed not all ships and formations, but only those that have proven themselves to be the best in their combat mission in the process of combat training.
The 175 Brigade of Missile Vehicles of the Pacific Fleet was awarded a prize-based anti-aircraft missile shooting for the 1989 airborne commander-in-chief training prize for the 27 was assigned to October 9 in the combat training areas of Peter the Great Bay. To win the prize of the commander-in-chief, shooting had to be not ordinary, which are constantly carried out during planned exercises when working out coursework tasks of combat training, but using innovative and more effective techniques in a difficult jamming environment, with massive use of anti-ship cruise missiles by the “enemy”. The command of the Pacific Fleet decided to conduct the first in the Navy, and therefore, to some extent, experience shooting at seven target missiles simultaneously approaching the warrant of ships from various directions. To accomplish the task, a naval strike group was formed (KUG Air Defense) as part of the destroyers of 956 Ave. "Fighting" and "Prudent", a large anti-submarine ship of 1155 Ave. "Admiral Tributs" и patrol ship pr 1135 "Gusty". The KUG was headed by the commander of the 175 th missile brigade, Captain 1 of the rank E.Ya. Litvinenko on destroyer "Fighting". The leader of the shooting is Rear Admiral I.N., commander of the 10 th operational squadron of the Pacific Fleet. Khmelnoff at the Admiral Tributs BOD.
In accordance with the plan of the head of the ships lined up in a warrant. The equalizer of the shooting order was determined by the BOD "Admiral Tributs". The “Combat” destroyer was assigned a position from the 70 ° equalizer, in the 4 km distance, the “Prudent” destroyer position was located from the 305 ° bearing, in the 7,5 km distance, and the Impetuous CRS from the equalizer was located on the 280 ° bearing and was removed. 4 km. This provided electromagnetic compatibility of radar systems. The center of the firing positions of the air defense command post was determined by the location of the Admiral Tributs bpk on 16: 00 Khabarovsk time (time “H”, to which the shooting was assigned) - W = 42 ° 46 ', 0 north, D = 136 ° 00' 0 East The shooting rate is 105 °, the connection speed when shooting is at least 18-21 nodes. The aiming point for the carriers of anti-ship missiles was the Admiral Tributs. The nuclear missile submarine K-127 (Ave 675), armed with PM-6 boat target rockets (cruise missiles P-6), Tu-16K aircraft - complex carrier aviation cruise missiles KSR-5HM, coastal missile defense complex "Redut", having in service with a target missile RM-35 (cruise missiles P-35), and also used a radio-controlled target jet La 17MM.
As conceived by the head of shooting, the SSGT K-127 launched the PM-0 two targets on the order from the 6 bearing exchange rate parameter 2 km at the stern of the BOD "Admiral Tributs". Starting distance - 65 km. The Tu-16K aircraft should have arrived in the area of shooting half an hour before the time "H", having on board two KSR-5HM target missiles. He was insured by the second Tu-16K, which also has two cruise target missiles on board, in case it is impossible to execute firing with the main carrier aircraft. The main Tu-16K launched its DAC-5HM from the 30 ° bearing. The launch distance is 70 and 65 km, respectively. The aiming point is Admiral Tributs, but, given the launch range and flight speed of 303 missiles m / s, their course parameter when approaching the order was to be 2 km at the stern of a large anti-submarine ship. The flight height of the DAC-5HM missiles was set at 200 m. The homing equipment of aircraft missiles, based on security considerations for unauthorized purposes, introduced restrictions: ± 16 ° for the course, 379 with flight time. With the 330 ° bearing, having the Admiral Tributs BOD target, from the firing positions at Cape Povorotny, two anti-ship cruise target missiles of the coast-based RM-35 Redut complex were launched. An unmanned aircraft La-17MM was launched from the coastal fire positions "Black Bush", which, after performing several maneuvers on the flight path, had to approach the order from the 90 ° bearing.
The command appointed authorized firing sectors and responsible air defense sectors. In order to ensure the counteraction of foreign technical intelligence services, the time “H” (the missile approach to the warrant) was chosen taking into account the flight schedule of the American reconnaissance satellites (RISS).
The Tu-16PS-55 and Tu-16-DOS aircraft were used to create a background of jamming conditions at the shooting. The active jamming area covering the strike with cruise missiles was determined in such a way as to reliably mask the missile approach. The active jammer Tu-16PSS-55 courses 10-190 ° at the height of 6300 m for 15 minutes before the time "H", for 25 minutes put interference in the range of radio waves 9,8-12,5 cm; The length of each aircraft tack is 80 km. The passive jammer Tu-16 DOS conducted, starting 2 h 30 minutes before the shooting, examining the area of the exercise with the course 210 ° before removing the 130 km and back, and from one hour to 30 minutes before starting the shooting put the field of passive jamming, also masking the approach of the target rockets to the order. The field of passive interference consisted of two lines: the first - at a distance of 40 km, the second - at a distance of 55 km from shooting ships, with a shift to the northeast. Noise field setting courses - 105-285 °. The length of each tack of the setting is 40 km, the height of the setting is 6000 m, the density is 8 of packs of dipole reflectors on the 100 m path. To create a passive interference field, dipole reflectors of DOS types A, B, C were used, with 33% of each type.
The composition of the missile and artillery weapons and technical means of ships of the shock group included:
1. Air defense weapons KUG
- collective defense anti-aircraft missile systems Urahan with KMSUO ZR-90 destroyers of the 956 Ave., one on each (total 4x1 PU MS-196, 96 of 9М-38М1 missiles);
- universal artillery complexes AK-130 with the Lion-218 LMS and MP-184 ARLS destroyers, one on each ship (total 4x2 AU A-218, 2000 130-mm projectiles per EM);
- self-defense anti-aircraft missile system "Dagger" with one radar module K-12-1 on a large anti-submarine ship of 1155 Ave. (3 modules for 8 SAM in each, total 64 ZUR9М330-2);
- universal artillery complex AK-100 with the “Lev-214” LLL and ARLS MP-114 BOD (2x1 AUA-214);
- self-defense anti-aircraft missile system "Osa-MA" on the patrol ship pr 1135 (2x2 PU ZIF-122, 48 ZUR9МЗЗ);
- universal artillery complex AK-726 with SUO "Turel" and ARLS MP-105 SCR (2х2-76mm AU ZIF-67);
- anti-aircraft artillery systems AK-630M with the Vympel-A LMS and MP-123 ARLS EM Ave 956 and BOD Ave 1155, two on each (total 12xXNNUMX AUA-6M, 213 4000-mm projectiles per unit, 30 per ship).
2. EW-CUG facilities
- PC-2 passive jamming systems with Tertiya SU on destroyers of 956 Ave. and BOD 1155 Ave. 6 and DS-2, shells TST-121, THB-102);
- a set of passive jamming PC-16 1135 to CCJ etc. (convex-101, 82-mm projectiles turbojet TSP-60 different types -DS-50, DOS-15-16-17-19, DOS-19-22-26. );
- station active noise interference MP-407 on all ships;
- sets of inflatable corner reflectors of NUO on all ships (at least 6 sets of NUO type A-4 on each);
- Smoke bombs MDS on all ships.
3. Airborne lighting equipment
- MRK MP-700 "Fregat-M2" on EM "Combat";
- RLK MP-700 "Fregat-MA" on the BOD "Admiral Tributs";
- RLK MP-700 "Fregat-M" on EM "Prudent";
- Radar MR-XNUMHA "Angara" on TFR "impetuous".
It should be noted here that the MRK MR-320 “Tackle” and the second radar module K-12-1 for the “Dagger” air defense system “Admiral Tributs” received after repair with modernization in the middle of the 90-s.
It has long been known that the success of a battle depends on the stability and reliability of managing one's own strength. Therefore, the provision of continuous and hidden communications to firing ships was given special attention. Communication with the support forces of the shooting leader was carried out in a single-band telephony using a table of conventional signals, specially created for these exercises. The connection between the ships was provided by closed VHF radio channels in the control networks weapons, combat information centers and command.
Only the CUG fire commandor worked in the weapons control network, he also was the air defense commander of the 175 DBK, captain of the 3 rank Alexander Polyakov, who was on the KUG air defense command post on the destroyer "Fighting", controlling the fire of the ships, as well as the deputy fire control officer, flagship missile specialist 175-th BRK captain 3 rank Alexander Zakharov, located on the gearbox of the AIA "Prudent". The network of combat information centers monitored the safety of maneuvering the MCG, the accuracy of holding positions, monitoring the purity of the shooting area, the absence of foreign targets in dangerous and forbidden sectors, monitoring ships and aircraft monitoring the compound, countering foreign technical intelligence, monitoring electromagnetic compatibility of ship radio equipment. The radio network was submitted to the combat information centers of the KUG ships, as well as to the KUG flagship command post on the destroyer “Fighting”. An open VHF radio channel with the senior anti-aircraft missile commander of the air defense forces functioned at the air defense command ship.
The command post of electronic warfare KUG, from which the control of radioelectronic warfare and the use of EBC KUG, was carried out on the destroyer "Fighting". It also housed the flagship post KPUNIA (command post control and guidance of fighter aircraft) 175 th BRK.
Radio and radio intelligence was conducted on all ships. The control of the RR and the RTR was carried out by the flagship reconnaissance brigade of missile ships with the FKP-R destroyer "Fighting". The exchange of intelligence information was carried out in a separate radio network using a table of conditional signals. At Admiral Tributs, they launched a flagship command post for the head of the shooting, made up of officers from the headquarters of the 10 OPESK.
According to the plan of execution of shooting and on the basis of the governing documents, the consumption of missiles at dangerously flying targets was not limited. Aviation missiles of the DAC-5HM, as well as all previously fired, but not shot down missiles, were considered to be dangerous flying. It was recommended to fire at them with three launches of 9М-38М1 missiles each. Then ensured the probability of guaranteed shot down target not less than 0,75. The AK-130 and AK-630 artillery systems were supposed to be used by firing continuous bursts with target designation at the most dangerous or already fired target missiles. The launch of missiles on target rockets was recommended to be carried out from the 25 km, that is, from the ultimate range for the Uragan air defense system. It was planned by the AK-130 artillery complexes not to open fire until the moment the anti-aircraft missiles came off, so that the shaking of the ship’s hull from gunfire shots did not bring down the target tracking by the Uragan operators.
In order to prepare for the execution of prize shooting and testing the interaction of the ships of the strike group, control (October 23) and test (the next day) tactical exercises on air defense were conducted, as well as test anti-aircraft artillery and missile firing on the anti-submarine missile 85RU launched from the BOD "Admiral Spiridonov ”(October 24) and on target missiles — one RM-6 with the K-127 SSGN and two KSR-5HM from the Tu-16K (October 25) aircraft. On firing practice, we worked out schemes for the use of the air defense missile system, ZAK and EW facilities. The main attention was paid to the implementation of security measures and technical readiness of the complexes.
Since, according to the plan for prize shooting, the combat sector of the “Combat” air defense included only three targets (La-17MM and two KSR-5HM), and practically all targets flew into the permitted sector of the squadron of the destroyer before the commander of the missile-artillery combat unit of the ship XUM The rank of Vladimir Kharlanov set the task of issuing target designation to anti-aircraft fire weapons on all detected targets. And before the shooting manager of the Uragan air defense missile system, the commander of the control group of the anti-aircraft missile division, senior lieutenant Sergey Samulyzhko, fire at all targets included in the permitted sector, as well as outside it, provided that there is no CCG missile system in the dangerous or prohibited area.
Giving such a rather risky order, the commander of the ship was completely confident in the skill and unconditional accuracy of his execution by the ship's rocket ship. After all, it was not for nothing that the brigade commander called the “Combat” chief “miner” among all the ships of his unit. Excellent results of shooting in recent years, the richest experience gained on the combat cover of Soviet navigation during the Iran-Iraq war in the Persian Gulf put the destroyer among the best ships of the operational squadron on missile and artillery training. The commander of the Hurricane control group, Sergey Samulyzhko, despite his youth, was considered the best specialist at the compound and was not even afraid to once enter into a dispute with the chief designer of the complex, defending the correctness of his actions regarding the anti-aircraft missile launch distance during one of the firing sessions. achieved the maximum range of meeting missiles with targets.
Shooting began on the planned "scenario." Stations of active jamming against carriers of anti-ship missiles were used conditionally. With the arrival of the Tu-16K aircraft at the 130 km frontier, the CUG ships began setting false misinforming targets (LDC) with the PK-2 and PC-16 complexes, having each ship set two false misinforming targets from two projectiles to a point. With the detection of the launch of cruise missiles, each ship began to set three false diversion targets (LOCs) from two projectiles at each point. The setting of false distracting targets was carried out before the missiles reached the 50 km line. With the announcement of “Time Controllers”, the controllers reported on the cleanliness of the shooting area and the absence of unauthorized targets in hazardous areas when shooting with “Uragan” complexes - ± 13 ° from the ADMS shooting bearing to the removal of 80 km. The head of shooting approved the time "H" and allowed the shooting.
The launch of target rockets was planned so that they approached the order, having an interval of no more than 20 with each other. In fact, the interval between the rockets turned out to be smaller. The first coastal rocket RM-35 approached the order simultaneously with the first boat rocket RM-6.
With the launch of targets, when everything began to depend only on the commanders of firing ships, it became clear that the destroyer "Prudent" decided to move away from the established plan. His commander, being confident in the skill of his artillerymen, was the first to start firing the PM-35 rocket with the AK-130 rocket with the maximum 27 distance of km, without much fear that the shock of the destroyer corps firing two turrets with the maximum rate of fire were reduced by the accuracy of target tracking by the operators LAW "Hurricane." And only from a distance of 19 km, he launched two anti-aircraft missiles 9М-38, which hit the first PM-35 at a distance of 12 km. At the same time, the destroyer “Fighting”, firing the “Hurricane” complex in automatic mode, fired the first PM-6 with two 9М-38М1 SAMs, which met the target at the 20,5 and 19 km, respectively, resulting in the PM-6 rocket succeeded shoot down, the second pair of its anti-aircraft missiles launched on the PM-35 No. XXUMX. The “Prudent” destroyer, firing at the “semi-automatic”, hitting the first PM-2, launched his second pair of PM-35 SAMs #35 on 2 from later on the “Combat” missiles of which reached the second coastal target of the RM-15 and destroyed it on a few seconds before the Prudent Missiles. The precautionary anti-aircraft missiles hit the debris of the target scattered in the air.
The second PM-6 boat target rocket approached the order simultaneously with the first KSR-5HM aviation missile. “Combat” discovered this KSR-5НМ No. 1 in 30 ° bearing and at a distance of 42 km, running at an altitude of 230. The KMSUO ZR-90 “Combat” computer complex considered the aviation anti-ship anti-ship missile system as running at a lower altitude and, practically, without course heading on the ship, the most dangerous goal. The target designation on it was issued on the Uragan air defense missile system. Target acquisition time was 12 s. At the same time, the Lev-218 and Vympel-A anti-aircraft artillery systems received a target designation for the PM-6 rocket. In support of the Uragan complex, the KSR-5HM No. 1 was taken over 29 ° bearing at the 35 km distance. The launch of three 9М-38М1 missiles was carried out at a distance of up to the rocket 24, 21, and 19 km, respectively. At this time, the artillery towers of the universal destroyer caliber crashed. The hull of the ship vibrated, swaying synchronous volleys of guns and, as it seemed, sank into the water, pressed against it by the impact of gun barrels. The sky in the north began to become covered with dirty spots of gaps, gradually merging into a solid gray cloud. On the round-up view of the Sapphire information processing and display system at the main command post of the Combat, the upper part of the radar “picture” was almost a solid green field through which the barely visible point of the anti-ship rocket stubbornly wade. It is difficult to shoot down a missile with anti-splinter armor, a direct hit is almost required, or a close projectile rupture leading to rudder jamming.
The meeting of the first missile defense system with the DAC-5HM No.1 occurred at a distance of 19 km. The missile was shot down. And only after this, the KMSUO ZR-90 “Combat” issued a command for firing PM-6 No. 2 with two missiles. Their meeting took place at a distance of 9 and 7 km, respectively, therefore the cruise missile crashed and falling apart fell in close proximity, three or four cables from the left side of the BOD Admiral Tributs and three kilometers aft of the Battle. The next target, fired by the destroyer “Fighting”, was the second aviation anti-ship missile KSR-5HM, which was escorted by 29 ° bearing at a distance of 41 km. According to it, as on the first APCR, they released three XURUM 9М-38М1. KSR-5HM №2 shot down at a distance of 12 km. Of the six anti-aircraft missiles launched by aviation anti-ship missiles, four came off the aft launcher, and two came off the MS-196 nasal launcher.
The latter to the order through to 15 after firing DAC 5NMm №2, at an altitude of 1500 m approached the target La 17MM fired two missiles 9M-38M1 with bow PU "combat" and knocked the first of them at a distance 11 km. The undermining of the second ZUR launched near the already hit and falling target occurred at a distance of 8 km from the shooting ship.
The artillery of both destroyers also actively participated in anti-aircraft fire. In addition, the “Prudent” conducted the shooting of X-NUMX-mm AK-130 A-218 artillery systems at the first PM-130 rocket, before it was shot down by an anti-aircraft missile, with its six-barrel 35-A-30 A-213 rocket, from the sight sight left side column, fired at the falling debris of the second target PM-630.
The destroyer "Fighting" from a distance of 21 km with an AK-130 complex fired a PM-6 rocket No.2 with the subsequent transfer of fire along LA-17MM. On the PM-6 No. 2, both A-218 “Combat” towers fired. On the La-17MM from a distance of 14 km, only the nose tower fired, giving 10 volleys, while the stern gun-mounted machine was in the danger zone.
The AK-630 artillery complex No. 2 of the left side of the “Combat”, accompanying the ARLS MP-123, fired at the shot down and falling PM-6 rocket. The AK-630 artillery complex No. 1 fired from the starboard sighting column on the downed La-17MM, which collapsed, leaving behind a fiery yellow-orange smoke trail of burning kerosene in the sea in one or two cables along the nose of the Admiral Tributs. Because of this, the BOD had to change course in order to bypass the target site where the remaining fuel burned on the surface of the water.
The squadron flagship captain 2 rank Vladimir Andreev later said that everyone who was on the bridge of the flagship, including the commander 10-YOPESK, involuntarily sat below the portholes, trying to hide from flying debris. Vice-Admiral Igor Nikolaevich Khmelnoye only said: “Like in the movie“ Japan in the wars ”!” The whole sky was covered with gray blots of 130-mm anti-aircraft projectile gaps and dashed crimson trails with 30-mm automata queues. Around the ships, the sea was boiling from the falling debris of downed rockets, missiles, and anti-aircraft missiles. From the sky to the water fiery sleeves of burning rocket fuel and smoky traces of falling smoked debris destroyed targets. Over the compound by a giant fan, like the splayed fingers of hands protecting themselves from the threat from the air, the white plumes from the burnt powder of engines of anti-aircraft missiles slowly blurred.
In total, the destroyers used 9М-38М1 anti-aircraft missiles for firing: the “Combat” - 14, “Prudent” four. The consumption of artillery ammunition was as follows: 130-mm anti-aircraft missiles UZS-44 "Fighting" released 84, "Prudent" - 48; 30-mm shells "Fighting" shot 120, "Prudent" - 160. BOD "Admiral Tributs" and TFR "Pryvisty" target designation of target missiles took, accompanied them, but did not participate in the shooting of their own self-defense complexes, since all the missiles destroyed the destroyers collective defense complexes. The Hurricane anti-aircraft missile system of the destroyers of the 956 Ave. once again proved and justified the opinion of itself as the best medium-range anti-aircraft missile system in the world to date.
The prize of the commander-in-chief of the Navy 1989 in air defense training won the RUG 175 th BRD 10 th OPEC TOF as part of the Combat destroyers "Fighting" and "Prudent". On the analysis of the firing of the target missile RM-35 №2 counted "prudent". Therefore, despite the fact that “Fighting” actually shot down six of seven targets, the report states: “Fighting” - shot down by 5, “Prudent” - shot down by 2.
Commander of the Navy Brigade of the Soviet Union, Commander of the Navy Brigade, Commander of the Combat Engineer for the Navy, awarded with the Commander of the Navy Brigade of the Soviet Union for the first place in air defense training in the Navy. Alexander I. Nazarov.