Military Review

Critical technological difficulties in the development of ATGM Javelin. Part of 2

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Critical technological difficulties in the development of ATGM Javelin. Part of 2

Rocket Javelin




The ATGM operator Javelin looks at the command and launching unit


Homing Head (GOS)
Just like Stinger, the Javelin rocket belongs to the “shot-forget” system. Once launched, it must be able to track and destroy its target without further intervention by an operator or other external source. The decision on the need for a “shot-and-forget” system was made jointly by the army and the Marine Corps and was implemented through an IR detector and the most modern on-board tracking system.

As described above, the operator uses the IR PBC system to detect and identify the target. Then he switches to an independent infrared missile system to set a mark on the target and "fix" it. The operator sets the frames around the target image, “fixes” them, placing them so that the target fills the space between the frames as much as possible. The task of the GOS is essentially to remain focused on the target image, continuing to recognize it even when the target is in motion, when the trajectory of a rocket flying at a speed of more than 150 m / s changes the viewpoint of the GOS when the angles of attack and when you change the image size of the target as the rocket approaches it. All the many details of the GOS should function properly, but three components are particularly worth mentioning: the detector, the cooling and calibration system, and the stabilization system.

The GOS is located under a hemispherical cap made of zinc sulfide, which is transparent to long-wave infrared radiation used in the detector. Infrared radiation penetrates through the cap, and then through a focusing transparent lens made of germanium and zinc sulfide. IR energy by means of polished aluminum mirrors is reflected to the detector. The GOS of the Javelin rocket is equipped with a two-dimensional matrix in the focal plane the size of 64 on the 64 element. The detectors are made of an alloy of cadmium-telluride and mercury-telluride (called cadmium-mercury telluride, or HgCdTe). It should be noted that, unlike the PBC detector IR, which is a scanning linear array, the GOS detector processes the signals from the sensors and transmits the signals to the rocket tracking system.

The development of a two-dimensional matrix in the focal plane proved to be very difficult. Texas Instruments has developed focal-plane arrays for PBC and GOS using photo-capacitive devices in which incoming photons stimulate electrons that are initially in the detector in the form of an accumulated charge. Electrons are discharged pixel by pixel as the currents of the readout integrated circuit pass into the back of the detector. Despite the fact that such an approach has proven itself in the PBC matrix, it has proved very difficult for the missile seeker to create a working two-dimensional matrix in the focal plane. Texas Instruments could not get the HgCdTe quality required for acceptable photo-capacitive process, and the two-dimensional matrix did not have enough electron capacity. Texas Instruments was able to make enough two-dimensional matrices in order to win the competition, but the process of their mass production did not meet the quality and marriage standards. Only from 0,5% to 2% of the produced matrixes fully met the requirements. Production problems threatened to double development costs and generally jeopardize the very existence of the Javelin program.

The urgency of this problem manifested itself in 1991-92. The United States Department of Defense Office, Department of Ground Forces, and MICOM have created a special team to address this issue. Relying on her own technical experience, she concluded that Texas Instruments was simply not able to produce its development in the required quantities. The army acknowledged that the program’s success depended on GOS technology and found an alternative source for matrix production. They became the corporation LORAL, which also encountered difficulties in the production of matrices. Fortunately, the solution was at hand: the Hughes' Santa Barbara Research Center, SBRC Research Center, under an agreement with DARPA, developed another matrix design in the focal plane that could be made more efficiently. Hughes' design used a photoelectric mechanism in which the voltage signal was generated directly from the effects of photons and charge accumulation occurred in the readout integrated circuit itself, and not in the detector material. Program management refused Texas Instruments services as the lead contractor, and also refused LORAL services as an alternative source and selected SBRC as a matrix provider in the focal plane of the GPS. As a result, the development of SBRC met the required specifications, volumes of supplies and the number of scrap. Texas Instruments continued to manufacture scanners for CPB.

For optimal functioning of the GOS, the matrix in the focal plane should be cooled and calibrated. The PBC IR detector is cooled using a Dewar vessel and a closed-loop Stirling engine. There is not enough space in the rocket to use this design. Before starting, the power and cooling unit is installed on the outside of the launch canister. It feeds the rocket’s electrical systems and provides the cooling gas through the Joule-Thomson throttle to the rocket's GOS - while the rocket itself is still in the launch canister. When a rocket is launched, this external connection is broken and the cooling gas is supplied from the gas cylinder with argon embedded in the rocket. The gas is contained in a small cylinder at a pressure of about 420 kg per square centimeter. This is enough to cool the GOS during the entire flight of the rocket - about 19-seconds. The external power supply and cooling unit must be replaced in case the homing unit was activated and the rocket for some reason was not launched within four minutes.

This cooling system also serves the integrated circuit. Initially, the integrated circuit was placed outside the cooled area and therefore a large number of wires were used for large arrays. The manufacturer managed to place the microprocessor in the cooled area on the back side of the detector. Thus, only the wires from the microprocessor go to the outer side of the cooled area. Thus, the number of wires has dropped significantly: from 200 to 25.

GOS Javelina is calibrated using the so-called "helicopter" wheel. This device is essentially a fan with 6 blades: 5 black blades with very low IR radiation and one semi-reflective blade. These blades rotate in front of the optics of the GOS in a synchronized order, so that the matrix in the focal plane is constantly provided with landmarks (reference points) in addition to the observed target. These guidelines serve as a matrix to reduce the constant noise introduced by different degrees of sensitivity of individual elements of the detector.

Besides the fact that the GOS must be continuously cooled and calibrated, the platform on which the GOS is located must be stabilized with respect to the movement of the rocket body and the GOS must always remain on target. Although, unlike Stinger, the Javelina hull does not rotate in flight, the stabilization system must be able to cope with sharp accelerations, up / down movements and lateral movements and other requirements of the rocket’s trajectory, such as a sharp climb and a steep dive. This is achieved by a two-axis cardan system, accelerometers, gyroscopes, and motors for controlling changes in the position of the platform. The information received from the gyroscopes is fed to the electronics of the guidance system, which in turn controls the engines mounted on the GOS platform so that the GOS remains on the target. The wires connecting the GPS to the rest of the rocket were specifically designed to not cause any friction, so that the GPS platform could remain exactly balanced. GOS Javelina deviates only 10-20 microradians by one G, which indicates an excellent level of isolation.

Guidance and control system

The tracking device Javelina is an essential element of the guidance and control system. The signals from each of the more than 4000 elements of the GOS detector are transmitted to a readout integrated circuit that creates a single-channel video signal transmitted to the tracking device for further processing. The tracking device compares individual frames and calculates the necessary adjustment to hold the rocket on the target. To accomplish this task, the tracking device must be able to determine which part of the overall image represents the target itself. Initially, the target is designated by the operator, who places an aiming mark on it. After that, the tracking device uses algorithms to compare this part of the frame (the comparison is based on the image, geometric data, data on the movement of the target) with the image coming from the GPS. At the end of each frame, the link is updated. The tracking device is capable of holding the rocket on the target, even when the point of view of the GOS changes radically during the flight.

For missile guidance, the tracking device determines the position of the target in the current frame and compares it with the aiming point. If the target's position is not in the center, the tracking device calculates the corrections and transmits them to the missile guidance system, which, in turn, transmits the corresponding corrections to the control surfaces (Javelin has four moving tail flaps, as well as six fixed wings in the middle part of the hull ). This part of the system is called autopilot. It uses a feedback control system to guide the missile, that is, the system uses sensors to determine the position of the control surfaces. If they are rejected, the controller receives a signal for their further adjustment.

There are three main three stages of rocket control throughout the entire flight trajectory: the initial phase immediately after the launch of the cruise engine, the main part of the flight and the final phase in which the tracking device selects a "pleasant place" on the target for its defeat. The autopilot uses guidance algorithms and data from the GOS to determine when the rocket moves from one stage of flight to another. The flight profile can vary significantly depending on the chosen attack mode: straight or top (the default mode). When the attack mode is on top of the rocket, after launch, it sharply gains altitude, makes a cruise flight at an altitude of about 150 meters, and then swoops into the upper part of the target. In direct attack mode, the rocket makes a sustained flight at an altitude of about 45 meters. The exact flight path taking into account the distance to the target is calculated by the pointing unit.

The development of the Javelina tracking device was produced both by the industry itself and by the Redstone arsenal. Texas Instruments designed and manufactured prototypes, and Redstone upgraded and independently evaluated the capabilities of the tracking device. Enhanced static tests of the GOS and the tracking device allowed the developers of the tracking device to test, refine and update the algorithms before the start of the flight tests themselves. The static test program also provided invaluable data for integrated flight simulation developers. The tracking design program is still not complete.

Propulsion system and warhead

Like the Stinger, the Javelin uses a soft start system. In other words, the starting engine is launched in the launch container and stops its operation before the rocket leaves the container, thus protecting the operator from the effects of hot gases. A soft start provides poor recoil when shooting from the shoulder and allows you to launch anti-tank systems from buildings or covered platforms. After the rocket leaves the launch canister and is removed to a safe distance, the rocket's main engine starts, and the wings and flaps open. The rocket moves to the target at subsonic speed. Due to the soft start requirements, operator safety and low weight, the most modern achievements of that time were used to develop the unique Javelin ATGM engine. The engineers of the Javelin program have made significant technological progress, which, combined with the achievements of the industry, has allowed the company to develop an engine that meets all stringent requirements. The ATGM Javelin engine was developed by Atlantic Research Company (ARC), now Aerojet. ARC adapted the design developed by Alliant Technology. Like the Stinger, the Javelin has built-in starting and mid-flight engines. Among other benefits, this integrated design ensures low system weight.

The engine works as follows. The ignition device of the starting engine initiates a flammable charge, which, in turn, drives the starting engine itself. The solid propellant charge of the starting engine burns out from the inside and outside, as well as from both its ends. Combustion products exit through the nozzle of the starting engine. After some time, a signal arrives at the firing device of the main engine, initiating a igniting charge, which activates the solid fuel charge of the main engine. When a sufficient gas pressure is created in its combustion chamber, the membrane separating the starting and sustainer engines is broken, and the gases of the sustainer engine throw down the combustion chamber and the nozzles of the starting engine. Operator safety was one of the key factors of the Javelin program. The missile is equipped with a pressure relief system so that in the event of an unauthorized start of the starting engine, this does not lead to an explosion. The starting engine is equipped with shear pins developed jointly by the government and the industry, collapsing in the event of overpressure of the starting engine and allowing the engine to fall out of the rear of the launch canister.

ARC has also developed a flammable starter charge. Its ring-shaped design has become a key part of the system and serves to integrate the starting and main engines. The igniting charge of the starting engine had to be placed in the nozzle, but it could simply be thrown away by a jet of gas from there, which is unacceptable from the point of view of operator safety. The use of a ring igniter solved this problem as the gases pass through the ring. It also ensures the passage of hot gases into the solid fuel charge 360 degrees and provides a more reliable ignition. Another important element in the design of the engine is a rupture disk, separating the starting and sustainer engines. This component, developed by the ARC, has a higher threshold limit to pressure from the starting engine and lower from the main engine. This allows the membrane to protect the main engine from the effects of the starter engine, but on the other hand, when creating sufficient overpressure by the main engine, break the membrane and direct the gases of the main engine past it and down through the starting engine chamber.

Javelina engine is based on technologies previously developed for other missiles. The solid propellant charge of the starting engine is identical to that used on other missiles. The solid propellant charge of the main engine was borrowed from TOW and Hellfire missiles and was adapted for Javelin by the joint efforts of the US government and industry.

As with the engine development, joint efforts were crucial to the successful development of the Javelin ATGM warhead. Collaboration between the program leadership, the army, the Marine Corps and industry has proven particularly successful in optimizing the characteristics of a tandem warhead. The tandem combat unit Javelina is a cumulative anti-tank ammunition. This munition uses a shaped charge to create a jet of superplastic deformed metal formed from a funnel-shaped metal coating. The result is a high-speed jet (10 km / s at the tip and 2-5 km / s in the tail), which is able to dynamically penetrate solid armor.

The basic concept of a cumulative charge has been known since 1880's, but the laboratories of the US Army have done significant work to improve this technology and its application in weapon systems. The laboratory of ballistic studies contributed to basic research, especially in the field of modeling, and Picatinny Arsenal was responsible for design and demonstration performance tests. Physics International, working under a Redstone contract, created the main cumulative charge of the Javelina warhead. Advances in cumulative charge efficiency have led to the emergence of dynamic protection. Dynamic protection is located on the main armor of the vehicle and detonates when it gets ammunition. The explosion does not harm the vehicle’s main armor, but at the same time the fired metal plate destroys the cumulative jet of ammunition. To overcome the dynamic protection Javelin uses a tandem-shaped cumulative warhead. Leading charge triggers dynamic protection, and the main charge does not lose its destructive power. This concept was first applied to the TOW rocket and was based on the work done by the Ballistic Research Laboratory and Picatinny Arsenal.

Developers Javelina initially tried to make the tandem warhead function. Although the main charge developed by Physics International, which used a copper coating to form a penetrating jet, showed good results, the leading charge with a copper coating hardly overcomes the dynamic protection. The competitor in the development of the warhead was the company Conventional Munitions Systems Inc. (CMS), which acquired a company called Orlando Technology Inc. This company had its own computer models and developed a successful leading charge design using a two-layer molybdenum coating. As a result, the leading charge design of CMS and the main charge of Physics International was used on Javelina.

Another problem in the development of the Javelina tandem warhead was to protect the main charge as much as possible from the possible consequences of a missile strike on a target or a detonation of a leading charge (concussion, shock wave, missile fragments). Fragments of the rocket and the shock wave can adversely affect the formation of a jet of the main charge. To limit the interference between the leading and the main charge, a protective screen designed by Redstone Arsenal was placed. It was the first composite explosion-proof screen and the first through which a hole was made through the middle providing protection for the cumulative jet.

The next stage of upgrading the Javelina warhead included changing the coating of the main charge in order to get a jet of higher speed. These changes will make the warhead more efficient in terms of penetrability and thus will reduce the size of the charge and use the vacant space to increase the size of the solid-fuel engine and, accordingly, increase the range of the missile. Technical work at this stage was carried out at Picatinny Arsenal and General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems, which took over part of the work of Physics International.

During the development of the Javelin ATGM system, major improvements were implemented in the area of ​​fuses and the deployment of a warhead to a combat platoon. Before Javelina, fuses were mainly mechanical consisting of gears, rotors, checks, etc. However, with the advent of several warheads in one rocket, variable time delays, restrictions on weight and volume, as well as stricter safety requirements, installing mechanical fuses on Javelin and other missiles has become unacceptable. As a result, an electronic system of fuses and placing the warheads on a combat platoon was used on these missiles. This concept is based on the results of the nuclear warheads carried out at Sandria and Los Alamos and was implemented by engineers at Redstone Arsenal in the middle of the 1980's. It received the name ESAF (Electronic Safe Arming and Firpe, electronic protection system, arming warheads and firing). The first ESAF systems turned out to be too cumbersome, but the development of microelectronics allowed them to be used not only on Javelin, but on other systems, such as Hellfire missiles.

The ESAF system allows the deployment of a warhead to a combat platoon and firing, subject to certain conditions regarding the safety of the missile. After the operator pulls the trigger, the ESAF commands the engine to start. When the rocket reaches a certain acceleration (it signals the system that the rocket left the launch container and retired to a safe distance from the operator) and in combination with other factors, the ESAF produces a "second warhead set on a combat platoon" necessary to launch the sustainer. After another verification of the relevant conditions (for example, the presence of a captured target), the ESAF initiates a "final combat platoon", which allows the warhead to detonate when it hits the target. So, when a rocket hits the target, the ESAF initiates the function of a tandem warhead, providing the necessary time interval between the detonation of the leading and main charges.
Author:
Originator:
Stinger and Javelin Missile Systems
Articles from this series:
Critical technological difficulties in the development of ATGM Javelin. Part of 1
Critical technological difficulties in the development of ATGM Javelin. Part of 2
42 comments
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  1. Excalibur
    Excalibur 20 November 2013 11: 28
    +3
    Very interesting article! (just afraid too complicated for a meager mind ur-interest)
    1. klop_mutant
      klop_mutant 20 November 2013 19: 29
      0
      Yeah, it's not Lockheed Martin cartoons for you.
  2. loki565
    loki565 20 November 2013 11: 32
    +3
    Well, reliability is lame ...

    1. uwzek
      uwzek 20 November 2013 12: 35
      +2
      And she does not limp and cannot. The Javelin contains such high technologies (I mean that no one else tried to use these technologies in the infantryman's portable weapons), and several at once, that with the existing level of production, the system becomes unreliable. Add to this its non-versatility and cumbersomeness and you will get a vivid example of sawing heads in American style. An extremely expensive, but ineffective weapon system has been adopted for service; in terms of price-quality ratio, it is easier for infantrymen to hand over a weight and a half filled with explosives. It will become more reliable and much cheaper. At the same time, the infantry will destroy tanks (for the same money). And the joy of dragging loads across the intersection will not be deprived.
      1. Professor
        20 November 2013 13: 19
        +4
        Quote: loki565
        Well, reliability is lame ...

        Doesn't lame. Any equipment can fail - even Kalashnikov gets sick. As stated in the article, the average time to failure of the PBC is 300 hours. This is an excellent indicator. The safety system does not start the main engine if the seeker has lost its target. This can explain some of the "failures" on the video.

        Quote: uwzek
        Add to this its versatility and cumbersomeness and get a vivid example of cutting American dibs.

        How I "like" conversations on any occasion about cutting the dough. Do you explain the absence of third-generation ATGM systems in Russia or other reasons not by the desire to cut the loot?
    2. standby
      standby 17 December 2013 01: 06
      0
      At $ 80 (!) Per unit! Excellent result! Smiled!
  3. AlNikolaich
    AlNikolaich 20 November 2013 11: 45
    0
    I carefully read the second part. To go nuts! The device is so overloaded with technical nishtyak, which is somewhat surprising. Already thinking, is it too much? The system is clearly not bad, the price is a bit big, but from the point of view of efficiency there are questions. For example, the installation of rubber or trellis screens, dazzling systems of infrared radiation. Other tricks are possible in terms of countering such a missile. So how to say, how to say ...
    Respect to the professor for providing information.
  4. Vasia kruger
    Vasia kruger 20 November 2013 11: 46
    +4
    Thanks, very interesting! )
  5. badger1974
    badger1974 20 November 2013 12: 05
    +3
    IR guidance systems have one indisputable drawback, this is the state of the atmosphere around the target, if on armored vehicles there are such protection komaleks as Arena or Drozd, in addition to the Barrier plus smoke grenades, as well as the TDA system, (as well as foreign analogues), then ATGM based on infrared guidance will be practically without teeth, in any case there are a bunch of rollers when only standing equipment without the above systems are beaten by Javelin, and there are no real test videos of the technique in motion and with active and passive protection systems, you can also It is that such systems AZ and PZ is a rather old system of 30 20-year-old
    1. Professor
      20 November 2013 13: 22
      +1
      Quote: badger1974
      in any case there is a bunch of videos when only worthwhile equipment is beaten by Javelin

      You will not please. On the video, where Javelin hits the tank with ammunition, everyone kitschu why such waste and that this is an advertisement. I would shoot at a moving target, shout that this is a statement ... request
      1. badger1974
        badger1974 20 November 2013 13: 34
        +2
        I just substantiated some of the inconveniences associated with the active IR guidance system under the above conditions, because the reaction time with modern AZ and PZ means is much higher than the old ones, and your arguments for the USA are inconclusive, they can afford such wastefulness, especially such test reports provided to the customer’s experts, and then to all the onlookers, personally, I have nothing against it, did it. but the cons are obvious
        1. Andreas
          Andreas 20 November 2013 14: 09
          +1
          Javelin belongs to the third generation of ATGMs, which operate on the principle of "point-fire-forget". The fourth generation of the JAGM type operates on the "point-shoot-illuminate (laser designator) -forget" principle.
          The transparency of the atmosphere on these ATGMs affects equally the tanks equipped with laser rangefinders.
          The existing SAZ / KAZ of the Trophy or Arena type do not cover the uppermost segment of the protected hemisphere with an opening angle of about 30 degrees. Therefore, ATGMs attacking from above have a 100% chance to hit the tank.
          1. badger1974
            badger1974 20 November 2013 14: 35
            +4
            For this, there is a cloud and thermal smoke equipment that has been serving faithfully for more than half a century, recently there have been combined grenades that emit not smoke, but infrared traps — segments of the Shtor complex, and it does this very quickly, up to 2 seconds, judging by the commercials, in such circumstances, about 100pr - hitting all the more from above, the more so the infrared seeker can be forgotten, a very remarkable case was in Chechnya, when the T-72, armed with all the minced meat, was sewn up and received 24 different hits by means of anti-theft guards, remained in service, and this is not an isolated case
            1. Andreas
              Andreas 20 November 2013 16: 11
              0
              So this is what we are talking about - as soon as someone (no matter the attackers or defenders, tankmen or infantrymen) applies an aerosol curtain, the hostilities cease on both sides, since both laser rangefinders and laser pointers cease to see targets.
              For the defenders (infantry) this is of positive importance, but for the advancing (tanks) it is a direct disruption to the combat mission.
              Therefore, aerosols are used in the withdrawal of damaged equipment to the rear and are not used in an attack.
              By the way, if during artillery preparation in the event of an offensive, you overdo it with the number of shells per square meter, then the dust raised in the air will force the tanks to advance blindly, at the risk of getting a grenade from the RPG into the side when passing the trench line.
              1. badger1974
                badger1974 20 November 2013 18: 08
                +2
                blind driving is part of the training program for tankers (underwater driving, and driving in low visibility conditions), especially satellite topographic location is like two or two, but, rightly so, the main threat comes from RPGs, as the cheapest and most effective anti-tank (anti-personnel, sometimes even anti-aircraft), there is no ATGM with RPGs, especially when it comes to slaughter in dense buildings, which in modern conditions is what happens
          2. Professor
            20 November 2013 14: 43
            +2
            Quote: Andreas
            The fourth generation of the JAGM type operates on the principle of "point-shoot-illuminate (with a laser designator) -forget"

            Not true. There is still no fourth generation in nature. Again money for fish? Do not invent.

            Quote: Andreas
            The existing SAZ / KAZ of the Trophy or Arena type do not cover the uppermost segment of the protected hemisphere with an opening angle of about 30 degrees.

            Not true. Trophy covers completely the upper hemisphere. Look at the Raphael website.

            Quote: Andreas
            Therefore, anti-tank systems attacking from above, while there is a 100 percent chance to hit the tank.

            Not true. Even without KAZ there is no 100% guarantee.
            1. Andreas
              Andreas 20 November 2013 16: 33
              0
              Just those times - JAGM has a place to be, and for some reason the fourth generation of ATGM is not! If there is something missing in the Middle East, this does not mean that this is not the case in North America. laughing

              According to my data, SAZ Trophy provides cover only 55 degrees vertically (out of 90 degrees possible). Please provide a web link to a different value.

              I was only talking about a 100 percent chance, not a 100 percent chance of a tank defeating.
              1. Professor
                20 November 2013 17: 20
                +3
                Quote: Andreas
                Just those times - JAGM has a place to be, and for some reason the fourth generation of ATGM is not! If there is something missing in the Middle East, this does not mean that this is not the case in North America.

                Let's, without fantasies and demagoguery, a link to the classification where it would be indicated that this is a "fourth generation" system. You may not refer to yourself.

                Quote: Andreas
                I was only talking about a 100 percent chance, not a 100 percent chance of a tank defeating.

                I have a 100% chance to fuck Claudia Slate, but there’s also zero chance. Is it more intelligible? wink

                Quote: Andreas
                According to my data, SAZ Trophy provides cover only 55 degrees vertically (out of 90 degrees possible). Please provide a web link to a different value.

                Any whim for you:
                1. il grand casino
                  il grand casino 20 November 2013 18: 11
                  0
                  Quote: Professor
                  I have a 100% chance to fuck Claudia Slate, but there’s also zero chance. Is it more intelligible? wink

                  laughing , Prof. You can’t make people laugh at work like that)))
                  1. Professor
                    20 November 2013 21: 29
                    +1
                    Quote: il grand casino
                    Prof, you can’t make people laugh at work like that)))

                    it’s necessary to work at work, and not to read all professors wink
                2. Andreas
                  Andreas 20 November 2013 20: 30
                  0
                  We have links:
                  - Sergey Yuferev http://topwar.ru/30011-protivotankovaya-raketa-novogo-pokoleniya-jagm-ssha.html
                  - http://www.modernarmy.ru/article/140
                  - http://bastion-karpenko.ru/jagm/
                  - http://www.raytheon.com/capabilities/products/jagm/

                  Fear God - Don't Exaggerate Your Opportunities for Part of Claudia Schiffer laughing

                  At 66 seconds of the commercial of the manufacturer SAZ Trophy, a full-angle horizontal protection (vicious circle) and limited vertical protection (open semicircle) are clearly shown. This confirms the presence of an unprotected upper segment with an opening angle of 70 degrees.
                  1. Professor
                    20 November 2013 21: 47
                    +2
                    Have you read it yourself? wink
                    Quote: Andreas
                    - Sergey Yuferev http://topwar.ru/30011-protivotankovaya-raketa-novogo-pokoleniya-jagm-ssha.html

                    It is anticipated that the new 3rd generation JAGM ATGM will be
                    And here is what the manufacturer writes: All-Weather, Affordable Missile Gives Warfighters Unfair Advantage
                    No new generation, but only multisensory seeker homing. Should you translate?

                    Quote: Andreas
                    Fear God - Don't Exaggerate Your Opportunities for Part of Claudia Schiffer

                    The opportunities are 100 percent, she is an attractive woman, and I am a man in full bloom. That's just the probability of this is 0.0%. wink

                    Quote: Andreas
                    At 66 seconds of the commercial of the manufacturer SAZ Trophy, a full-angle horizontal protection (vicious circle) and limited vertical protection (open semicircle) are clearly shown. This confirms the presence of an unprotected upper segment with an opening angle of 70 degrees.

                    Are we watching different videos?


                    That's what the bourgeois write.
                    Trophy-HV offers 360o protection Trophy-HV Active Protection HK System for Heavy and Medium Armored Vehicles in azimuth, as well as extensive elevation coverage, while maintaining a pre-defined safety zone for friendly troops on the ground.
                    Trophy family
                    Look for yourself at the "throwing installation" of the interceptor and the degree of its freedom in the vertical plane + Javelin's trajectory.
                    1. Andreas
                      Andreas 20 November 2013 23: 22
                      +1
                      Sergei Yuferev must be dealt with separately - the title of his article reads "New generation anti-tank missile - JAGM (USA)". So let's put this link outside the brackets before asking the author what he meant.
                      The link to the website of the manufacturer of the ATGM JAGM at the beginning of the last paragraph of the description of the missile directly says: "JAGM will replace three legacy missiles". What generation do you think the rocket should belong to, replacing the three previous generations of missiles?

                      How can you not see the open semicircle of the Trophy defense in the vertical plane at 66 seconds of the video?
                      The azimuth in geodesy is the angle between the direction to the north and the defined point on the surface of the earth, i.e. in the horizontal plane. Therefore, the bourgeoisie and I mean the same thing when we talk about 360 degrees of Trophy protection in azimuth.
                      1. Professor
                        21 November 2013 11: 13
                        +1
                        Quote: Andreas
                        The link to the website of the manufacturer of the ATGM JAGM at the beginning of the last paragraph of the description of the missile directly says: "JAGM will replace three legacy missiles". What generation do you think the rocket should belong to, replacing the three previous generations of missiles?

                        They can generally write about the fifth generation - they will not die of modesty. In fact, there are only three regime GOS. If you want this is Generation 3+. Spike has two-mode seeker and it combines two generations due to the possibility of missile correction in flight, but no one shouts that this is the "next generation". So we will not see the fourth generation soon.

                        Quote: Andreas
                        How can you not see the open semicircle of the Trophy defense in the vertical plane at 66 seconds of the video?

                        Did not finish the closing shootings? Further, they have a whole hemisphere everywhere.

                        Quote: Andreas
                        Therefore, the bourgeoisie and I mean the same thing when we talk about 360 degrees of Trophy protection in azimuth.

                        as well as extensive elevation coverage
                        And here is the angle of attack of Javelin. Conclusion - KAZ Trophy covers the path of attack of Javelin.
                      2. Andreas
                        Andreas 21 November 2013 11: 40
                        0
                        You asked for links - I gave.
                        The criterion for classifying ATGMs as the fourth generation is simple - rocket self-aiming (target acquisition without operator involvement). JAGM this provides in one of the three modes of operation of the GOS - active radar guidance.

                        The arrows were not "finished" by the manufacturer of the CAZ Trophy.

                        Do not be so sure that the manufacturer of anti-tank systems Javelin publicly revealed all the secrets of his complex, including the angle of the dive missiles at the target. Below I posted a message that in February of this year the rocket easily covered the declared flight range and hit the target at a distance of 4500 meters.
                        It can be assumed that for this, the manufacturer reconfigured the autopilot software for flying along a parabolic trajectory without a horizontal section. A similar method can be used to control the dive angle of the rocket.
                      3. Professor
                        21 November 2013 12: 06
                        0
                        Quote: Andreas
                        You asked for links - I gave

                        Special thanks for them. hi

                        Quote: Andreas
                        The criterion for classifying ATGMs as the fourth generation is simple - rocket self-aiming (target acquisition without operator involvement). JAGM this provides in one of the three modes of operation of the GOS - active radar guidance.

                        It does not provide independent target recognition (Pattern recognition): Abrams or T-72 for example. They have been working on this since the 60s of the last century, but they have not yet implemented it on rockets working on the surface (heavy CRs do not count).
                        Regarding the statement of the developer: JAGM will replace three legacy missiles, which means instead of three global supply chains, there's only one. That translates to lower lifecycle cost over the life of the weapon.- JAGM will replace three-generation rockets. This means that instead of three global supply chains, there will be only one. This in turn will reduce the life cycle cost over the life of the rocket.
                        In other words, not a new generation, but the unification and unification of the previous ones.

                        Quote: Andreas
                        The arrows were not "finished" by the manufacturer of the CAZ Trophy.

                        However, she remarkably finished the hemisphere. By the way, where protection is limited in height, they are limited to a cylinder.


                        Quote: Andreas
                        Do not be so sure that the manufacturer of anti-tank systems Javelin publicly revealed all the secrets of his complex, including the angle of the dive missiles at the target.

                        In addition to program code and manufacturing technology, all secrets were revealed. Otherwise, no one would have allowed them to a competition in India.

                        Quote: Andreas
                        Below I posted a message that in February of this year the rocket easily covered the declared range and hit the target at a distance of 4500 meters.
                        It can be assumed that for this, the manufacturer reconfigured the autopilot software for flying along a parabolic trajectory without a horizontal section. A similar method can be used to control the dive angle of the rocket.

                        The article I translated speaks of increasing the firing range by increasing the solid propellant charge of the sustainer engine. They did the same on TOW. By the way, the parabola on the CD does not "channel". The software is resting.
                      4. Andreas
                        Andreas 21 November 2013 12: 23
                        0
                        If an active radar seeker is used, then this clearly indicates self-aiming. This is based on the excellent contrast of large metal targets in the radar range. In this mode, for several decades, radar seekers of air defense / missile defense have been operating.

                        Cylinder or open arrows - one result am

                        So I am talking about this - Javelin program code is definitely classified.

                        The report from the February Javelin test cites the words of the head of the ATGM development program that the possibility of increasing the range of standard missiles was demonstrated. The conclusion is that it is a matter of reconfiguring the software and using a ballistic flight profile, which is advantageous in any situation, even if there is an aerodynamic support force on the rocket planes.
                      5. Professor
                        21 November 2013 12: 41
                        0
                        Quote: Andreas
                        If an active radar seeker is used, then this clearly indicates self-aiming. This is based on the excellent contrast of large metal targets in the radar range. In this mode, for several decades, radar seekers of air defense / missile defense have been operating.

                        Self-aiming does not make this missile the fourth generation, and as you correctly noted, such a system has been working on air defense missiles for decades. On ATGM it is poorly applicable: "fired-forgot-hit his own." The fourth generation will be only when the object recognition algorithm is implemented.

                        Quote: Andreas
                        Cylinder or open arrows - one result

                        The result is the interception of Javelin.

                        Quote: Andreas
                        The report from the February Javelin test cites the words of the head of the ATGM development program that the possibility of increasing the range of standard missiles was demonstrated. The conclusion is that it is a matter of reconfiguring the software and using a ballistic flight profile, which is advantageous in any situation, even if there is an aerodynamic support force on the rocket planes.

                        Of course standard, the same dimensions and the same weight. They only reduced the warhead and increased the engine charge, and the charge itself was modernized as on the new TOW. They are made of the same material. Software has nothing to do with it. The ballistic profile of cruise missiles does not double their range.
  • il grand casino
    il grand casino 20 November 2013 13: 01
    +2
    Prof, thanks for the translation! And the disadvantages of your article probably by inertia grab)))
    1. Professor
      20 November 2013 13: 20
      +5
      Quote: il grand casino
      Prof, thanks for the translation! And the disadvantages of your article probably by inertia grab)))

      I myself was interested in reading and decided that not only I should know this and translated it. And the cons to me ...
      1. il grand casino
        il grand casino 20 November 2013 13: 45
        +3
        The fact that you all know about the minuses from a big tree))) However, as someone from the members of the forum said - "they are afraid of cons - do not go to topwar")))
      2. viruskvartirus
        viruskvartirus 20 November 2013 17: 06
        0
        Professor and why, all the same, "The US Army is testing Griffin B missiles, which should replace the more expensive Javelin ATGMs" this is a step back wassat http://topwar.ru/11719-deshevya-perenosnaya-i-vysoko-tochnaya-karmannaya-artille

        riya-pehotinca-ssha.html # comment-id-205093
        1. Professor
          20 November 2013 17: 27
          +3
          Quote: viruskvartirus
          Professor and why, all the same, "The US Army is testing Griffin B missiles, which should replace the more expensive Javelin ATGMs" this is a step back

          Well it's written right there: Griffin is smaller, simpler and does not contain expensive armor-piercing warheads, so it is a cheaper alternative to Javelin + missile range is 5600 meters. wink
  • Leisure
    Leisure 20 November 2013 16: 00
    +2
    Thanks to the professor. I liked the article.
  • Leisure
    Leisure 20 November 2013 16: 00
    0
    Thanks to the professor. I liked the article.
  • alone
    alone 20 November 2013 20: 46
    +2
    The professor spent time and made sure that we all the same understood what Javelin is and what he is like. Thank you, Professor. I read it with great interest. hi
  • Justme
    Justme 20 November 2013 21: 19
    0
    The feeling of all this development - it is very complex
    The art of the developer (at least for us) is when a powerful thought is expressed in an extremely simple (if possible) implementation.
    After all, what I often saw in other people's projects - the idea of ​​the concept is expressed somewhat complicatedly, this leads to additional circles of complexity and complexity further winds up complexity, in the end, complexity nevertheless breaks - but at a cost ..
  • Andreas
    Andreas 21 November 2013 00: 14
    -1
    Quote: Professor
    The opportunities are 100 percent, she is an attractive woman, and I am a man in full bloom. That's just the probability of this 0.0%

    "... during the active phase of the hostilities of the US Army in Iraq, more than 1 FGM-000 Javelin missiles were used against various targets, while the probability of hitting a battle tank with the first shot was 148"
    - Colonel V. Dmitriev. New anti-tank guided missiles for the US Army. Foreign Military Review, No. 1 of 2006
    http://pentagonus.ru/publ/6-1-0-122
    1. badger1974
      badger1974 21 November 2013 10: 10
      +1
      article http://pentagonus.ru/publ/6-1-0-122 without analysis, for what different purposes and under what circumstances? If in the first Iraqi there were separate armored skirmishes (Ras Khafji, defense of Basra), then in the second Iraqi they were completely absent, due to the "dropping" of armored vehicles by the Iraqi Armed Forces, therefore, battles took place only in settlements without the participation of armored vehicles from the Armed Forces Iraq. Both in the first and in the second company, the main role was played by aviation, artillery and MLRS, and the Javelin was completely useless, except for firing at standing "deserted" tanks, here is a buyback of 0.93, but in general Rayton is constantly "shitting" with his products, recall the first Patriot, the terms of reference failed, the customer did not hide his nervousness about the delivery of the P-1 (the situation was corrected for the Patriot-2 only by examining the 9M96E SAM S-300 PMU in detail), which speaks of the lobbying of Rayton's products at the top
      1. Andreas
        Andreas 21 November 2013 11: 09
        +1
        http://ammokor.ru/news/dzhavelin_16_raket_16_popadanij/2013-06-18-2531
        As part of the next joint exercise of the Indian Army and the U.S. Army, Yudh Abhyas, firing from Javelin ATGMs was conducted, ASDNews reports on June 17, 2013. Five missiles were fired (three by soldiers of the 82nd US Airborne Division and two by Indian forces), all ATGMs hit the targets with a direct hit. In the course of several Yudh Abhyas exercises, Indian and American troops fired a total of 16 missiles with 16 direct hits.


        http://www.militaryparitet.com/perevodnie/data/ic_perevodnie/4106/
        "Military parity", February 10, 2013 - during tests at the military base Eglin ATGM Javelin twice
        hit targets with a direct hit at a range of 4750 m (outside the declared range of 2500 m).
    2. Professor
      21 November 2013 11: 16
      0
      Quote: Andreas
      while the probability of hitting a battle tank with the first shot was 0,93 "
      - Colonel V. Dmitriev.

      Colonel V. Dmitriev did not study well at school. 93% were effective and this has nothing to do with probability. I can spread it on the fingers of anyone interested.
      1. Andreas
        Andreas 21 November 2013 11: 45
        0
        As for the level of school education of V. Dmitriev, I do not know anything.

        I just want to note that, according to your logic, the American and Indian military, as well as the developers of the Javelin ATGMs, studied poorly with him at the schools, by whose efforts the possibility, probability and effectiveness of the last missile launches coincided at a level of 100% laughing
        1. Professor
          21 November 2013 12: 08
          +1
          Quote: Andreas
          I just want to note that, according to your logic, the American and Indian military, as well as the developers of the Javelin ATGMs, studied poorly with him at the schools, by whose efforts the possibility, probability and effectiveness of the last missile launches coincided at a level of 100%

          They are not talking about any probability there, but only about effectiveness. 16 out of 16 does not guarantee 17th will be successful.
        2. badger1974
          badger1974 21 November 2013 12: 41
          0
          again, on motionless targets without proper AZ and PZ, here's a nuisance,
          I can give an example of a defeat, the head of the convoy, the Israeli "Merkava" by the Cornet (from the sensational video), the fault is entirely on the commander of the group of tanks, or they did not activate the AZ, or in the absence of this, the unit commander did not organize a military guard, and knowing the treachery of the Majahideen if the attack could be stopped, so portable ATGM is a very controversial issue
          1. Professor
            21 November 2013 12: 54
            0
            Quote: badger1974
            I can give an example of the defeat, the head of the column, the Israeli "Merkava" Kornet (from the sensational video)

            bring
            1. badger1974
              badger1974 21 November 2013 13: 44
              0
              Defeat of the tank "Merkava" Mk.4. (Lebanon, 2006) - in any search engine, other videos raise doubts in me due to the quality of the video (the inability to determine not only the modification, but also the technique itself)
              and isho, SYRIA! Video about `` shitty '' Russian (Soviet) tanks .. !!)) - the same, any search engine
              can and isho, but so
              1. Professor
                21 November 2013 13: 46
                0
                So where is the movie itself? A topic is very interesting to me and close.
                1. badger1974
                  badger1974 21 November 2013 15: 21
                  0
                  download nadot from YouTube, but your search engine does not work - Yandex, Google, rambler, etc.? I don’t upload videos, just see why they are in the archive, the current is taking up space, look by typing-Defeat of the tank "Merkava" MK.4. (Lebanon, 2006) - your opinion will be interesting to me
                  1. Professor
                    21 November 2013 16: 39
                    +1
                    Sending me to google is like ...

                    On the video, cutting about different tanks and communication with Cornet is not at all traced. request
                    1. badger1974
                      badger1974 21 November 2013 23: 04
                      0
                      I did not claim that this was a cornet, I argued that it was an ATGM, and I assert (the video was clearly changed, but earlier it looked different), ---- this would not have happened if the unit's com would not have been so self-confident, knowing about the "underwater stones "of this territory
                      litter, on gu .., did not send, on the search engine, yes, but Yandex is the same ...?
          2. Andreas
            Andreas 21 November 2013 14: 06
            0
            The only AZ currently in service is the Trophy, and it is overcome by the Javelin rocket when the dive angle changes from 45 to 55 or more degrees (by reconfiguring the autopilot software).

            The tandem warhead of the Javelin rocket, attacking from the upper hemisphere, has a nominal penetration of 700 mm of steel armor behind dynamic protection. Which tank has such armor on the roof?

            Naturally, in the event of a tank wreck, its commander is always to blame, and in the event of a wreck, thanks to the developers of the machine laughing
            1. Professor
              21 November 2013 14: 43
              +1
              Quote: Andreas
              The only AZ currently in service is the Trophy, and it is overcome by the Javelin rocket when the dive angle changes from 45 to 55 or more degrees (by reconfiguring the autopilot software).

              No, it is not overcome. The trophy protects the entire upper hemisphere. Javelin is not capable of attacking vertically downward and the VP has nothing to do with it. But since you have already decided to "reconfigure the autopilot software" of the Javelin, what is stopping you from reconfiguring the Trophy software? laughing
            2. badger1974
              badger1974 21 November 2013 15: 48
              0
              in the "dead zone" of the Arena, just like the Trophy, no one has yet been able to get into the "dead zone" all the rest, so "the grandmother said in two" and it's worth the video to look at you in YouTube - SYRIA! Video about `` shitty '' Russian (Soviet) tanks .. !!))