Military Review

The lessons of the Buran. Will the Russian space shuttle ever fly

86
The lessons of the Buran. Will the Russian space shuttle ever fly

205 minutes of the flight of the ship "Buran" have become a deafening sensation. And most importantly - landing. For the first time in the world, the Soviet shuttle landed automatically. The American shuttles did not learn this: they sat down only in manual mode.


Why triumphal start was the only one? What has the country lost? And is there any hope that the Russian shuttle will fly to the stars? About this on the eve of the 25 anniversary of the flight "Buran" correspondent "RG" talks with one of its founders, in the past - the head of the department of NPO "Energy", and now - a professor of MAI, doctor of technical sciences Valery Burdakov.

Valery Pavlovich, they say that the Buran spacecraft has become the most complex machine ever created by mankind.

Valery Burdakov: Certainly. Before him, the leader was the American Space Shuttle.

Is it true that the Buran could fly up to a satellite in space, capture it with a manipulator and send it to its womb?

Valery Burdakov: Yes, just like the American Space Shuttle. But the capabilities of Buran were much wider: both by the mass of cargo delivered to Earth (20-30 tons instead of 14,5), and by the ranges of their alignments. We could drop the Mir station from orbit and turn it into a museum piece!

The Americans were scared?

Valery Burdakov: Vakhtang Vachnadze, who once headed NPO Energia, said: under the SDI program, the United States wanted to send 460 military vehicles into space, in the first stage, around 30. Having learned about the successful flight of the Buran, they abandoned this idea.

"Buran" was our answer to the Americans. Why were they convinced that we could not create anything like a shuttle?

Valery Burdakov: Yes, the Americans seriously made such statements. The fact is that in the middle of 1970's, our gap with the United States was estimated at 15 years. We did not have enough experience in working with large masses of liquid hydrogen, there were no reusable liquid rocket engines, or winged spacecraft. Not to mention the lack of such an analogue as the X-15 in the United States, as well as Boeing-747 class aircraft.

Nevertheless, the "Buran" was literally crammed with, as they say today, innovations?


The flight of the ship "Buran" has become a worldwide sensation 1988 of the year. Photo: Igor Kurashov / RG.


Valery Burdakov: Absolutely. Unmanned landing, the absence of toxic fuel, horizontal flight tests, air transport tanks rocket on the back of a specially designed aircraft ... Everything was super.

Many people remember an amazing photo: the spacecraft was “saddled” by the Mriya plane. Winged giant was born just under the "Buran"?

Valery Burdakov: And not only "Mriya". After all, the huge 8-meter tanks with a diameter of Energia missiles had to be delivered to Baikonur. How? We considered several options, and even this: dig a canal from the Volga to Baikonur! But they all pulled 10 billion rubles, or 17 billion dollars. What to do? There is no such money. There is no time for such construction - more than 10 years.

Our department prepared a report: transportation should be by air, i.e. by airplanes. What started here! .. I was accused of fantasy. But the plane Myasishchev 3M-T (later named after him VM-T), and the plane "Ruslan", and the plane "Mriya", on which we together with a representative of the Air Force were technical tasks, flew.

And why even among the designers turned out so many opponents of the "Buran"? Feoktistov said directly: reusability is another bluff, and academician Mishin even called “Buran” just as “Buryan”.

Valery Burdakov: They were wrongly offended by removing them from reusable subjects.

Who was the first to think about the project of the orbital ship of the aircraft scheme and the aircraft capabilities of landing on the runway?

Valery Burdakov: Korolev! This is what I heard from Sergey Pavlovich himself. In 1929, he is 23, and he is already a famous glider pilot. Korolev was carrying the idea: to lift the glider on 6 km, and then, with a sealed cabin, into the stratosphere. He decided to go to Kaluga to Tsiolkovsky in order to sign a letter on the expediency of such a high-altitude flight.

Tsiolkovsky signed?

Valery Burdakov: No. He criticized the idea. He said that without a liquid-propellant rocket engine, a glider at a high altitude would be out of control and, speeding up when it fell, would break. He presented the book “Space Rocket Trains” and advised to think about the use of LRE for flights not in the stratosphere, but even higher, in the “ether space”.

I wonder how Korolev reacted?

Valery Burdakov: He did not hide his disappointment. And even refused to autograph! Although I read a little book. A friend of Korolev, aircraft designer Oleg Antonov told me how at the glider rally in Koktebel after 1929, many were whispering: did Serega not shake their minds? It is said that it flies on a tailless glider and says that it is best suited for installing a rocket engine on it. Knocked down the pilot Anokhin specifically to break the glider in the air during the "flutter test" ...

Korolev himself designed some kind of heavy-duty glider?

Valery Burdakov: Yes, "Red Star". Pilot Stepanchenko for the first time in the world on this glider made several "dead loops". And the glider is not broken! Curious fact. When the first five astronauts entered the Zhukovsky Academy, they decided to offer a diploma theme on the Vostok ship. But Korolev categorically objected: "Only the orbital ship of the aircraft scheme! This is our future! Let on the example of a small space ship with wings understand what is what."

And what kind of incident happened then with German Titov?

Valery Burdakov: He naively thought that he really understood everything, and asked the Queen to accept him. "We," he says, "are flying on bad ships. Large overloads, while descending, are shaking like a cobblestone pavement. We need a ship for an airplane circuit, and we have already designed it!" Korolev smiled: "Have you already received an engineering degree?" "Not yet," answered Herman. "When you get it, then come, let's talk on an equal footing."

When did you start practicing Buran?

Valery Burdakov: Back in 1962, with the support of Sergei Pavlovich, I received my first copyright certificate for a reusable space carrier. When the hype around the American shuttle came up, the question of whether or not we should do the same with us was not yet resolved. However, the so-called "service N 16" in NPO "Energy" under the leadership of Igor Sadovsky in 1974 year was formed. There were two design departments in it - mine on aircraft matters and Efrem Dubinsky - on the carrier.


Assembling the layout of the ship "Buran" for the MAKS-2011 air show in Zhukovsky. Photo: RIA News www.ria.ru


We were engaged in translation, scientific analysis, editing and publishing of the "primers" on the shuttle. And they themselves, quietly, developed their own version of the ship and carrier for it.

But after all, Glushko, who after the removal of Mishin, headed "Energy", also did not support reusable topics?

Valery Burdakov: He kept saying that he would not engage in the shuttle. Therefore, when Glushko was once summoned to the Central Committee by Ustinov, he did not go. Sent me. There was a flurry of questions: why do we need a reusable space system, what could it be, etc. After this visit, I signed with Glushko Technical Information - the main provisions on the topic of "Buran". Ustinov in the shortest possible time prepared a decision that was approved by Brezhnev. But dozens of meetings were needed with swearing and accusations of incompetence, until they had developed a common opinion.

And what was your main position aviation subcontractor - chief designer of NPO Molniya Gleb Evgenievich Lozino-Lozinsky?

Valery Burdakov: Unlike Aviation Minister Dementieva, Lozino-Lozinsky was always on our side, even though at first he offered his options. Wise was a man. Here, for example, as he put an end to talk about the impossibility of an unmanned landing. He told the managers that he wouldn’t turn to them anymore, but would ask him to make an automatic landing system ... pioneers from the Tushino airfield, as he repeatedly observed the accuracy with which their radio-controlled models land. And the incident was settled to the displeasure of his superiors.

The astronauts were also unhappy. We thought that the position of Dementiev would take the upper hand. They wrote a letter to the Central Committee: they do not need an automatic landing, they want to control the Buran themselves.

They say that their name “Buran” received before the start?

Valery Burdakov: Yes. Glushko proposed to call the ship "Energy", Lozino-Lozinsky - "Lightning". There is a consensus - "Baikal". A "Buran" proposed by General Kerimov. The inscription was barely scraped off before the start and put a new one.

The accuracy of the landing "Buran" struck down all outright ...

Valery Burdakov: When the ship had already appeared from behind the clouds, one of the chiefs, as if in delirium, repeated: “Right now it will crash, right now it will crash!”. True, he used another word. All gasped when the Buran began to unfold across the runway. And in fact, this maneuver was incorporated into the program. But that chief of this nuance, apparently, did not know or had forgotten. The ship went exactly on the strip. Lateral deviation from the centerline - total 3 meter! This is the highest accuracy. 205 minutes of flight "Buran", like all flights of aircraft with oversized cargo, passed without a single remark to the designers.

What did you feel after such a triumph?

Valery Burdakov: This is not the words to convey. But ahead of us another "sensation" was waiting: a successful innovative project was closed. 15 billion rubles - were wasted.

Will the Buran scientific and technical reserve ever be used?

Valery Burdakov: “Buran”, like the shuttle, was unprofitable to use because of the expensive and clumsy launch system. But unique technical solutions can be developed in Buran-M. New, modified with the latest achievements, the ship can be a very fast, reliable and convenient means for intercontinental transportation of cargoes, just passengers and tourists. But for this, it is necessary to create a reusable single-stage all-azimuth ecologically-friendly carrier MOVEN. He will replace the Soyuz rocket. Moreover, it will not need such a bulky launch for it, so it can be launched from the Vostochny cosmodrome.

Catchings on "Buran" are not lost. Automatic aircraft landing gave life to the fifth-generation fighter jets and numerous UAVs. Simply, we, as it was with the artificial satellite of the Earth, were the first.

For Korolev, you worked in the 3 department, defining the prospects for the development of astronautics. What is the outlook for current space?

Valery Burdakov: The era of atomic and solar energy is coming to replace the hydrocarbon, unthinkable without the wide use of a wide variety of space tools. The creation of space-based solar power plants that supply energy to earthly consumers will require payload carriers in 250 tons. They will be created on the basis of MOVEN. And if we talk about cosmonautics as a whole, it will provide all the needs of humanity, and not just information, as it is now.

By the way

A total of five flight copies of the Buran were built.

Ship 1.01 "Buran" - made a single flight. It was stored in the assembly and test building at Baikonur. In May, 2002 was destroyed during a roof collapse.

The ship 1.02 - had to make a second flight and dock with the orbital station "Mir". Now the exhibit of the Baikonur Cosmodrome Museum.

The ship 2.01 - was ready for 30 - 50%. It was located at the Tushino Machine-Building Plant, then at the quay of the Khimki Reservoir. In 2011, it was transported for restoration at Zhukovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry.

The ship 2.02 - was ready for 10 - 20%. Disassembled on the stocks of the plant.

The ship 2.03 - backlog destroyed and taken to landfill.
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  1. makarov
    makarov 15 November 2013 07: 50
    17
    The Buran family, as a scientific groundwork, will not be lost, and it will certainly and more than once rise into the cosmic abyss. Everything has its time. This is my conviction.
    1. unclevad
      unclevad 15 November 2013 12: 03
      +2
      Another article on this topic.
      http://www.vz.ru/society/2013/11/14/659658.html
      I advise you to read.
      1. Lyokhin63
        Lyokhin63 17 November 2013 21: 49
        0
        "Our" Soyuz ", for all their remarkable merits, are extremely outdated."
        From your link to this extremely interesting article. I do not agree with such a flat statement. What is outdated?
        Vladimir Meilitsev, or can you say what is the "obsolescence" of the G1 from other middle class missiles? In reliability or in the cost of outputting XNUMX kg of payload?
    2. for
      for 15 November 2013 20: 39
      +1
      Unless you have destroyed all the documentation.
      1. 0255
        0255 15 November 2013 22: 47
        +3
        Quote: Petrovich
        Unless you have destroyed all the documentation.

        I'm afraid that all the documentation was sold to the Americans request
        1. Rus2012
          Rus2012 15 November 2013 23: 24
          +3
          Quote: 0255
          I'm afraid that all the documentation was sold to the Americans

          There was an order by departments - to destroy technical docks and hurt ...
          It should be so.
          But, Russia is not a country where instructions from above are meticulously executed laughing
          Recall NK-33 Kuznetsova ...
          1. studentmati
            studentmati 15 November 2013 23: 29
            +1
            Quote: Rus2012
            But, Russia is not a country where instructions from above are meticulously executed


            Bullseye Shot! "Do not rush to carry out the order, it will be canceled." good

            I just ask you to recall what date the order to eliminate the backlog and drawings was signed? what
            1. Rus2012
              Rus2012 15 November 2013 23: 39
              0
              Quote: studentmati
              I just ask you to recall what date the order to eliminate the backlog and drawings was signed?

              ... alas, do not remember ...
              But, most likely, after the topic is completely closed ...
              It turns out with EBN ...
              1. rudolff
                rudolff 15 November 2013 23: 45
                +2
                But is the Buran theme officially closed?
                1. studentmati
                  studentmati 15 November 2013 23: 51
                  +1
                  Quote: rudolff
                  But is the Buran theme officially closed?


                  That's why I asked my question?
                  1. rudolff
                    rudolff 15 November 2013 23: 56
                    +2
                    Good evening! I heard she just stopped financing and was allowed to die quietly. Officially, no one wanted to take a sin on the soul.
                    1. Rus2012
                      Rus2012 16 November 2013 00: 35
                      +1
                      Quote: rudolff
                      Good evening! I heard she just stopped financing and was allowed to die quietly. Officially, no one wanted to take a sin on the soul.

                      ... well ... after the cancellation of L2 (at first the date was postponed several times) and then, after a certain stage of "hungry funding", the NPPEO became unusable in the Tyuratam salt marshes, the order to close was a formality. The latter seems to have disbanded the IAP cosmonaut corps. When, in fact, the MAP was gone for a long time.
                      But, I remember a conversation with one of the main designers of the system, so in 90xx he just spoke of the Directive to destroy all design technical documentation and the remaining backlogs and equipment for the production of elements and assemblies in our part.
                      I asked him, “so what type?”
                      He - you know, everything that was counted was destroyed ... laughing
                      By the way, here you need to add ...
                      Indeed, earlier, to close the topic (and to open it too), a joint Decision of the CPSU Central Committee and the Government was required.
                      And since there was no party, then there was no initiator for closing either. Therefore, the official instructions apparently and nebylo.
                      As for the instructions to destroy. Here apparently it was a question of closing production, i.e. manufacturing of additional batches of elements, assemblies, - over those released for l1, l2 ... mb.l3
                      1. studentmati
                        studentmati 16 November 2013 02: 09
                        0
                        Quote: Rus2012
                        As for the instructions to destroy. Here apparently it was a question of closing production, i.e. manufacturing of additional batches of elements, assemblies, - over those released for l1, l2 ... mb.l3


                        The entire Soviet economy was planned, and everything was proceeding at a measured pace. The money for the program was allocated according to the principle "say what you need, take it and leave." Fortunately, then they planted two-storey cottages, and there were no cuts yet, all the allocated funds (almost all) went to production. I say this to the fact that all 2 sets were made. There were no orders for additional series.
                      2. Rus2012
                        Rus2012 16 November 2013 10: 58
                        0
                        Quote: studentmati
                        I say this to the fact that all 14 kits were made.

                        Not sure...
                        Because many elements involved refinement and re-equipment. In particular, TO 17d16, which in the first flight did not include at all.
                        The words of Lozin-Lozinsky: "I will not allow carrying a landmine on board and blowing it up!" The thing is that sometimes, very rarely by the way (1 per hundreds of thousands of inclusions), there were "pops" in the head of DO ...
                        It was intended to bring to 2, 3 to equip, equip and use to the fullest.
                        There was an option, if it didn't work out, to make a "jet engine" on one of the components. Also with some other elements ...
                        And that means they were not produced in full.
                  2. studentmati
                    studentmati 16 November 2013 00: 36
                    +2
                    Quote: rudolff
                    Good evening! I heard she just stopped financing and was allowed to die quietly. Officially, no one wanted to take a sin on the soul.


                    I have the same information!
                    1. Alex 241
                      Alex 241 16 November 2013 00: 43
                      +2
                      Hello Sasha, I expected that there would be such an answer. The best way to "strangle" is to deprive of funding, which was done.
                    2. studentmati
                      studentmati 16 November 2013 01: 10
                      0
                      Quote: Alex 241
                      Hello Sasha, I expected that there would be such an answer. The best way to "strangle" is to deprive of funding, which was done.


                      Sash, hello! Time dragged on, the country was already flying into the abyss ... But the pride of the secretary general did not allow him to recognize the complete collapse of the system. O.D Baklanov, Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee for Defense as well as possible confirm "the need to close the program" - "Let there be a terrible start than horror without end!". And the decision to start was made in full confidence that a tragedy would happen! But everything went according to the "plan". And no one dared to cancel the decision of the Secretary General at that time, the program had to be "put on the brakes" ...
  • timer
    timer 17 November 2013 15: 58
    0
    I really want to believe in it, but something is hindering this faith. And, for example, the report of the Ministry of Economic Development that the raw materials orientation of the Russian economy is being preserved until 2030 interferes. This is a hindrance. not going to change it. These are two. And I have listed it in brief.
    1. Evgenij.
      Evgenij. 20 November 2013 17: 57
      +1
      I apologize, but got the power to whine, go and work, the power in the end, from the inside, correct the situation
  • saag
    saag 15 November 2013 08: 43
    +2
    And why such a shuttle is needed, a heavy load is easier to withdraw with a disposable missile, and no expensive inter-flight maintenance is needed, there are no goals for it and are unlikely to appear
    1. Old_kapitan
      Old_kapitan 15 November 2013 11: 28
      10
      And why such a shuttle is needed, a heavy load is easier to withdraw with a disposable missile, and no expensive inter-flight maintenance is needed, there are no goals for it and are unlikely to appear

      "Vakhtang Vachnadze, who once headed the NPO Energia, said: under the SDI program, the US wanted to send 460 military vehicles into space, at the first stage - about 30. Having learned about the successful flight of Buran, they abandoned this idea."
      Will this answer suit you?
    2. ism_ek
      ism_ek 15 November 2013 14: 31
      +6
      Do not forget that in the first flight, Energy launched a combat laser into orbit. This sobered the Americans.
      1. for
        for 15 November 2013 20: 44
        0
        Cargo - Yes!
        And if we talk about the guys who should sit there and not be able to somehow influence the situation ................
    3. for
      for 15 November 2013 20: 42
      0
      You must understand that sitting in a capsule and not being able to influence the descent leads to the fact that we will get pilots with a completely destroyed psyche at the "exit".
  • rotor
    rotor 15 November 2013 09: 04
    +3
    The future lies with hypersonic airplanes and a space elevator.
    1. Old_kapitan
      Old_kapitan 15 November 2013 11: 13
      +3
      So after all Antonov, before proceeding to "Ruslan" and "Mriya", made gliders. And to you - once, and hypersound!
    2. for
      for 15 November 2013 20: 45
      0
      I completely agree with you, that's just where to publish my thoughts, VPK-name is closed to me, honor is not an empty word for me .......
  • slavik_gross
    slavik_gross 15 November 2013 09: 07
    +5
    But they made him an alliance ...
  • Maxsh
    Maxsh 15 November 2013 09: 29
    10
    All welcome! hi But Buran was developed in parallel with another no less ambitious project. In addition
    1. rotor
      rotor 15 November 2013 13: 31
      +4
      G.E. Lozino-Lozinsky: "This fundamental transition to a carrier aircraft is the general line of development of reusable space transport systems of the XXI century."
    2. Des10
      Des10 15 November 2013 21: 29
      +2
      Thank. He served there, saw technology and people. Proud of it.
  • fennekRUS
    fennekRUS 15 November 2013 09: 37
    +1
    Hmm ... in the 60s yet ... this is not a pipe to pull. Googled here, I will study the resource on the topic. I recommend http://www.buran.ru/htm/spiral.htm
    http://www.buran.ru/htm/spiral_5.htm#interceptor
  • ism_ek
    ism_ek 15 November 2013 09: 44
    +5
    Well, what an objection Buran ...
    The new leadership of Roskosmos has only proposed to revive the production of communication satellites in Russia. Immediately Putin's ministers pounced on Ostapenko, shouting "This is a violation of the WTO rules," we read between the lines "what about our kickbacks."
    We need to change the weak political leadership in the beginning. Returning to fair elections ... And then thinking about the revival of Russian space.
    1. Old_kapitan
      Old_kapitan 15 November 2013 11: 15
      +6
      Return to fair elections ...

      And choose Bulk? laughing
      1. ism_ek
        ism_ek 15 November 2013 11: 50
        -2
        If the creators of "Buran" reasoned the same way. There is no one to choose from, let's leave everything as it is - nothing would work.
        In addition to Navalny, there is a nationally oriented wing: Demushkin, Belov ...
        1. Ascetic
          Ascetic 15 November 2013 19: 20
          +2
          Quote: ism_ek
          there is a nationally oriented wing: Demushkin, Belov ...


          fell into the leadership of the nationalists on behalf of ... far from nationalists.
    2. Old_kapitan
      Old_kapitan 15 November 2013 11: 18
      +4
      Putin ministers immediately
      Okostya! The ministers are just not Putin's, but the iPhone's.
  • Wild_grey_wolf
    Wild_grey_wolf 15 November 2013 10: 45
    +1
    Such a powerful technique, how much ahead of its time and now so much time has been lost ...
  • Old_kapitan
    Old_kapitan 15 November 2013 11: 01
    +9
    What has the country lost?

    What is lost? She lost herself. More precisely - we lost it.
    ... There was an enterprise in the glorious Chernigov with the modest name ChRPZ - Chernigov Radio Instrument Plant. Supermode, allied value, working for space and defense. No sooner had Ukraine become "nezalezhnoy", as it had new owners - the Dutch. They riveted something there, to space, of course, it had nothing to do with it, then the Dutch realized that there was nothing to do in this country, with its "permanent" legislation, they threw this dirty business and now only wild dogs are running around the territory of the once powerful enterprise. No, a couple of workshops are working - boots and shovels rivet, that's all that remains.
    And you say that you lost ...
    1. paul72
      paul72 15 November 2013 18: 59
      +5
      in Vladim. region in the city of Alexandrov was VNIISIMS (synthesis of mineral raw materials) where they made tiles for lining Buran. Now - a shopping center.
      The enterprise was destroyed by its last Soviet director. Technology sold to China.
      1. Old_kapitan
        Old_kapitan 15 November 2013 19: 22
        +5
        The enterprise was destroyed by its last Soviet director.
        So the Chelyabinsk Pipe Plant was destroyed by the former Soviet director, who became president of the joint-stock company. In general, as I noticed, with the collapse of the USSR, Soviet and party functionaries did not develop a healthy craving for the presidency. Shaw do not acne - the president!
    2. for
      for 15 November 2013 21: 47
      +1
      For some reason I’m not surprised!
  • Nayhas
    Nayhas 15 November 2013 11: 05
    -4
    Buran is a meaningless technical miracle. He showed that the USSR still has a lot to do, but he himself does not understand why this is necessary. Why was RN Energia created? For what purpose? So far, no one has given a normal answer. At the same time, everyone agrees that the Shuttle was initially unprofitable, but when it comes to Buran, common sense immediately leaves its head ...
    1. tolyasik0577
      tolyasik0577 15 November 2013 15: 17
      0
      blizzard experiment. his perspective was initially hazy. it's like a su-47 "golden eagle". where is he? waiting in the wings! as well as the Tu-144.
    2. Rus2012
      Rus2012 15 November 2013 20: 29
      +2
      Quote: Nayhas
      but when it comes to Buran, so common sense immediately leaves my head ...

      Heavy carrier "Energia" immediately under a multitude of cargo - ships to Mars, to the Moon ... under heavy anti-SOI satellites. Buran is at least a "cleaner" of near-earth space. And, mind you, the shuttle had no fatal and irreparable errors (two losses) ...
      1. atalef
        atalef 15 November 2013 20: 55
        -5
        Quote: Rus2012
        Heavy carrier "Energia" immediately under a multitude of cargoes - ships to Mars, to the Moon ... under heavy satellites anti-SOI

        You went to the statistics - beautifully, in this case - Energy - 66% of successful launches, 50% of completed tasks successfully (out of three launches - 1 was canceled for those reasons (2-0th launch), 1- satellite simulator (1 -th launch) did not enter the specified orbit and was lost. that is, the output of satellites from Energy is 100% unsuccessful
        Buran (2nd launch) is successful - one (the first is canceled and rescheduled for 2 weeks, canceled by the way 70 seconds before the start - if I am not mistaken, but somewhere like that (I was just on the shift), the second is successful.

        Quote: Rus2012
        Moreover, mind you, the shuttle did not have fatal and irresistible errors (two losses) ...

        because nor flew. and based on statistics 9, which you love so much) _ Buran is an uninhabited aircraft with an efficiency equal to zero (because nothing was done at all) and the whole program is one complete failure - because none of this came out --- space ekranoplan - roughly speaking, the device is there. They argue for 30 years. sense of zero output
        Do not get carried away with statistics, it can be beautifully manipulated. Do you know how much each of us two (with you) swam in the Mediterranean today? Once every laughing
    3. fennekRUS
      fennekRUS 17 November 2013 11: 08
      0
      the snowstorm is only one of the steps of the spiral complex
  • Pimply
    Pimply 15 November 2013 11: 13
    -11 qualifying.
    An unmanned landing on American shuttles was - this is if the author is not in the know.
    1. Old_kapitan
      Old_kapitan 15 November 2013 11: 25
      +3
      An unmanned landing on American shuttles was - this is if the author is not in the know.
      From this place in more detail, please.
      1. Alex 241
        Alex 241 15 November 2013 19: 37
        0

        NASA planned to build an unmanned Shuttle-C. Due to the lack of crew, they wanted to increase the shuttle payload. Unfortunately, due to lack of funding in the 90s, the project was closed.
    2. avt
      avt 15 November 2013 12: 11
      +1
      Quote: Pimply
      An unmanned landing on American shuttles was - this is if the author is not in the know.

      She was not, she became no longer on the shuttles, but only on the Khsov drone was the last that was launched into orbit after the collapse of the USSR.
    3. Bashkaus
      Bashkaus 15 November 2013 12: 17
      +2
      The first time I hear about this, therefore, I ask you to provide facts, otherwise I will consider your statement as empty words.
    4. Ascetic
      Ascetic 15 November 2013 19: 07
      +4
      Quote: Pimply
      Unmanned landing on american shuttles was


      The first unmanned shuttle X-37B made a fully automated return and landing on the runway only in 2010. Buran did this in 1988.
  • ed65b
    ed65b 15 November 2013 12: 17
    +2
    Ah Buranushka, will definitely fly only later. Such machines are the future, just so far only specialists understand it.
  • lotar
    lotar 15 November 2013 13: 45
    +1
    Everything will have its time and some of the technologies that entered Buran will be used in new programs of a similar plan. I would like to believe that the space age in connection with the latest events will not bypass our country. We still have the potential of a space power in spite of all the failures of the latter time. And I still have the hope that effective managers will really be like that, and not ordinary thieves, using their capabilities for their exorbitant enrichment.
    1. Rus2012
      Rus2012 15 November 2013 20: 24
      +2
      Quote: lotar
      Some of the technologies that went into Buran will be used in new similar plan programs.

      Here it is for sure!
      After the first flight of Buran, in Obninsk there were mountains of rejected ceramic tiles that did not know where to go ...
      But, after perestroika and collapse, they all disappeared to an unknown location. We must think that they found a good use! it’s kind of a joke, of course, a lot of what has been created has found application.
      But, they stole the dream ... this is insulting!
  • Jurkovs
    Jurkovs 15 November 2013 16: 06
    0
    They got the job done and everything was done. I read somewhere that at a meeting in the Central Committee, Brezhnev said that they would do as in the USA and no one dared to object. That revolved around the dimensions and the cast weight. And if they had listened to Lozino-Lozinsky and made a smaller car and for the purpose of not releasing cargo, but serving satellites, then Buran would still fly.
    1. Old_kapitan
      Old_kapitan 15 November 2013 17: 11
      0
      And if they had listened to Lozino-Lozinsky and made a smaller car and for the purpose of not releasing cargo, but serving satellites, then Buran would still fly.

      And what prevents him from serving now? And at the same time, to withdraw the goods. Ahhh ... No money. Well, there’s nothing to cast a shadow on the fence.
    2. Rus2012
      Rus2012 15 November 2013 20: 20
      +2
      Quote: Jurkovs
      And if they had listened to Lozino-Lozinsky and made a smaller car and for the purpose of not releasing cargo, but serving satellites, then Buran would still fly.

      You are somewhat wrong ...
      There was a project of less proportionality. Satellite Fighter IC. But ... he also had less functionality. At the same time, after Buran, all the doors were open to the IP project ... But, other times have already come ... :(
      1. Alex
        Alex 16 November 2013 16: 20
        0
        Judging by the photo, you mean "Spiral" (EPOS). This topic was closed until Energiya-Buran. By that time, a subsonic analogue of the orbital stage was flying (pictured), a supersonic analogue was under construction. It was still very far from hypersound. The hypersonic overclocking aircraft has not yet begun. Considering the powerful opponents of the topic (Ustinov, Grechko) and the cool attitude of the MAP (space is not his diocese), there were no prospects.
        And there were many projects before and after Buran. In this you are right.
    3. Alex
      Alex 16 November 2013 16: 45
      +1
      One political observer close to the powers that be in the USSR (unfortunately forgot his last name) in 1982 lectured on the book "Soviet Military Power" published in the USA in front of students. He was pestered with questions when a shuttle would appear in the Union. At first he said that we did not need the shuttle, our general line was orbital stations. Then he could not resist and said: that everything that a potential adversary has should be with us.
      The political leadership really demanded to create a reusable system the same as that of the Americans based on this logic.
      1. fennekRUS
        fennekRUS 17 November 2013 11: 10
        0
        It could well be, given the logic of administrators
  • The comment was deleted.
  • avt
    avt 15 November 2013 16: 24
    +3
    Quote: Jurkovs
    I read somewhere that at a meeting in the Central Committee, Brezhnev said that they would do as in the USA and no one dared to object.

    No, you confuse it with Grechko's statement about aircraft carriers, he then said that they would do it like "Nimitz". "Buran" only for the public is the same as a shuttle. In fact, these are two different machines. Amers have two accelerators and an "airplane" with a tank , we have a separate carrier and a separate "plane".
    1. paul72
      paul72 15 November 2013 19: 06
      -2
      that’s why Buran didn’t fly anymore.
      Amers burned a fuel tank and two accelerators in the atmosphere, and we had a super energy rocket burned, and this is not just a tank with accelerators.
      So it turned out to fly Buran - a rocket burns in the atmosphere.
      Although in Soviet times it was precisely the presence of the Buran system in us: the shuttle + rocket itself, as a separate system capable of operating as a separate carrier from the shuttle, was a huge plus
      1. Alex 241
        Alex 241 15 November 2013 19: 50
        +3
        ...................................................
        1. Alex 241
          Alex 241 15 November 2013 20: 04
          +3
          The stage Energy rocket block occupies a special place among the new design solutions, as it was designed to be unified for a family of medium, heavy and superheavy launch vehicles. In accordance with the technical requirements put forward for the space-rocket complex, Energia-Buran should be reusable and used in flight at least ten times. With regard to a rocket unit with a liquid rocket engine, such a requirement was presented for the first time in world practice. As a result of comprehensive research, a parachute-reactive scheme for returning the block after its separation from the launch vehicle was chosen.

          The elements of the return means (parachute system, soft rocket solid propellant rocket engines and separation of the parablock into monoblocks, landing gear, return control system) are located partially inside the compartment of the A block, mostly under the large fairings mounted on its outer surface.
          1. Alex
            Alex 16 November 2013 16: 29
            0
            It is very doubtful that it would have been possible to realize a parachute drawdown of the 1st stage blocks on land without damage. All the same, compared to solid shuttle boosters, they are delicate and fragile. And after the splashdown, the Shuttle accelerators were delivered to the plant, where they were sorted into sections when refueling and then assembled again. if I'm not mistaken.
          2. postman
            postman 17 November 2013 23: 43
            0
            Quote: Alex 241
            »Must be reusable and used in flight at least ten times.

            DO NOT READ BEFORE LUNCH OF THE SOVIET NEWSPAPERS

            Return LRE (and LV with LRE) from an altitude of 70-100 km ..
            NOT POSSIBLE (now and soon)
            This is a thin-walled structure, variable (in height) thickness, "waffle" milling, which "lives that" under pressure and only tolerates axial loads
            =============
            THE AMERICANS WAS NOT SUCCESSFUL (and they did not even try) to return ONLY EMPTY TANK, without "gentle" LRE and THA

            ========
            you can "treat" the aged Politburo of the times of "Ochakov and Conquest" in order to get a long ruble, BUT THE PROBLEM DOES NOT BE SOLVED
            AND LATERAL RNS WERE NOT SAVED, CANNOT SAVE AND THE MOST IMPORTANT (!) ANYTHING FOR THIS (salvation) HAS NOT BEEN DONE
      2. atalef
        atalef 15 November 2013 19: 57
        +2
        Quote: paul72
        The amers burned out a fuel tank and two accelerators in the atmosphere, while our super rocket Energia burned out, and this is not just a tank with accelerators

        The whole problem is that the Shuttle does not burn anything, and both the accelerators and the fuel tank (central) are all reusable and returnable.

        Quote: paul72
        Although in Soviet times it was precisely the presence of the Buran system in us: the shuttle + rocket itself, as a separate system capable of operating as a separate carrier from the shuttle, was a huge plus

        All the officers who served with me (more precisely, I served with them, as I attended at the start of the Buran and the first and second (I did not fly the first time), said that it was a waste of money, we burned so many dibs, and there were ideas easier and In this case, the order just came - to do as they have.
        1. postman
          postman 18 November 2013 01: 37
          +1
          Quote: atalef
          and the fuel tank (central) everything is reusable and refundable.

          Fuel tank central -Burned
          From a height of 113 km - DO NOT SAVE the structure, even armored, not to mention the "foil"
          DO NOT KNOW
      3. Rus2012
        Rus2012 15 November 2013 20: 06
        0
        Quote: paul72
        and we burned a super rocket Energy

        No need dirt!
        The pH was originally planned DISPOSABLE !!! So cheap in production!
        There are other problems, more of a political nature. For before L3-backlog was almost ready !!!
        1. paul72
          paul72 15 November 2013 20: 25
          0
          and in what did you see the dirt?
      4. Alex
        Alex 16 November 2013 17: 04
        0
        Quote: paul72
        Although in Soviet times it was precisely the presence of the Buran system in us: the shuttle + rocket itself, as a separate system capable of operating as a separate carrier from the shuttle, was a huge plus


        And this is indeed a plus. In addition to Buran, RN Energia could also display orbital stations, lunar and Martian ships, or parts of them weighing up to 100 tons. And the Space Shuttle could only 29,5 tons in the cargo compartment OK. Therefore, in the late 1980s, to unload heavier loads (up to 75 tons), the unmanned and wingless one-time Shuttle-S was developed. The truth came from him.
        But in general, both systems are undeniably outstanding creations. But unfortunately bulky and economically inefficient. But at that time it was the only thing that could really be created. All the other projects of reusable systems of that time were either unrealizable fiction or much more time and money were required for their implementation. Moreover, the payload (satellites) became smaller and lighter.
  • Volkhov
    Volkhov 15 November 2013 17: 52
    -3
    Over the past months, 2 Protons have been lost due to electrical reasons - Buran also has bad external electrics - it is oversized, the coating is not right and on the descent it received a glow discharge, which caused an annular crack in the nose fairing and the destruction of several tiles. He miraculously did not reach the transition of the discharge into an avalanche and descent in the form of meteor shower - therefore they created an advertisement for him and put it on the shelf - the whole program was a dead end, ordered by America. Columbia collapsed so much, and the rest knew that they were passing along the edge.
    1. Old_kapitan
      Old_kapitan 15 November 2013 19: 26
      +1
      The entire dead end program ordered by America.
      Whole America? Oh how! Do not share the source7
    2. Rus2012
      Rus2012 15 November 2013 20: 03
      +1
      Quote: Volkhov
      destruction of several tiles.

      ... don’t tell my slippers :)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))
      Each shuttle descent was accompanied by the loss of more ceramic tiles!
      On Buran just 6 tiles fell out! By the way, my colleagues glued them. Like all the ships of this series ...
      1. Volkhov
        Volkhov 15 November 2013 20: 48
        -1
        The point is not the tiles falling off at all, but because of their destruction - a glow discharge, the next stage is avalanche and debris. Fairing crack is an indicator of risk.
        There are plenty of optimists in the industry, but there’s no sense in this - this team needs a lot of similar accidents to think about, but the Americans understand right away, the Germans - before that, in accordance with this, the Germans dominate space without advertising, the Americans are trying to catch up with them within the framework of what is available, and Roscosmos builds a concrete rocket stool in Siberia with an age of 60 and sings songs about Buran.
        1. fennekRUS
          fennekRUS 17 November 2013 11: 13
          0
          where does infa come from?
          1. Volkhov
            Volkhov 19 November 2013 00: 13
            +1
            Do not worry, not from the safe - there are books on thermal protection, there are photos of both Buran and Bora, they only cost money and the circulation is small.
            1. studentmati
              studentmati 19 November 2013 00: 17
              0
              Quote: Volkhov
              Do not worry, not from the safe - there are books on thermal protection, there are photos of both Buran and Bora, they only cost money and the circulation is small.


              Intrigue!
              1. Volkhov
                Volkhov 19 November 2013 07: 59
                0
                No intrigue - "Heat-shielding materials and coatings", authors from Lightning and MATI, came out in the mid-90s, was sold at MAKS.
        2. Evgenij.
          Evgenij. 20 November 2013 19: 06
          0
          Where are you from? not know the geography of his native country is criminal! Siberia does not include the Amur Region!
  • Enot-poloskun
    Enot-poloskun 15 November 2013 19: 42
    +1
    The article is interesting. I was hooked that it turns out we were the first in testing large unmanned systems.

    Buran - this is not some kind of small fry!
    1. Rus2012
      Rus2012 15 November 2013 20: 00
      +1
      Quote: Enot-poloskun
      it turns out we were the first in testing large unmanned systems.

      Ehhh, Enot, Raccoon :))))
      The landing of Buran, then "Lightning", was taught by the guys from the "wolf pack", the legendary test pilot Igor Volk from the cosmonaut corps of the legendary MAP. We, almost every week, watched this from Zhuk to Lyubertsy and Dzerzhinka ...
      The more involved and personally knew Wolf. Yes, he is still alive and well ...
      1. for
        for 15 November 2013 22: 07
        +1
        I confirm.
    2. atalef
      atalef 15 November 2013 20: 15
      +2
      Quote: Enot-poloskun
      The article is interesting. I was hooked that it turns out we were the first in testing large unmanned systems.

      Buran - this is not some kind of small fry!

      I think modern UAVs (if they can be compared at all) are much more complicated. TKB in unmanned mode to fall out of orbit (this is a worked out thing on all uninhabited descent vehicles), some braking is controlled by ballistics (if anyone understands what it is about, that Shuttle, that Buran - are slowed down when entering the atmosphere (at the first stage) the lower plane and the tail forward) then, in thicker layers, it turns over and goes nose) - it was worked out during tests of guided nuclear warheads, and then --- all modern UAVs --- do the same thing. they can only land at any airdrome, maneuver, etc.
      If anyone thinks that Buran could sit anywhere - a mistake, there were only 3 lanes - Simferopol. Ulan-Ude. Sary Shagan (Baikonur) and at the exit from an uncontrolled descent (when there is a plasma cloud around him) he was immediately caught for control, the VKS control and measuring points, and they were perfectly guided. So, believe me, and then they could do it (States) only if someone proves to me that the landing of one uninhabited Buran (it was just scary to send people, the system was not reliable, they were afraid to fill up) is steeper than 25 years of shuttle flights - sorry to laugh.
      I myself served in the VKS, and I am proud of the Soviet cosmos, of the officers (really knowing) with whom I served, and in general, I’m probably one of not many who will not say a bad word about the Army, but that I lived in the Army , I will never live anywhere else. but nevertheless, one must look at the facts.
      The program was largely a failure, as many (including) Phobos 1 and Phobos -2 (1989) were also lost - and then we were dressed as a citizen for a full 7 months. Our cosmos is peaceful and the military seems to have nothing to do (the program was international), suits, shoes were promoted. shirts (with collars of the 50s) and plaid caps. That’s where the foreigners walked and probably cared who those young specialists were (there were 400 people, more soldiers weren’t allowed to go to those days in those days, only dezh shift). short-haired and in CAPs (identical) wassat
  • Rus2012
    Rus2012 15 November 2013 19: 55
    +3
    For me personally, like everyone involved, it’s bitter for this project ...
    Triumphant after the first launch. Preparing for L2. Received awards based on "culpability and involvement". By the way, the kings gave me and my boss 160 rubles each, which was not bad at that time. Of course, the more involved got more, but we were not envious. The chief designer of one of the systems got Moskvich-2141, though not for free, but "the right to buy", and his old one - 2140 - had to give the queue for the car for further implementation ... :)
    But, we rejoiced sincerely!
    Then, bang - and hang up .. Death Glushko ... well, and then it went, went ...: (((
    1. for
      for 15 November 2013 22: 09
      0
      Eh!
      If they would return then ... with today's afterlife ...
      The traitor’s bear - removed - and then the grass does not burn.
  • wlad59
    wlad59 15 November 2013 20: 19
    0
    The ambiguous impression of the article: on the one hand, pride in the country and the people who created it all, and on the other ... there MONEY was buried in the ground (literally and figuratively) just a horror !!!
    PS platform 113 - MIK (assembly and test building), site 250 - Energy launch pad.
    1. for
      for 15 November 2013 22: 10
      +1
      Yes, they were not buried in the ground.
      They were buried, but rather they disappeared, only after the betrayal of Gorbachev.
  • Andrey Peter
    Andrey Peter 15 November 2013 21: 01
    +1
    Quote: atalef
    I think modern UAVs (if they can be compared at all) are much more complicated. TKB in unmanned mode to fall out of orbit (this is a worked out thing on all uninhabited descent vehicles), some braking is controlled by ballistics (if anyone understands what it is about, that Shuttle, that Buran - are slowed down when entering the atmosphere (at the first stage) the lower plane and the tail forward) then, in thicker layers, it turns over and goes nose) - it was worked out during tests of guided nuclear warheads, and then --- all modern UAVs --- do the same thing. they can only land at any airdrome, maneuver, etc.

    You are contradicting yourself. To compare modern drones (which fly in the atmosphere) and Buran of the last century, but with spacewalks? You described his entry into the atmosphere in such a simplified way, but in fact, everything is not so simple, but okay "let it go". I think we will have to return to Buran, only using more modern technologies (but taking into account experience). The States abandoned the Shuttle, but they are already making reusable ships and commercial, which also proves their perspective.
  • saag
    saag 15 November 2013 21: 07
    0
    Quote: Andrew Peter
    I think we will have to return to Buran, only using more modern technologies (but taking into account experience).

    Why drag a hundred tons of structures into space, and then return them to the ground, which in case of something can't be planted anywhere? Maybe for a start with electronics of the class "space" how to solve the problem, also by the way not easy?
  • Vladimir65
    Vladimir65 15 November 2013 21: 46
    +1
    The creative insolence of Soviet designers is simply amazing!
  • Eric
    Eric 15 November 2013 21: 46
    +1
    Quote: rotor
    G.E. Lozino-Lozinsky: "This fundamental transition to a carrier aircraft is the general line of development of reusable space transport systems of the XXI century."


    An outstanding designer, from God ... I saw him in a documentary movie. Sorry. He was forgotten ...
    1. studentmati
      studentmati 15 November 2013 23: 09
      +2
      Quote: Eric
      An outstanding designer, from God ... I saw him in a documentary movie. Sorry. He was forgotten ...


      Gleb Evgenievich, as you most definitely put it, an outstanding designer from God!

      And the Outstanding cannot be forgotten!
      The oblivion of the designers and directors of the extra-class, which Gleb Evgenievich was, is impossible by definition. Yes, Lozino-Lozinsky was "stamped", but this cannot speak of his oblivion! For hundreds of thousands of compatriots, Lozino-Lozinsky was a father and a son, and at the same time a provider of families.
    2. Shur
      Shur 16 November 2013 22: 07
      0
      They will still remember, everyone will remember. Evaluation puts time. New generations (not the 90s and not 0s) will come to the simple idea that there will either be a revolution in the minds, or .. like all banana emirates, they will become slaves.
  • Cosmos-1869
    Cosmos-1869 16 November 2013 22: 25
    0
    There was also the Albatross project. I dug it up in a collection of scientific papers of some conference (something like Tsiolkovsky readings) in the early 80s.
    There, the first stage was a hydrofoil ship (probably Alekseev’s design bureau), the second was an accelerator plane, and the third was an orbital plane.
    This scheme is quite possible to implement now. It is undoubtedly more economical than the Energia - Buran combination and will give impetus to ekranoplaners, hypersonic aircraft and aviators.
    1. fennekRUS
      fennekRUS 17 November 2013 11: 16
      0
      technically more complicated .. there are many new things, with such starts
  • postman
    postman 17 November 2013 23: 32
    0
    Posted by Natalia Yachmennikova .....
    cheap, article of course.
    OH, I warn, blowing into the water (waiting for the cons): I'm not an Americanophile, not an Russophobe; I am Russian, and was connected with Buran, and with the USSR space program (a bit).
    I DON'T LOVE empty-throats and hats ("if tomorrow is a war, a boom in someone else's territory ...")
    1.
    Quote: Natalia Yachmennikova
    For the first time in the world, a Soviet shuttle landed automatically. The American shuttles did not learn this: they sat down only in the manual.

    AMERICANS HAD unmanned Shuttle flights?
    AND WE HAD MANAGED FLIGHTS (Burana)? (As the guys from the detachment did not ask, ready to risk their lives, they were NOT ALLOWED TO THEM) - about 7% of the chances of returning alive
    HOW ABOUT THE VOYAGERS? skoko there? more than 30 years? Beyond the Solar System? fly? WITHOUT PILOTS!
    AND WHEREOF AEROFLOT, TRANSAERO, RUSSIA, AND OTHERS FLY AT US ...
    Even forgot, sclerosis probably. What about autopilots? Whose are they?
    2.
    Quote: Natalia Yachmennikova
    What has the country lost?

    Thanks to "Buran (y)" and "Energy (s)" the country lost itself and collapsed, the fantasies of the moss-covered marasmatics from the Ministry of Defense and the Central Committee, embodied in metal, GOATED the budget of astronautics and the country ... and? and ended up DO NOT NEED ANYONE! Well, yeah, isho Glushko satisfied his ambitions.
    3.
    Quote: Natalia Yachmennikova
    And is there any hope that the Russian shuttle is still fly to the stars?

    if this is not an allegory, then the question, in principle, corresponds to the level of brain activity of AE. Natalia will fly, essno will fly, smoke and go.
    4.
    Quote: Natalia Yachmennikova / Valery Burdakov
    "that the Buran spacecraft has become the most complex machine ever created by mankind.

    Valery Burdakov: Certainly "
    Valery Pavlovich what about Voyagers?
    Valery Pavlovich what about 135 (!) Flights of the Shuttle MKTS? Remind the lope of the cosmonauts / astronauts delivered to orbit and how much of the cargo DEPLOYED?
    Valery Pavlovich, how about the fact that in the Buran-Energy system ( positioned as reusable) EVERYTHING BURNED, acre glider and cheap ODE maneuvering. And?
    5.
    Quote: Natalia Yachmennikova
    Is it true that the Buran could fly up to a satellite in space, capture it with a manipulator and send it to its womb?

    непрР° РІРґР °. Manipulator? Field tests? (Oh compare him (the manipulator) with the Canadian and calm down)
    1. postman
      postman 17 November 2013 23: 35
      0
      6.
      Quote: Natalia Yachmennikova / Valery Burdakov
      : Yes, just like the American Space Shuttle. But the capabilities of "Buran" were much wider: and in terms of the mass of cargo delivered to Earth

      kaaaneShna, because the storm didn’t have a MARCH (the most expensive remote control) - SHE HERE - I just didn’t fit into Buran, it burned down with the block Ts. And what is the ODE? Yes, she does not weigh a fig.
      And here is the question (s)
      - DO I NEED TO RETURN 30 tons to the EARTH? / why return it? trash, after the end of the life cycle or Helium 3?
      - Dope writes Valery Pavlovich (or Natalia?) !!! ABSOLUTE, BURAN could not land with 30 tons of cargo.
      6.
      Quote: Natalia Yachmennikova
      Having learned about the successful flight of "Buran", they abandoned this idea.

      gyyyy. RZHUNEMAGU. As an article on topvar: "how I shot down in Iraq (?) On the S-200 complex (?) Tornado fighters at 14 km (?) And Galaxy with a cannon (?)

      7.
      Quote: Natalia Yachmennikova Valery Burdakov
      : Absolutely. Unmanned landing, lack of toxic fuel, horizontal flight tests, air transportation of rocket tanks on the back of a specially designed aircraft ... Everything was super.

      what is super then?
      8. .
      Quote: Natalia Yachmennikova / Valery Burdakov
      Our department prepared a report: transportation should be by air, i.e. by airplanes. What started here! ..

      ? YES
      What about entog?

      ==========
      Is it worth it to continue "sorting out" this stupid article, with stacks of stupid peremptory statements?
      PATRIOTISM (and his upbringing) is certainly GOOD, but PATRIOTISM based on false boastful statements ... well, this is a crime (moral) in any case.
      1. postman
        postman 17 November 2013 23: 45
        0
        "a couple of photos", this is of course "slag", this is not a landing in a completely unmanned mode












      2. Santa Fe
        Santa Fe 18 November 2013 02: 19
        0
        Quote: Postman
        Our department prepared a report: transportation should be by air, i.e. by airplanes. What started here! ..


        Quote: Postman
        PATRIOTISM (and his upbringing) is certainly GOOD, but PATRIOTISM, based on false boastful statements ... well, this is a crime (moral)

        Most of all, we are proud of what we do not have.
    2. Santa Fe
      Santa Fe 18 November 2013 02: 14
      0
      Quote: Postman
      Even forgot, sclerosis probably. What about autopilots? Whose are they?

      Autopilots DO NOT WORK on landing
      Landing ALWAYS occurs in manual mode.

      An exception is this one:
      1. postman
        postman 18 November 2013 13: 56
        0
        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
        Autopilots DO NOT WORK on landing

        http://alsedov.ru/kapitan-boinga-737-otvechaet-na-voprosy/
        August 19, 2009, 12:30
        Rockwell demonstrated the Athena automatic flight control system, which is capable of landing a conventional aircraft without human intervention. The work of the Athenf autopilot was clearly illustrated by the example of a small single-engine aircraft, which several times took off and landed only along the coordinates of the runway.

        Athena is a collaboration between Rockwell and Hawker Beechcraft Corporation (HBC). The new technology, according to the developers, could become an electronic parachute for civil aviation in cases where the pilot for various reasons cannot complete the landing.
        1. Santa Fe
          Santa Fe 18 November 2013 17: 30
          0
          Yeah, 20 years after Buran’s flight

          UAVs operate remotely. How was Buran controlled?
  • rudolff
    rudolff 18 November 2013 18: 09
    +2
    The complex of radio-technical systems of navigation, landing, trajectory control and air traffic control "Vympel" was responsible for the landing of Buran. In addition to the onboard systems themselves, the corresponding ground equipment was also provided: elevation and azimuth landing beacons, radio range finders, radar control stations, etc.
  • Vadim12
    Vadim12 22 November 2013 19: 18
    0
    the main thing is not iron, but the technologies that need to be saved for the future reusable ship, it will be very needed.
  • nastran123
    nastran123 27 November 2013 17: 55
    +1
    Sorry for the program. Now, in order to restore it, so many investments are necessary, which is most likely feasible in the distant and bright future.
  • Evkur
    Evkur 1 December 2013 02: 21
    0
    Such a brainchild of engineering was ruined! It's a shame for the state (
  • studentmati
    studentmati 2 February 2014 15: 53
    0
    A bit of documentary ...