Military Review

Great unknown. About the First World War

87

Official Russian propaganda and the media have begun to recall the date - the First World War ended 95 years ago. Although it turned out that the vast majority of our fellow citizens have no idea about this war. Although at one time it was called the Great War. Called and the Second Patriotic. Sometimes used the name Great Patriotic.



From Russia, the war was fair. Kaiser Germany prepared aggression in advance, aiming no less than world domination. Its geopolitical projects envisaged to deprive Russia of access to the seas, detach Finland, the Baltic States, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine. The ally of the Germans, the Ottoman Empire, rolled lips to the Crimea, the Caucasus, the Volga region, Central Asia.


Of course, ordinary Russian people did not know such subtleties, but, according to the general impression of contemporaries, they felt with their hearts that they were fighting for a just cause. Mobilization plans were ahead. The peasants and workers, without waiting for the summons, made the sign of the cross and went to the recruiting stations. Many people released from conscription, joined the volunteers. Subsequently, myths arose about the "remaining" of Russia, its unpreparedness for war, defeat. But this is nothing more than myths.


If the Russian army had 7030 guns (48 per division) and 263 airplane, and French 4800 guns (36 per division) and 156 airplanes, where is the “backwardness”? In terms of technical equipment, tsarist troops surpassed France and England, second only to Germany and Austria-Hungary, but they were purposefully preparing to unleash a war in 1914. But in the field of tactics and personnel training, the Russians could give a head start to the Germans. The German military at the beginning of the war stepped onto the battlefield, as in a parade, in dense ranks, and even columns, held an alignment, walked in step - and fell down in rows under Russian shrapnel and machine guns.


20 August 1914, a brilliant victory at Gumbinnen, our troops thwarted the German Schlieffen plan and saved France’s ally France from death. Serbia was also saved by defeating Austria-Hungary and taking Galicia from it. Enemy counterattacks near Warsaw, Lodz, in the Carpathians, ended in heavy defeats of the Germans and Austrians. In December, 1914 - January 1915 near Sarykamysh almost completely destroyed the Turkish army, which was trying to break into the Russian Transcaucasus ... But these successes have alarmed not only opponents. They alarmed the Western allies, who were afraid that a victorious Russia would be able to dictate the terms of peace, would become a leader in international affairs after the war.

The first catastrophic blow to her was delivered not by enemies, but by “friends”. In the context of a general crisis with weapons and ammunition, all participants in the war feverishly reorganized their industrial base, and only the Russian military department solid gentlemen managed by hook and crook to instill another solution - to order everything necessary at British factories "Vikkers-Armstrong". The order for 5 million rounds, 1 million rifles, 1 billion rounds, 8 million grenades and others was accepted for shipment in March of 1915, but not completed. Moreover, the Russians did not even consider it necessary to warn about this in advance. The result was “shell hunger”, “rifle hunger” - and, as a result, “great retreat”. Our soldiers had to leave Poland, part of the Baltic states, Belarus, Ukraine.

Nevertheless, Russia has coped with a difficult situation. Coped without the help of allies! With some delay, she undertook to rebuild the industry and made an incredible dash! Despite the heavy war, the loss of the western provinces, the gross output of the Russian economy in 1916 was 121,5% compared to 1913! According to the calculations of academician Strumilin, the production potential of Russia from 1914 to the beginning of 1917 increased by 40%. There was 3 thousand new plants and factories. On the production of guns in 1916, our country overtook England and France, it increased by 10 times, the release of shells - by 20 times, rifles by 11 times. Position with weapons and ammunition fully normalized.

These successes immediately affected the course of the fighting. The retreat was replaced by successive victories. In the Caucasus, Erzerum and Trabzon were taken, the Cossacks watered the horses from the Tigris and the Euphrates, reached the approaches to Baghdad. In the Brusilov breakthrough, our soldiers finally broke the combat capability of the Austro-Hungarian troops, pretty much wasted the Germans.

Our warriors performed miracles of heroism. Khorunzhiy Semenov, returning from 10 to the Cossacks from intelligence, suddenly found out that the German cavalry brigade had flown into the backs of the 1 th Regiment of the Nerchinsky Regiment, seized carts, an artillery park, a banner, and leaves, taking the prisoners. 11 riders flew at the rear of the enemy, chopped and fled. Panic rolled, growing from tail to head of the column, and the enemy turned away, leaving behind prey. 400 prisoners were released, the banner and all trophies were broken ...

When the enemy broke through in Kurland, the German patrol captured the ordinary 151 of the Pyatigorsk Water Regiment. For refusing to answer questions, he was tortured, cut off his ears and tongue. The soldier remained loyal to the oath and was saved by a counter-attack of fellow soldiers ...

In July, 1916, the Germans launched a gas attack on the positions of the Georgian and Mingrelsky regiments. There were gas masks, but, having dressed them, the soldiers stopped hearing commands. When the Germans climbed to the assault, confusion and panic began. Then Colonel Ochmezuri took off his mask and began to give orders. All the officers followed his example. Panic subsided, repulsed the attack. Most of the soldiers survived. The officers poisoned and died ...

The plane “Ilya Muromets” by Abner Kostenchik received two direct hits from enemy shells during the bombing of the Daudevas station. The pilot, being contused and seriously wounded, made another circle, dropping the rest of the bombs, and then began to lose consciousness. His co-driver was able to land the machine, it counted 70 holes ... pilot Aleksandr Kazakov knocked 32 enemy aircraft, Peter Marinovic - 22, Ivan Smirnov and Victor Fedorov - by 20 ... Alexander Prokofiev Yury Yury Gilsher anticipated the feat Maresiev - losing a leg, continued to fly and win wins with a prosthesis ...

In the Volyn village of Rozhyshche in July 1916, the Red Cross representative G.M. Khitrovo. Not far from the infirmary, which he managed, pyroxylin drafts were piled up; they exploded during the German air raid. The barracks caught fire with the wounded, and Khitrovo led the evacuation, pulled people out until the roof collapsed ...

In the winter of 1916, the Caucasian army was stormed by the powerful Erzerum fortress, which was considered impregnable. February 1, when there was a success, the head of the 39-th Infantry Division introduced a reserve into battle, the 154-th Derbent Regiment. But under the deadly multi-layered fire the regiment suffered heavy losses and lay down. Having learned that the majority of the officers were knocked out, the priest Father Pavel (Smirnov) raised the cross and led the Derbentis to attack, as with a banner. Inspired soldiers rushed after him and broke into the Turkish fortifications. Father Pavel himself was seriously wounded, his leg was amputated.

In the same way, while leading the attack with a cross, on the South-Western Front, a priest of the 1916 Chernoyarsk Infantry Regiment, Father Alexander (Tarnoutsky) and several other regimental clergymen died in 318. General Brusilov recalled: “In those terrible counterattacks among the soldier's tunic, black figures flashed — the regimental priests, bending their cassocks, in rough boots, went with the warriors, encouraging the timid with simple Gospel words and behavior ... They forever stayed there, on the fields of Galicia, without parting from the flock ".

Maria Bochkareva became famous on the Western Front. The daughter of a peasant from Tomsk, she, with the beginning of the war, filed a petition for admission to the service. The king personally authorized such an exception. She fought as a private in the 28 Polotsk Regiment, was wounded four times and earned a full St. George's bow from 4 crosses and 4 medals for her valor. It was produced in the ensigns ...

You can recall the stavropolchanka Rimma Ivanov. She just graduated from high school, became a teacher. But when the war broke out, she went through the nursing courses and went to the front. I did not want to stay in the hospital, went to the front. She served in the 83 Samursky regiment. Parents were worried, persuaded her to return. She wrote to them: “You have to rejoice, if you love me, that I managed to get a job and work where I wanted ... Let me be a true sister of mercy. Let me do what is good and what to do. Think as you like, but I give you my honest word that I would give a lot in order to alleviate the suffering of those who shed blood. But you do not worry: our dressing station is not subjected to fire ... ”. “Life is generally short, and you have to live it as fully and better as possible. Help, Lord! Pray for Russia and humanity ... ”“ Danger is far away from me, it’s not there ... ”

As for danger, she hid the truth. She carried the wounded under fire, was in the thick of it. And during the withdrawal of the summer 1915 g. Took command of a group of soldiers and led the battle. She was awarded soldier George IV degree, two St. George medals. Then he transferred to the 15-th Orenburg regiment, where her brother served as a doctor. The soldiers of the soul did not like it, considered it their lively talisman and called it “holy Rimma”. And again she reassured her parents: “My good, lovely mother and folder! It is good for me here. People here are very good. Everyone treats me affably ... God bless you. And for the sake of our happiness, do not be disheartened ... We feel (with the brother) good! It's calm now. Do not worry, my family. Kiss. Rimma. 8.IX.15 ”.

And the next day, on September 9, the Orenburg regiment launched an attack near Dobroslavki village (in the Brest region, north of Pinsk). In the 10 th company, both officers were killed, the soldiers mingled. The sister of mercy, dressing up the wounded, rose and shouted: “Go! Follow me! ”She gathered around her those who could still hold a weapon and led to the attack. The soldiers, inspired, defeated the enemy. However, Rimma was mortally wounded. According to eyewitnesses, she whispered: “God, save Russia ...” And she crossed over the sobbing soldiers surrounding her. She was 21 year. By the decree of Nicholas II, the heroine was posthumously awarded the officer's Order of St. George, IV degree. She was the only woman awarded such an award.

Russia is not overstrained and not bled to death. Accounting for casualties at that time was conducted very scrupulously, according to the latest pre-revolutionary summary, “Special Records Management Report” No. 4 (292) from 13 (26) of February 1917, the total number of dead and wounded from wounds on all fronts was 598.764 officers and lower ranks For comparison - in the German army during the same period 1,05 million died in the French - 850 thousands of soldiers and officers. The number of prisoners captured by the Russians and the Russian prisoners of the enemy was about the same, as well as those who left after the injuries. (Another comparison can be made - the Civil War, which allegedly saved Russia from the “imperialist slaughter”, cost our people 15 - 17 million lives, mostly civilians).

1917 was supposed to be victorious. Opponents were already breathing their last, hunger began, their human resources were exhausted. Russian troops were preparing for the last decisive offensive. The best armament went to the front in a wide stream: machine guns, guns, armored cars. It was planned to introduce a new form of clothing. It was more convenient, and besides, the sovereign wished the form to be executed in the Russian national spirit, reminding the soldiers of the glorious past. It was made according to the sketches of the artist V.M. Vasnetsov. For soldiers, instead of hats, pointy woolen hats, heroes, beautiful overcoats with “conversations” were envisaged, as in archery kaftans. For officers, light and practical leathers were sewn ...

But efforts to destroy Russia also increased. Subversive work unfolded in two directions. On the one hand, it was widely led by opponents of Russia, financing and activating any anti-state and revolutionary movements. However, no less effort was made by the allies. They were once again frightened by the strengthening of our country, frightened that she would claim the share of the fruits of victory due to her, and would take the leading place in the post-war world. The governments and special services of the United States, Britain and France actively participated in the preparation of the revolution. However, it can be noted that the financing of all the destructive work — from both Germany and the Allies — was carried out from the same transnational banking community. Here and there, the same banking families were operating: Warburgs, Rothschilds, Morgans, Milner, Schiff.

The war facilitated this activity. The usual stratification was going on - the patriots were striving to the front, and the self-seekers settled in the rear. The cadre army suffered serious losses, and storekeepers called up “from the plow”, already in the rear barracks were handled by agitators. Soft laws contributed to the buildup. The Russian Empire was the only belligerent country that retained a completely peaceful rear and did not restrict “democratic freedoms”. The Duma had the opportunity to throw out dirt from the stands, the press - to print everything that customers pay, workers - to strike as much as they please. In the slightest degree, tough measures to restore order were paralyzed by the Duma, and the Duma liberals were kept under open patronage by the Allies. The king considered himself not entitled to quarrel with them in a war. I was sure that despite the differences in political views, the Russian people must rally to achieve victory.

In the summer of 1916, the adviser and the “gray cardinal” of American President Wilson Mandel House wrote up an action scenario — he reported to the president that the United States would enter the war only after the Russian tsar was overthrown. Then the war itself will look like the struggle of "world democracy" against "world absolutism." But the date for the entry of the United States into the war was stipulated in advance, spring 1917 g. This plan was fulfilled. At the very moment when the victory was very close, Russia stabbed a knife in the back. Instead of triumph, our country fell into chaos and chaos, into a bloody mess ...

In its consequences, the revolution was equivalent to the same as if the Soviet rear in Great Patriotic War collapsed somewhere after the Battle of Kursk. As a result, the world war, which was bound to end unequivocally in 1917, was delayed for another year. And it ended without Russia. However, this is exactly what suited the American shadow circles. Without the Russians, the French and the British could only rely on the United States. By entering the “new” war, America was able to dictate its terms. And Russia, knocked out of the game, could be declared a “traitor” and put into the section along with the vanquished. Political intrigue turned into new seas of blood. After all, the Germans were able to transfer all their forces to the west, resumed a fierce onslaught.

By the way, the Russians still participated in these battles. During the reign of the king and the provisional government, an expeditionary force of 50 thousand soldiers was sent to support the French. He suffered heavy losses in battles, and after the revolution, many soldiers refused to fight, some French were shot, others were sent to penal servitude. The hull was disbanded. The soldiers and officers were brought into the Russian Legion, included in the Moroccan division.

She distinguished extraordinary prowess. In May, the 1918 of the Germans broke through the front and rushed to Paris - the Moroccan division blocked the highway at Château-Thierry and withstood three German divisions for three days. But the enemy broke through in another sector, and the remnants of the Moroccan division were transferred to Kurtasson - here she withstood the blow of two more enemy divisions. In September, 1918, after being reformed, Moroccans and Russians were put on the point of impact when the Siegfried Line, the most powerful German fortification, was broken. The fight was terrible, two weeks continuously attacked, reflected, converged in the melee. And overpowered! When they came to their senses after the battles, it turned out that she had crushed 6 of the enemy divisions! For the breakthrough of the “Siegfried Line”, the Moroccan division was awarded the “Cross of the Commander of the Legion of Honor”, ​​and the Russian Legion received the banner “The Military Cross with a palm tree on the ribbon”.

But the outcome of the war was determined after all not on the battlefields. Western governments and special services used the same weapons against Germany and its allies as they did against our country — revolutionary disintegration. To carry out such operations was not so difficult. After all, now they were conducted through Russia. Destructive ideas infected prisoners returned to the Germans and Austrians, infected their garrisons in the occupied territory. Emissaries of the Bolsheviks were sent to Berlin, they sent considerable funds and valuables. The Americans and the British did not sit on their hands, fed and fed the liberals, the Social Democrats.

After the Allied forces broke through the Siegfried Line and the front in the Balkans, discontent burst into the camp of their opponents and splashed into open revolts. The revolution began in Bulgaria, September 29 she capitulated. In October, the revolution swept the Ottoman Empire. On November 3, Austria-Hungary broke out of the war and immediately fell apart, engulfed in rebellions. And after the fall of the last ally overlapped and in Germany. Kaiser Wilhelm abruptly abdicated the throne, immediately got into the car and fled to Holland. The Social Democrats came to power. They naively believed Wilson’s campaigning that the war was being waged only against the Kaiser, and the victors would treat the democratic government gently. 11 November 1918 in Compiegne the German delegation signed an armistice. Representatives from France, England, USA, Italy, Serbia, Greece were present ... They did not consider the Russians to be invited. French President Clemenceau eloquently explained: "Russia is no more."

But the Russian legion still existed. He ended his combat career in the Bavarian town of Ludwigshafen. He brought his tricolor banner and the song “Soar, falcons, eagles ...” from Germany. They also drunk horses from the Rhine - but these were not Russian war horses, but French nagging horses. 3 January 1919 g. Russian Legion disbanded, soldiers and officers demobilized. They remained near 500 - from the 50-thousandth expeditionary force. The rest were killed in battles or scattered in a foreign land. But these 500 heroes are permanently stuck in France. The authorities blackmailed them, trying to recruit them into the Foreign Legion. Refused to let home, there was no money for travel. Rescued the soldiers of the Soviet government. It arrested the French mission for espionage and agreed to exchange it for Russian soldiers stationed in France.
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  1. 505506
    505506 15 November 2013 08: 05
    10
    A mix of fantasies, popular books from the First World War, and claims to analyze the background. I didn’t set a minus; I don’t know why.
    1. igordok
      igordok 15 November 2013 08: 38
      10
      Quote: 505506
      I didn’t set a minus; I don’t know why.

      The heroism of a soldier.
      1. 505506
        505506 15 November 2013 08: 59
        +2
        Probably why. It worked at the subconscious level.
    2. xetai9977
      xetai9977 15 November 2013 09: 37
      18
      When I was a schoolboy, 35 years ago, I was always amazed at how little information about the First World War ... I read the list of participants, I was surprised at the magnitude of the losses, I understood that the war was large-scale, and in the history textbook they devoted a couple of pages in a negative context, about "corrupt ministers and the German queen, who sympathized with the Germans .. "
    3. Yoshkin Kot
      Yoshkin Kot 15 November 2013 12: 14
      -1
      Victory stolen by the Judeo-Communists
      1. Nagaibak
        Nagaibak 15 November 2013 13: 06
        +3
        Yoshkin Kot "Victory stolen by the Judeo-communists"
        Or maybe a delay ... like a king and an interim government? So then it will be more true. To have power and lose ... how does it relate to them, these losers? And here you try to take power hehe ... this is another calico ...
        1. de klermon
          de klermon 15 November 2013 18: 53
          +8
          And then take power? !!
          RUSSIA IS ONE AND I NEED TO LOVE IT EVERYONE!
          If your Homeland fighting, first she must winand then, after victory, and not on the desecrated bones of your brothers, take anything if you can, of course, if the gut is not thin! But heeding in difficult times, vilely pulling his arm, decomposing and propagating the army fighting in the most difficult conditions at the front and in the rear ...
          Vile, disgusting, mean and jackal !!!
          Millions of those killed, wounded, crippled both physically and spiritually, all these sacrifices ... for the sake of "hehe ... took power"?
          Yes, the article is biased, popular and generally similar to the work of the traitor Pyotr Krasnov (I hope you know what I’m talking about), but no matter how it was written, and here, hundreds of thousands and millions of Serbs for the sake of honor and life of which we entered the war? And then, millions of Russian heroes who laid down their lives for the honor of the Russian banner? Tell us about an unrighteous war for them, the heroes of Gumbinen, Baranovichi, Galicia and Przemysl, blessed memory of the heroes of the Brusilovsky breakthrough, the sailors of the destroyer Thunder and the defenders of Russian fortresses in Poland!
          Only one thing can be said about the role of Russia in the First World War: ETERNAL GLORY TO THE RUSSIAN SOLDIER! Well, about the role of the first world in the history of Russia - THE ETERNAL HYENNA FIRE TRADER AND SCUMMER !!!
          1. core
            core 15 November 2013 20: 08
            0
            I will answer. under STALIN, no one could not ruin the army and overthrow the government, because they did not allow it. and 14-17g allowed. Stalin ran away from exile 4 or 5 times, what kind of power that does not control enemies.
            1. Shur
              Shur 16 November 2013 00: 25
              +2
              Under the tsar, Lenin was also entitled to allowance. Yes, they are brutes .. Their motives are as hypocritical as the attempts of the "basement" and other "Schushwaldi Nemtsova".
              With words for the people and stuff, they drowned the people in a fratricidal war.
              Do not forget the Stalinist - "The victorious red army will defeat any enemy on its territory." With huge human sacrifices, he retained his power.
              The entire Western group of troops virtually ceased to exist in the first months of the war, millions of captured soldiers. What did he not allow there?
              Its strategic jambs closed mountains of corpses, do not forget about it.
              Normal he was such a dictator-usurper, such power is not shared and enemies are soaked in "infancy."
        2. The comment was deleted.
    4. avt
      avt 15 November 2013 12: 45
      +1
      Quote: 505506
      A mix of fantasies, popular books from the First World War, and claims to analyze the background.

      good I completely agree . The article is a tribute to the fashion of the current promotion of the Romanov period, which has nothing concrete to analytics and an impartial consideration of the topic. “Subsequently, myths arose about the“ remnant ”of Russia, its unpreparedness for war, and defeats. But these are nothing more than myths. "============ Oh how! It means" hunger "for weapons, when even single-shot rifles were bought, and the catastrophe of 1915 about which contemporaries of that time spoke, is this insidious Bolshevik propaganda of the Soviet years !? If the author was an analyst, he would ask how and with what incredible difficulty they got out of the catastrophic situation of lack of weapons, how much gold and specialists were sent overseas to establish the production of weapons.
      Quote: 505506
      I didn’t set a minus

      Well, I set it.
      1. Astartes
        Astartes 15 November 2013 12: 49
        +2
        Well, the author explains that because of the evil intrigues of the "Englishwoman", the kind and fair tsar was forced in England to buy weapons and shells that the army did not need, everything was like that.
    5. Stinger
      Stinger 15 November 2013 19: 07
      +1
      Yes. The source of information, apparently, the magazine "Niva". The only thing missing is the photo "Distribution by the reigning persons of warm underwear to the lower ranks in positions" for completeness of the popular print. But this was done by J. Hasek. I can't put a minus either, because the soldiers are not responsible for the stupidity and mediocrity of the rulers. Those received in full later.
      1. soldat1945
        soldat1945 16 November 2013 07: 29
        +1
        This is what kind of nonsense in the article. For the author: we do not have a ministry of propaganda that is not official, not underground, and Russia was absolutely not ready for war and therefore plunged itself into the abyss of revolution and civil war!
  2. Dazdranagon
    Dazdranagon 15 November 2013 08: 22
    +9
    That’s why they didn’t tell us at school? My generation (born 84) considers this war shameful, unnecessary and LOST. Only recently, I understand what and how it really was ...
    1. Astartes
      Astartes 15 November 2013 12: 41
      +6
      When Russian people die to "save the French and Anglo-Saxons" it is really shameful and unnecessary.
      1. Shur
        Shur 16 November 2013 00: 28
        +1
        Even when the convoys drove like that for gold ... This trash perishes only for metal.
  3. predator.3
    predator.3 15 November 2013 08: 37
    +4
    After the signing of the Anglo-French Agreement (Entente Cordiale) in 1904, Kaiser Wilhelm asked Alfred von Schlieffen to develop a plan that would allow Germany to wage war on two fronts at the same time, and in December 1905, von Schlieffen set to work.

    The plan was based on the idea of ​​a quick capture of France. The plan provided for 39 days to capture Paris, and 42 days for the final surrender of France. According to the count of the count, this time should have been enough to prevent the armed forces of the Russian Empire from mobilizing and attacking East Prussia. [1] The plan was based on the Germans' ability to capture France so quickly that the enemy did not have time to mobilize troops, and then a turn of troops towards Russia was envisaged.

    Germany's plans also included a desire to capture such neutral countries as Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands. The plan was to leave 91% of the army in France, and send the remaining 9% to the Russian Empire. Kaiser Wilhelm II put it this way:

    ! We will have lunch in Paris, and dinner in St. Petersburg. "After Schlieffen's retirement in 1906, Helmut von Moltke became chief of the general staff in the German Empire. Some of his views did not coincide with Schlieffen's original plan; he seemed too risky The plan was developed in 1905, and due to Schlieffen's miscalculations, part of the army did not want to act according to this plan. For this reason, Moltke undertook to redesign the plan. He decided to regroup the troops and transfer a significant part of the army from France towards the Russian borders. the original plan was Moltke's decision not to send troops through Holland.
  4. Peaceful military
    Peaceful military 15 November 2013 08: 39
    +5
    There is a wonderful joke about elephants.
    In India, a ten-volume book entitled "Something About Elephants" was published, and in the USA a brochure was published called "All About Elephants."
    So this article is "All about PMV".
    It is impossible to do so with such categorical conclusions.
    1. Revolver
      Revolver 15 November 2013 09: 37
      +3
      Quote: Peaceful military
      So this article is "All about PMV".
      It is impossible to do so with such categorical conclusions.
      I will add. The part where it is said about the stab in the back of the victorious army and the treachery of the Anglo-Saxons and the French seems to have been copied from Mein Kampf. Only there the French were the main "bad people", the Anglo-Saxons were assigned in this not even the second, but the third or fourth role, since Mein Kampf was still heavily seasoned with curses against the Slavs and Jews.
  5. Alex65
    Alex65 15 November 2013 09: 08
    +4
    Thanks for the article.
  6. makst83
    makst83 15 November 2013 09: 11
    +3
    Pointed cloth bogatyr hats are budenovki, later on?)
    1. Revolver
      Revolver 15 November 2013 09: 42
      +5
      Quote: makst83
      Pointed cloth bogatyr hats are budenovki, later on?)
      They are the most. Where do you think the Red Army came from, if not from the royal stores? And the leather jackets, which are mentioned in the same place, seem to have gone to the commissars and security officers.
      1. Drosselmeyer
        Drosselmeyer 15 November 2013 13: 47
        +1
        Another myth. Budenovkas (or then "heroes") and the form with new signs of differences were developed for the competition of works of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic of December 1918. This competition was attended by Russian artists who proposed her project. Previously, this project was proposed for the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty as a front door, but was not accepted. Accordingly, there were no warehouses with this uniform. until December 1918, such a uniform and headdresses were simply not produced.
        Leather uniforms were available to all specialists associated with equipment: tankers, crews of armored cars, armored trains, drivers, etc. This is the uniform that the KGB officers began to wear and who managed to get it from the warehouses.
        1. Walking
          Walking 15 November 2013 14: 34
          +4
          The new form was sewn back in tsarist times, the Bolsheviks took it from the warehouses. How would this uniform be sewn after 1918 when there was a complete collapse of industry?
          1. Astartes
            Astartes 15 November 2013 15: 05
            +2
            The collapse rather in the minds of modern viewers, the Bolsheviks, unlike the counter-revolutionaries of the 90s, did not sell scrap plants.
            1. Shur
              Shur 16 November 2013 00: 41
              +2
              One thing, it pleases, is that there was no famine in the Volga region. You that, and I live here. Under the Bolsheviks, my mother told her grandmother that in Siberia they literally ate grass. So leave your great sympathies in the mausoleum.
          2. erg
            erg 15 November 2013 15: 08
            +4
            Firstly, the transition to a new form did not occur at once, but gradually. The army was carrying the old, royal uniform (only with new insignia), replacing them with new models as they wore. And since there was a large amount of the old uniform in the warehouses, then at the end of the twenties it could be seen on the military. (Such a scheme of re-uniforms existed in tsarist times. Because of this, the Pavlovsk grenadier, later the life guard grenadier, remained in pointed grenadier hats. He did not have time to regroup and joined the company in 1807 in old hats, and having distinguished himself in battles he received them as a sign of collective distinction). Secondly, the new patterns of form ultimately contained elements of the old form. Harem pants remained the same, a summer hat - a cap. Only the cut of the shirt, known to us as a tunic and overcoat, then called a caftan, were new. Subsequently returned to the old cut overcoat. Budenovki or heroes in tsarist times were not sewn. Moreover, the then proposed version of the headgear was very different from the Soviet model. Thus, in fact, until the 30s, only the tunic, budenovka, and jacket were of a new type. The rest of the elements remained the same and either sewed along the old patterns, or what was left of the warehouses was worn. And only in the thirties the form completely distanced itself from the tsar’s samples, only slightly resembling the former (the tunic finally acquired a turn-down collar and a placket with buttons in the middle, the trousers were sewn in the pattern of a bridge or golif, the cap also took on a different shape, by the way more convenient and rational. the former, back in the First World War, officers pointed out such a shortcoming as a small visor, which is practically useless, since it does not cover your eyes from the bright sun).
  7. dmitry21
    dmitry21 15 November 2013 09: 12
    +2
    "... By the decree of Nicholas II, the heroine was posthumously awarded the officer's order of St. George, IV degree ..."
    as far as I know, in the Russian Empire there was no practice of posthumous awards, especially officers' orders.
  8. RPG_
    RPG_ 15 November 2013 09: 43
    +2
    It is possible that if in World War 2 we would have cheerfully stopped Hitler it would be the same.
    1. Shur
      Shur 16 November 2013 00: 48
      0
      And then. They would have brought coalition troops between the "opposing" parties and would have decided to whom to give the Baltic states, Belarus and Ukraine, accusing Soviet Russia of "aggression". Blue helmets, by their leg.
  9. creak
    creak 15 November 2013 09: 47
    +1
    This is true, but political expediency sometimes led to violations of the statute of the order. So, in his entire history he was awarded two women: Maria-Sofia-Amalia - the queen of both Sicilies (who did not participate in the hostilities on the Russian side at all) and the sister of mercy R.M. Ivanova (although the order was intended to reward junior officers) .
  10. combat192
    combat192 15 November 2013 10: 22
    +5
    A few words about the notorious weapons famine. Immediately make a reservation, we will focus only on small arms. Often in various publications there is a judgment about a severe lack of such. I come to the opposite view.
    Information for consideration.
    I quote from the book: "Soviet small arms" (Bolotin D.N., Military Publishing House, 1989)
    "... Only from June until the end of 1918 did the Main Artillery Directorate release 926975 rifles, 8116 machine guns, 563342000 rounds of units and formations of the Red Army *. Such a consumption of weapons and ammunition created a threat of rapid depletion of available stocks.
    _____________________
    * The Central State Archive of the Soviet Army (TsGASA), f.20, op.4, d.21, L.29. "

    Actually, what should be considered:
    1. Is the indicated quantity a lot or a little? According to the most crude estimates, this is enough to arm more than 60 rifle divisions with small arms.
    2. Since we are talking about stocks (stocks of the tsarist government, mainly not completely transferred to the hands of the Bolshevik government), the indicated amount of weapons and ammunition supplied was not critical, but only posed a threat to the depletion of these stocks, i.e., ranged from a third to half of all available.
    And from the same book.
    "... The average monthly production of weapons at the Tula plant at the end of 1916 was equal to 60 thousand rifles, 15 thousand revolvers and 1200 machine guns ... **
    ______________
    ** TsGASA, f.20, op.8, d.31, l.120.

    This is only one plant. But small arms were also produced at the Izhevsk and Sestroretsk factories.
    1. predator.3
      predator.3 15 November 2013 18: 06
      +1
      Kazan catastrophe - a fire at the Kazan powder factory in 1917. The fire began on August 14, 1917 and led to the destruction of factories and the spread of panic in the city on August 14-16. The fire, which lasted at least until August 24, arose as a result of the explosion of shells in warehouses scattered throughout the industrial part of the city. However, most explosives were flooded with water from reservoirs, which prevented larger explosions. Thirteen people were killed in the explosion and fire, 8 died from wounds, and 172, including 30 children, were injured. The fires destroyed 12 machine guns (about 000 machine guns were produced and delivered to the front during World War I) and one million shells in warehouses (30 pounds), 000 buildings were destroyed, 78 of them completely. In addition, 500 million pounds (542 thousand tons) of oil were lost.
      1. Shur
        Shur 16 November 2013 00: 52
        +1
        And, probably, "it exploded itself." "Soyuznichki" helped in no way.
    2. Gregazov
      Gregazov 15 November 2013 22: 40
      0
      You were not mistaken the year of the cited document ?. Shell projectile and rifle famine was several years earlier.
  11. vladim.gorbunow
    vladim.gorbunow 15 November 2013 10: 39
    13
    Horrible! Germany wanted to tear something there. So show a piece of paper with the signature of William or Betman-Hollweg. So there is no such piece of paper. But there was high-tech German import, there was Russian-German Siemens, which began the electrification of RI. And there was an Anglo-French embargo on technology and the flow of loans. And how was it from the Russian side? The French ambassador M. Paleolog at the diplomatic breakfast (14 08 14) asked Sazonov to voice the political program of the war. And it turned out to be the delimitation of the Belgian-German border, the rights of the Windsor dynasty in Hanover, even the Schleswing-Holstein issue, although Denmark was neutral and traded with Germany. The paleologist began to blow bubbles in coffee with pleasure. The Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Ingushetia could not formulate a single paragraph on Russia's interests. A little article in the spirit of the rantings of an older Chubais.
    1. predator.3
      predator.3 15 November 2013 11: 30
      +2
      Quote: vladim.gorbunow
      . But there was high-tech German import, there was Russian-German Siemens, which began the electrification of RI. And there was an Anglo-French embargo on technology and the flow of loans


      I agree with you, Germany was much more profitable trade with Russia than the war, or rather mutually beneficial! But the French were afraid of the repetition of 1870, and so they dragged Nicholas II into the Entente, and before that there was the “Union of Three Emperors” - a set of agreements between Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary, concluded in 2, 1873 and 1881. It was undermined by the aggravation of Austro-Russian relations in 1884-1885 due to the issue of foreign policy orientation of Bulgaria and the Serbian-Bulgarian war. The “Union of Three Emperors” finally broke up, after which a Russian-German reinsurance agreement was concluded in 1886. After a certain period of cooling relations between Berlin and St. Petersburg, in May 1887, negotiations between Pavel Shuvalov and Otto Bismarck resumed, ending with the signing of a secret agreement. According to its terms, both sides were to remain neutral in the war of one of them with any third great power, except in cases of German attack on France or Russia on Austria-Hungary.
      A special protocol was attached to the treaty, according to which Germany pledged to provide diplomatic assistance to Russia if the Russian emperor found it necessary to "assume the protection of the entrance to the Black Sea" in order to "keep the key to his empire." Germany also promised never to give consent to the restoration of Prince Battenberg on the Bulgarian throne, which for Emperor Alexander III was a matter of personal prestige and pride.
      In 1890, the reinsurance contract expired. At the initiative of Baron Holstein, the new German government, headed by General Leo von Caprivi, refused to renew it.
  12. Basileus
    Basileus 15 November 2013 10: 46
    +3
    At the beginning of the article, it seems that the Centrals were preparing for war, and the Entente was idle. Everyone was preparing, and everyone was ready to untie too. All that was needed was a pretext.

    Well, about the insidiousness of the allies pleased. Not the tsar, not the German finances of Lenin, but the insidious French and the Anglo-Saxons. Conspiracies are everywhere !!! 111

    In general, you should not forget about the war. Our country suffered huge losses in it, and, more importantly, plunged into the abyss of revolution and civil war. And history is a story that you need to know and remember, no matter if it is good or bad for us.
    1. Shur
      Shur 16 November 2013 00: 56
      +1
      Lenin is generally a "pharaoh", he is in the tomb, how can he be a villain ??
  13. Standard Oil
    Standard Oil 15 November 2013 11: 12
    +6
    This is all good, of course, but in my personal opinion Russia joined the wrong union. Between Russia and Germany there have always been equal relations, we had absolutely nothing to share with the Germans, all this talk about the "German threat" is complete nonsense. could get from Russia? Territory? Yes, the Germans were quite enough and Germany, they are not Chinese, trade was fine, there were no political differences, but there was a dying Austria-Hungary, which threw up problems, but if the Germans were sure in our trustworthiness, then they would have turned a blind eye to the marasmic attacks of the Austrians, and for the Germans Russia was certainly a better ally than the crumbling Ottoman Empire, which rushed to the last without knowing who to join. And what did Wilhelm II see in Russia? His weak-minded brother rushes about from corner to corner, has no opinion, the rag is shorter, it is clear that the ambiguous position of Russia irritated him, but he clearly saw that there was no benefit for Russia from joining the Entente, By the way, in his memoirs, he directly says that instead of destroying the Anglo-Saxons and living in peace, Russia joined them because of momentary weakness. And what did Russia get from the Entente? What are the benefits? Yes, a Russian soldier was thrown into battle against a first-class German army, not even for the interests of Russia, but for the interests of the French, British and American financial and industrial monopolies, which wanted to eliminate a dangerous German competitor, well, they removed it, but it made us feel better? Nicholas II could make at least one correct decision in life and join to Germany, but here again he began to hesitate, listening to the "advisers" and as a result led Russia to a terrible defeat, two revolutions and the chaos of the Civil War.
    1. Motors1991
      Motors1991 15 November 2013 18: 38
      0
      You are mistaken if Russia did not enter the war in 1914, then soon it had to fight alone with the whole of Europe, as it was in the years 1812,1941. History repeats itself. Only in the 14th Germany was much more powerful than the Hitler Reich. That is not they were able to defeat all these questions personally to the Emperor of Russia Nikolai. In a much worse situation, no Warburgs, Rothschilds prevented Comrade Stalin and did not arrange revolutions.
      1. Shur
        Shur 16 November 2013 01: 00
        +1
        How do you know? Comrade Stalin also died so strangely ... Just on the eve of the "golden ruble" project ... Think, who could he interfere with? Khrushchev corrected everything .. I quickly forgot about gold, ugly dwarf.
  14. CreepyUknow
    CreepyUknow 15 November 2013 11: 43
    +2
    It’s an excellent article in terms of describing our troops and military operations. And we have always described it as a failure and failure only because then, it turns out, there would be no reason for mass discontent and revolution. In fact, all this was not - there were only well-funded provocations.
  15. godun
    godun 15 November 2013 12: 21
    +5
    In general, I liked the article, although there are controversial points. At one time V. Pikul wrote well about the Russian army, the officer corps, about the First World War, I especially liked the book "I Have the Honor", I recommend it if someone has not read it. Yes, that war is poorly covered, for the most part only fragmentary facts, there is no serious historical analysis of the actions of the Russian armies, and indeed of all the participants in that war.
    1. Booby
      Booby 15 November 2013 23: 54
      -1
      Throw Pikul into the furnace. At least that part of him where he discusses WWI, because he himself was not a member of it, because of his age.

      "About the Russian army, the officer corps", read better than Kuprin "Duel". Here the writer, a former officer himself, tells all the ins and outs of the" gallant "officers of the Russian army. Shows all its lousy inside out. Moreover, what is characteristic, my great-grandfather served as an urgent private almost at the same time with Kuprin, but not in Ukraine, as a writer, but in Poland (1898 - 1901.) So, his story about the army and Kuprin's story are one in one characteristic.

      Then, in the Russo-Japanese War at Mukden, he fought and told how they had been assaulted by the Japanese, and how officers on horseback were ahead of the rank and file ... (with rare exceptions). repeat
      1. combat192
        combat192 16 November 2013 10: 30
        +1
        With all my deep respect for the work of Alexander Ivanovich Kuprin, I can not resist making a fly in the ointment. A. I. Kuprin served in the officer rank for only four years (from 1890 to 1894). In 1893, by order of the commander of the Kiev Military District, General Dragomirov, while passing the exams at the Academy of the General Staff, Kuprin was recalled back to the regiment in a row previously committed misconduct inconsistent with the concepts of officer honor.
        Yes, gentlemen, A. I. Kuprin had a hidden grudge against the Army! Therefore, in the story "Duel" (1905), he collected all the dirt that was in the Army at that time. As Y. Polyakov did almost a century later in his "Hundred Days Before the Order".
        During the years of emigration, Kuprin changes his attitude toward Russian officers in his work. Apparently appeared with what to compare. The story of "Junker" is filled with the spirit of the Russian army, invincible and immortal. “I would like,” said Kuprin, “so that the past that has gone forever, our schools, our cadets, our lives, customs, traditions, have remained at least on paper and have not disappeared not only from the world, but even from people's memory.
        "Juncker" is my testament to Russian youth "
  16. Kerch
    Kerch 15 November 2013 12: 25
    +2
    “In July 1916, the Germans launched a gas attack on the positions of the Georgian and Mingrelian regiments. There were gas masks, but after putting them on, the soldiers stopped hearing commands. When the Germans climbed into the assault, confusion and panic began. Then Colonel Otkhmezuri took off his mask and began to give orders All the officers followed his example. The panic subsided, the attack was repulsed. Most of the soldiers survived. The officers were poisoned and died. "

    Maybe that’s why the Turks selected the children of the Slavs into the Janissaries, in view of some special gene in the chromosome set, the fearlessness gene ??
    1. Astartes
      Astartes 15 November 2013 12: 38
      +1
      Otkhmezuri, of course, is a Slavic surname, the tax for boys for the Janissary corps was removed only from the lands subject to the Ottoman Empire, and only Serbs and Bulgarians from the Slavs there.
      1. Shur
        Shur 16 November 2013 01: 02
        0
        Normal surname;)) Just wildly old Slavonic laughing
    2. Drosselmeyer
      Drosselmeyer 15 November 2013 13: 55
      -3
      You are an adult and you must understand that this is another myth. What could an officer command after breathing chemistry? Squeak twice? If they really did so, then this is the height of the stupidity that is now given out as heroism.
      1. Walking
        Walking 15 November 2013 14: 40
        +5
        You do not align modern chemical weapons and what happened before. At that time, Russian soldiers breathing mustard must still have gone to the last attack.
        1. Drosselmeyer
          Drosselmeyer 15 November 2013 15: 45
          0
          Although maybe I'm wrong. If it was mustard gas, then theoretically it is still possible how many hours after the poisoning to conduct hostilities. Much also depends on the concentration of OM.
  17. Kerch
    Kerch 15 November 2013 12: 41
    0
    In the details, you are certainly right. I figuratively expressed myself, in general.
    1. Astartes
      Astartes 15 November 2013 12: 46
      +1
      I understand you, and I do not want to offend, the bravery and heroism of Russian soldiers is well known, believe me, it does not need confirmation by examples of janissaries. There are many examples when representatives of other peoples in the Russian army showed amazing examples of heroism and self-sacrifice. I believe that this is rather the very fabulous concept of the "Russian spirit" which can make everyone "miraculous heroes"
  18. bbss
    bbss 15 November 2013 13: 03
    +1
    Well, why do you need to flatter everything with nonsense about the conspiracy of bankers and imperialists?
    1. Vidok
      Vidok 20 November 2013 16: 45
      0
      By the fact that this is not nonsense. I think that it is indisputable that it is not possible to prepare a coup in such a country as tsarist Russia at the expense of the family incomes of the noble revolutionaries and the robberies of postal railway trains.
  19. Taz
    Taz 15 November 2013 13: 22
    +2
    Oh, it's a shame for the power ...!
  20. Drosselmeyer
    Drosselmeyer 15 November 2013 14: 14
    +3
    In such posters here from the Institute of Marxism-Leninism in the USSR, the history of the Second World War was fouled. Now the history of the First World War is clogging up with myths and legends. Particularly pleased were the peasants who voluntarily joined the soldiers, and this despite the fact that harvesting should soon begin, on which the physical survival of the peasant's family depends. The author is very confused by the Soviet society of the early forties and the peasant society of Tsarist Russia.
    And the Germans were so beaten, so beaten that the front line, for some reason passed through the territory of the Russian Empire, for some reason left Poland, etc. There was a victory near Gumbinnen, only then she turned around Hindenburg and Tannenberg.
    They produced so many weapons that for some reason they order it from warring France and Britain. Somehow there is no logic.
    And about the victory in 1917, no words. And this despite the fact that the Austrians defeated the Italians this year (yes, the author half-dead Austrians also fought with the Italians), and the French and the British unsuccessfully slaughtered the German front with tanks.
    War is a continuation of politics by military means. And if you can’t hold back domestic conflicts, there’s nothing to go to war.
    1. avt
      avt 15 November 2013 15: 41
      +2
      Quote: Drosselmeyer
      In such posters here from the Institute of Marxism-Leninism in the USSR, the history of the Second World War was fouled.

      good Now, practically, the children of those propagandists, sometimes under the guidance of their parents, in the same way incite the unctuous mythology about “Russia which we have lost”, and not paying attention to the fact that the author of this brand of the perestroika times, Govorukhin, himself admitted on TV that he was stupid. and called the entire intelligentsia prostitutes, and when asked, "And you?" , replied - "And me too!" To admit such writing with a claim to serious analytics is very annoying, it is better to let the novels a la Akunin write, at least a certain, romantically inclined part of readers, it will be clear that this is a fantasy a la Walter Scott on historical theme.
    2. Gregazov
      Gregazov 15 November 2013 22: 53
      -2
      Drosselmeyer UA Now the history of the First World War is clogging up with myths and legends. Particularly pleased were the peasants who voluntarily joined the soldiers, and this despite the fact that harvesting should soon begin, on which the physical survival of the peasant's family depends. The author is very confused by the Soviet society of the early forties and the peasant society of Tsarist Russia.
      Only in Russia is a person working on the land called a peasant. This is a distorted pronunciation of the word Christian. Russian peasants were real Christians before they were corrupted by the idea of ​​"Rob the loot". Therefore, a partisan movement took place in the war of 1812, when the peasants voluntarily burned their huts together with the French occupiers in the middle of winter, hoping only for the intercession of the Mother of God for their family. For the same reason, the peasants voluntarily went to the fronts of the First World War, the reason for which was the oppression of Orthodox Serbs by the Catholics (Austria-Hungary).
      1. avt
        avt 16 November 2013 10: 46
        0
        Quote: GregAzov
        Only in Russia is a person working on the land called a peasant. This is a distorted pronunciation of the word Christian.

        However, if you read contemporaries, then you will be unpleasantly surprised when you learn that "from Christians" related to such a stratum of society as, for example, sexually in a tavern, but by no means to peasants, who were often called villagers at that time. ...
  21. The comment was deleted.
  22. zloi_dekabr
    zloi_dekabr 15 November 2013 14: 44
    +2
    Hmm ((The only thing true in this article is the words about the heroism of a Russian soldier and officer. The rest gives the impression that the author has read propaganda of the time + added the conspiracy theory ala Berkem)))
  23. Snoop
    Snoop 15 November 2013 14: 53
    +2
    It is strange how many I read historical books about the First World War, the losses of the Russian army amounted to 2 million with something killed and over 3 million prisoners. And then some hundreds of thousands?
    1. creak
      creak 15 November 2013 18: 52
      0
      You can read the research of NN Golovin: "Russia in the First World War" - a participant in WWI, which contains extensive factual material, including on the losses of the Russian army. The material is given without ideological blinkering and without the so-called. textbook gloss. Veche Publishing House 2006
  24. Snoop
    Snoop 15 November 2013 14: 53
    0
    It is strange how many I read historical books about the First World War, the losses of the Russian army amounted to 2 million with something killed and over 3 million prisoners. And then some hundreds of thousands?
    1. kamakim
      kamakim 15 November 2013 15: 42
      0
      see what a variety of losses in World War II in different sources, then from World War I, in general, a dark forest ...
  25. Bigriver
    Bigriver 15 November 2013 15: 46
    +5
    If the Russian army had 7030 guns (48 per division) and 263 airplanes, and in the French 4800 guns (36 per division) and 156 airplanes, where is the "backwardness"?

    It is not known whether the author took off the number of artillery in the Russian division?
    I can share the knowledge stolen from E.Z. Barsukov "Artillery of the Russian Army" Military Publishing, 1948.
    So, the field artillery of our army was staffed by staff, and even a little better. The bottom line is different.
    We did not have heavy artillery at all, like a class. Unlike the armies of Germany and Austria-Hungary.
    Hull .., let's compare the guns in the hull:
    Germany - 160
    Austria-Hungary - 132
    France - 120
    Russia - 108.
    This is despite the fact that 55-75% of losses in the First World War are from artillery. More at the beginning of the war, in 1914 - 75%.
    ... at the British Vickers-Armstrong plants ... with shipment in March 1915, but not completed. Moreover, the Russians did not even consider it necessary to warn about this in advance. The result was “shell hunger”

    The cunning of the allies is far-fetched. The "shell hunger" was effective only for large caliber guns. And the fact that the heavy artillery was "hammered" (and the shells too) should be addressed to the Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolaevich as a lobbyist for the firms Schneider and Canet. He also oversaw the issues of artillery support for the army.
    We read Shirokorada:
    “... In 1914-1917 Russian factories produced 54 million 76-mm rounds, including 26 million shrapnel and 28 million grenades. In addition, about 13 million 76-mm rounds were delivered from We did not manage to shoot these stocks of our artillery either in the First World War, or in the Civil War, and even after the Great Patriotic War, quite substantial stocks of 76-mm rounds of pre-revolutionary production remained in warehouses. "

    The author cites two main factors that contributed to the collapse of RI: the actions of opponents, the actions of allies fellow
    I forgot about myself. About corruption, about the crisis of ideology, about the collapse of ethics and morality in society, etc.
  26. The comment was deleted.
  27. vladsolo56
    vladsolo56 15 November 2013 17: 39
    -1
    What do they want to prove to us? was the war great? maybe even domestic? However, Russia entered the war on foreign territories, and it is impossible to name it domestic. The heroism of the soldiers was and will be in most cases a consequence of the lack of command. They are trying to impress on us that the tsarist generals were entirely brilliant generals. Then the question is, why did not our army show brilliant victories in that war?
    Because there is nothing great in what was happening. The whole war, regardless of whose side to consider it, was a bloody meat grinder in which hundreds of thousands of ordinary soldiers and junior officers died. Why did they die? how did the families of the dead live after the war? Calling such a war great blasphemy.
    1. lexe
      lexe 15 November 2013 21: 51
      -1
      What do they want to prove to us? was the war great? maybe even domestic?

      Do you think the Great Patriotic War is when the external enemy reached Moscow?
      However, Russia entered the war in foreign territories

      Maybe they reasonably reasoned, but why did the Russian people substitute it?
      They are trying to impress on us that the tsarist generals were entirely brilliant generals

      The main thing is that these brilliant commanders did not allow brilliant defeats. Agree to get into the encirclement on the offensive (East Prussia) and get encircled in the defense as in 1941 are 2 big differences.
      The whole war, regardless of whose side to consider it, was a bloody meat grinder in which hundreds of thousands of ordinary soldiers and junior officers died. Why did they die? how did the families of the dead live after the war? Calling such a war great blasphemy.

      Russia fought against 3 empires ... precisely for its sovereignty because Kaiser had the goal of creating an economic iron curtain for the Russian Empire and eliminating France as a competitor. Peter 1 fought for similar goals when he cut through a window to Europe in spite of the Swedes, but you acknowledge the need the wars of Peter the Great? and their obvious role in the formation of Russia? And given the scale of the WWII and the figures given for the losses in the article ... as well as a comparison of the losses of France and Germany as well !!! the birth rate in Russia ... it remains only to admit that the WWII were really brilliant and the revolution of 1917 indirectly confirms this (well, our enemies did not spare the money to undermine statehood, for in a direct confrontation at the front they were unable to avoid defeat.
      1. Bigriver
        Bigriver 16 November 2013 08: 26
        +2
        Quote: Lexi
        Russia fought against 3 empires ...precisely for its sovereignty, for Kaiser had the goal of creating an economic iron curtain for the Russian Empire and the elimination of France as a competitor.

        Is the highlighted one your opinion, or are you referring to someone?
        For whom, on the basis of what?
        Russia made an English U-turn against Germany under Nicholas II and generally for unknown reasons. But, even before the war, 1/4 of Germany’s exports was oriented towards RI. In turn, 1/3 of Russia's exports went to Germany. What curtain, for what? If we were strategic trading partners for each other.
        The war was declared by Germany in response to the MOBILIZATION declared in RI. Moreover, Germany asked her to stop.
        Nicholas II could not clearly articulate the goals of the war. Akromya pathetic: "... we must stop the growth of militarization of Germany ..."
        All the goals of Germany in this war were connected, primarily with England, its colonies. In the second - with France, who wanted revenge and the return of the territories torn away from her in 1878.
        1. lexe
          lexe 16 November 2013 13: 49
          0
          Is the highlighted one your opinion, or are you referring to someone?
          For whom, on the basis of what?

          The article "The Unknown Great War" on the VO website and my commentary - "Let's imagine that in 1914 Russia would have decided not to enter the war." This is my personal opinion, which was formed thanks to reading and viewing various information. Yes, we still do not have a clear answer in our country about what Russia fought for in 1914. It was only earlier in the USSR that there were all clear answers with a lot of references to "competent" sources.
          Russia made an English U-turn against Germany under Nicholas II and generally for unknown reasons.

          The Tsar was in no hurry to fight this fact, realizing that Russia needed time for an economic and military breakthrough.
          But RI clearly observed the balance of power in Europe.
          You understand that without this incomprehensible U-turn, Russia could turn out to be 1 on 1 with all of Europe!
          And then the war of 1812. would be provided for us in the worst version of the crusade. Moreover, the French could be with the Germans ...
          But, even before the war, 1/4 of Germany’s exports was oriented towards RI. In turn, 1/3 of Russia's exports went to Germany. What curtain, for what? If we were strategic trading partners for each other.

          And what is the US-China trade balance now? And who is the enemy friend? Trade is a kind of peace treaty-the development of 2 partners to the detriment of other potential friends. Yes, Germany and Russia developed together while Kaiser instead of fighting for the colonies (I think our king would not have led his ear if Germany had received new lands far from Europe) did not prefer to upset the balance in Europe.
          Nicholas II could not clearly articulate the goals of the war. Akromya pathetic: "... we must stop the growth of militarization of Germany ..."

          Here you are right ... you had tougher Brothers and Sisters!
          Although the militarization of Germany was evident.
          All the goals of Germany in this war were connected, primarily with England, its colonies. In the second - with France, who wanted revenge and the return of the territories torn away from her in 1878.

          And for these reasons, they swung the Balkans? -And the truth is not new colonies ...
          However, it must be borne in mind that behind the monarchs were certain forces that wanted to destabilize the European continent and change the political system and elites, as well as create "favorable" conditions for the development of progress in a new interpretation.
          Therefore, I think it’s not right to blame all the monarchs. Besides, as today's life shows, a complete rejection of all traditions and principles is not progress at all ...
  28. The comment was deleted.
  29. The centurion
    The centurion 15 November 2013 17: 44
    +2
    Quote: 505506
    The authorities blackmailed them, tried to recruit in the Foreign Legion.

    Who wanted, he returned. Future Marshal Malinovsky won the 2 of the year in the Moroccan division of the Foreign Legion, returned, served in the Red Army and became a Marshal of the Victory and USSR Minister of War.
    1. Stinger
      Stinger 15 November 2013 18: 42
      +1
      By the way, Corporal R.Ya. Malinowski was in the same cell with Captain Degol. who also became not the last person in France.
  30. nnz226
    nnz226 15 November 2013 18: 55
    +1
    A strong country would not collapse due to a lack of bread in St. Petersburg. Russia rotted under the leadership of the last Romanov Nikolashka, who brought the strong and pacified power he had inherited to TWO REVOLUTIONS !!!
    1. KEKS44
      KEKS44 15 November 2013 21: 38
      0
      Collapsed in 1991, or forgot?
    2. Sugar Honeyovich
      Sugar Honeyovich 17 November 2013 08: 10
      0
      Quote: nnz226
      A strong country would not collapse due to a lack of bread in St. Petersburg. Russia rotted under the leadership of the last Romanov Nikolashka, who brought the strong and pacified power he had inherited to TWO REVOLUTIONS !!!

      Clarify a strong-willed country! In1941 she was like that, under the tsar and Gorbachev, no.
  31. KEKS44
    KEKS44 15 November 2013 21: 06
    +1
    Quote: KEKS44
    And here you try to take power hehe ...

    Thanks to such figures and pros ... whether! Horses do not change at the crossing, state. system even more so. And communes tried to take power after victory, or in fair elections. That's it. Therefore, they took in the midst of the 1st World War and the German loot. Go, bring flowers to Lenin at the mausoleum!
  32. Vladimir65
    Vladimir65 15 November 2013 21: 14
    -2
    As a result, the world war, which was to definitely end in 1917, dragged on for another year. Who made this prediction? From the article we can conclude that the Bolsheviks, who at that time were all twenty thousand in all the warring countries, won the war.
  33. navodchik
    navodchik 15 November 2013 22: 19
    +2
    I liked the article, although only the good side is shown in the Russian Empire. Let's not forget that by the beginning of the war, the country was still under the impression of a deafening defeat in the Far East. The people demanded revenge, but, as the author correctly noted, the "cordial agreement" was with the company of card cheaters - they are the governments of France, England and the United States. The same England that built and trained the Japanese fleet. Everything is correct in describing the self-sacrificing offensive on Gumbinnen. However, there is no continuation that France was saved, and the army of General Samsonov was given to the Germans. For the sake of objectivity, there were many more such defeats later, otherwise how to explain that by 1917 the front line passed near Riga and Minsk?
    All the same, the article was not bad.
  34. Booby
    Booby 15 November 2013 23: 33
    0
    The pictures are clearly blatantly ostentatious.
    My great-grandfather told his grandfather how he fought in 1915-1916, so he says, the German fought so tight that only a rifle was pulled out of the trench and shot at random, without protruding. And here, officers stand waist-high ... wassat
  35. Ross
    Ross 16 November 2013 03: 54
    +1
    Quote: avt
    The article is a tribute to the fashion of the current promotion of the Romanov period, which has nothing specific to analytics and an impartial consideration of the topic. “Subsequently, myths arose about the“ remnant ”of Russia, its unpreparedness for war, and defeats. But these are nothing more than myths. "============ Oh how! It means" hunger "for weapons, when even single-shot rifles were bought, and the catastrophe of 1915 about which contemporaries of that time spoke, is this insidious Bolshevik propaganda of the Soviet years! If the author was an analyst, he would ask how and with what incredible difficulty they got out of the catastrophic situation of lack of weapons, how much gold and specialists were sent overseas to establish the production of weapons. Because of the great progress in the economy, they bought ships from the Japanese from the time of Tsushima and ordered submarines from Holland?

    The author is a Cossack, retired colonel, author of many history books. Read his book about the First World War, on the basis of which he apparently wrote this article. The book is written on the basis of a large number of sources, contains a lot of factual material about the courage of the Russian wars. Shell and ammunition hunger is described in great detail there. The author acknowledges him in the article, only to 1916 he was overcome.
    The author's view on the justice of the war is his purely personal opinion. Everyone can be wrong.
  36. barbiturate
    barbiturate 16 November 2013 08: 35
    +1
    The article is simply false through and through, I will just give a few facts, for example, about artillery and not even about the number of guns, although the numbers there are also devastating, but here it was about shell starvation, here are the numbers about the shells that the sides fired at each other. Before that, we will remember that according to French data (in the Russian army, such an account was simply not kept):
    Losses from shells (and insignificant from hand grenades) - 67%
    Losses from bullets (gun and machine gun) - 23%
    Losses from other causes - 10%
    Let us estimate the percentage of losses from artillery and see other figures: Throughout the war of 1914 - 1917 Russian artillery spent a total of no more than 50 rounds of all calibers, including chemical shells. The figure is reliable and is not disputed by any of the historians.
    Let's look at allies and opponents:
    France
    75 mm caliber about 163 rounds,
    155 mm caliber about 28 million shots

    Germany
    All calibers about 271 533 000 shots.
    Including: approximately 156 000-mm, 000 77 cm, 67 000-cm and 000 10,5-cm. caliber.

    England
    All calibers about 170 386 000 shots.
    Including: approximately 99 000 mm cannon, 000 76 mm howitzer, 25 000 mm howitzer, etc.

    Austria-Hungary
    All calibers about 70 000 000 shots.

    As we see, the tsarist army of “Russia that we lost” in the consumption of artillery shells during the WWII was hopelessly behind even the low-powered Austria-Hungary (by 20 MILLION shots). There is nothing to compare with other countries - from France and Germany, the gap is almost SIX TIMES, from England - by three and a half.
    Germany ONLY large-caliber shells released 116 million (and Russia - ALL types of shells - about 50 million)
    It was necessary to pay for this lag on the battlefields with the enormous blood of the Russian infantry ... (recall the percentage of losses from artillery)
    The Germans already in 1914 massively used rifle grenades, etc.
    The situation with rifles was no less deplorable, the facts are shocking, but yes another time)

    PS The author here mentioned "pointed woolen caps-bogatyrs" to replace the caps, eh ... but does the author know that the Germans fought in helmets? in IRON helmets! The tsarist army believed that iron helmets spoil the soldier's appearance, but how many lives were worth an unprotected head !! our soldiers, after all, one lump of frozen earth is enough in the head after the rupture of a shell or stray bullet for the life of a healthy soldier to die out. So much for your bogatyr hats) Helmets should have been adopted, and not stylized as epic heroes of the past)
    1. Bigriver
      Bigriver 16 November 2013 10: 42
      +1
      Quote: barbiturate
      Throughout the war 1914 - 1917 years Russian artillery spent in total no more than 50 rounds of all calibers.

      For 1914-17 he arrived at the fronts (shots):
      76 mm - 60437000
      107-152 mm - 11760000
      203-305 mm - 115481
      TOTAL: about 72 million

      Allied and adversary spending figures also include 1918 year.
      For example:
      France 75 mm caliber - about 163650000 million shots

      But, all the same, of course, it is not comparable.
      1. barbiturate
        barbiturate 16 November 2013 11: 05
        0
        I agree, only surely 72 million received do not mean 72 million spent, and given the degree of decomposition by 1917 (the Russian army almost stopped fighting), it becomes clear that the difference of 22 million went already to the needs of the civil war.
        In principle, everything converges. By 1917, the military industry had finally spun up and filled the warehouses with shells, only the Russian Empire had already lived out the last months, and the army was more fraternizing with the enemy than firing at it, the consumption of shells almost ceased. The war had already been lost by then both technically and morally
    2. lexe
      lexe 16 November 2013 15: 50
      0
      It was necessary to pay for this lag on the battlefields with the enormous blood of the Russian infantry ... (recall the percentage of losses from artillery)

      No one disputes the fact that artillery made a decisive contribution to the victory on the battlefield in WWI.
      BUT the value of the projectile on the Western and Eastern fronts was different.
      After the French artillery barrage ... the Germans often got out of their hiding places and stopped the attack. The Western Front generally "went deep" into the ground due to heavy shelling. Consequently, the consumption of shells was much higher ...
      The Eastern Front, due to its length, nevertheless provided an opportunity for maneuver-retreat of 1915.
      Well, it’s also important not only to shoot a lot, but also for sure ...
      The Brusilov breakthrough fully proved this ... the artillery fire was conducted exclusively on the basis of accurate intelligence, which in many ways influenced the success. Russian artillery, having a "deafening" experience of the war with Japan, proved to be excellent.
      1. barbiturate
        barbiturate 17 November 2013 07: 30
        0
        In my opinion, you do not quite correctly assess. As the French "maneuvered" the retreat, so did ours. As the French reached a certain point and the Germans stopped advancing, so did ours. The trenches were of the same depth) It's just that the French and the British, like the Germans in response, conducted heavy multi-day shelling before the offensive (and not only before the offensive), but the Russian army had a puff of heavy artillery, hence the terrible results of the war and the death of the state. (Read for example, about the death of the Russian Guard in 1916, what artillery preparations were carried out and how they were thrown at machine guns (in 1916 no one did this for a long time and what impression it made on the Russian Empire)
        The Brusilov breakthrough was against the Austrians, however, like almost all the successes of the Russian army in that war (there was only one success in general against the main enemy in 1914, and so they could not take advantage of it), and only Germany took into account the experience of the war with Japan, adopting the arsenal of heavy artillery. It’s just that France and England, possessing good industry, managed to correct this situation in many ways, but Russia didn’t, industry was in its infancy.
        1. lexe
          lexe 17 November 2013 14: 29
          0
          For example, read about the death of the Russian Guard in 1916, what artillery preparations were done and how they were thrown at machine guns (in 1916, no one had done this for a long time and what impression this had on the Russian Empire)

          So, after all, it is not only a guard for war ... but also for suppressing riots - YOU don’t find it? So you took this "nuance" into account in the upcoming struggle for power.
          But the German guard went to full growth on machine guns.
          It’s just that the French and British, like the Germans, in response, carried out heavy shelling for many days before the attack (and not only before the attack), but the Russian army had a zilch of heavy artillery, hence the terrible results of the war and the death of the state

          You want to say that the concentration of forces on the Western and Eastern Front by 1 km was equivalent? The front in the West also had a great depth of defensive fortifications. And the developed railway network? -Know for yourself only to deliver the shells. So they hit the entire depth of the fortifications with heavy artillery arranging multi-day shelling.
          But in the East, the value of heavy artillery was markedly reduced, with the exception of fortresses. So, although it lagged behind in heavy weapons, Russia was steadily moving towards victory in WWI, giving its "friends" and "enemies" plenty of enjoyment of mutual multi-day shelling.
          Brusilovsky breakthrough was against the Austrians, however, like almost all the successes of the Russian army in that war

          I also think that the French and the British should have taken Berlin laughing So I don’t see any contradictions - the Austrians were enemies and the Germans were so ... interfered underfoot laughing
          only one success in 1914 and thus failed to take advantage

          And the defeat of the personnel army of Austria-Hungary is not success? And the help of Serbia and the possibility of further resistance of the Serbian army? And the position of Italy and its decision on which side to fight? 1914 was a resounding success for Russia strategically.Judge for yourself, all of Europe is at war, and we have shell hunger laughing and the Russian army retreats in 1915 (yes, under the whistle of the entire "thinking" intelligentsia and the sobbing of female patriots laughing )
          the truth retreated without encirclement and competently, even Poland gave independence in 1914 laughing
  37. barbiturate
    barbiturate 16 November 2013 11: 28
    0
    By the way, more about the spent and received shells. In different sources (historians and generals memoirists (quickly looked through)) converge in 270mln shells expended by Germany, but the number of shells delivered to the German army is estimated by someone as 300 million, someone says about 306 million, i.e., there is a difference in received and spent Germans.
  38. oldkap22
    oldkap22 16 November 2013 22: 57
    0
    article is rather superficial !! no "dark forces" CAN'T BREAK UP A STRONG, UNITED STATE! The army was not destroyed by the Bolsheviks (They just raised the power lying in the mud) They steered as best they could (but at least they had a program and a management system. And they acted not only with a whip but also with a crust of bread ... and in the end they achieved something (the USSR) and under Nicholas the "flower of the country" they killed the guard officers. The Academy of the General Staff to the front under COMRADE STALIN was not treated like that with specialists (no need to go read "in the first circle" and mkmoirs about sharazh ... and the control was better and then there was a "summing up" and conclusions ...
  39. bublic82009
    bublic82009 16 November 2013 23: 27
    0
    after so many years it’s easy to discuss the events of those years. condemn some and pity others. Russia from this war almost did not need anything, with the exception of straits in the Mediterranean Sea and influence in the Balkans. Well, there may be a victorious war after the defeat of 1905, but excuse the deaths of several millions of our people and the loss of part of the territories that cannot be compared with its tasks.
    we did not need this war. when the people understood, then he supported the revolution, first in February, then in October.
  40. Cormorants
    Cormorants 18 November 2013 12: 37
    0
    Victory was stolen one hundred percent, in the spring of 1917 great forces and resources were concentrated for the offensive, Europe would simply not have coped with Russia, here MI-6 is involved, Death to traitors.