Military Review

Kurdish Factor in Iran

10



The problem of Iranian Kurds is serious enough for modern Iran, and I would not even dare to refer it to highly specialized issues. But the point here is that in the modern press, both Russian and foreign (including Iranian)This problem is given a very small place. And many people, even from among those who are interested in modern Iran, are not aware of this. Although this topic is very, very interesting.

The “Kurdish question” is acute for many countries in the Middle East. This directly concerns Turkey, Iran, Syria and Iraq. The problem here is that the multi-million Kurdish community does not have its own state. The map of the Middle East over the past thousand years has been drastically redrawn dozens of times, but the Kurds did not find a place there. As a result, the Kurds remain the largest nation in the world, not having their own national state. Iraqi Kurdistan, in which de facto power belongs to the Kurdish community, is still legally controlled by official Baghdad. In fact, that part of the Kurdish community that rules in Erbil is more controlled by Ankara and Washington. But more on that later. It is also worth noting that the Kurds do not have their own literary language and, as a rule, show apathy to participate in official internal political processes in their countries of residence.

But these are problems of the Kurdish population in general. Now we’ll focus on the problems of the Iranian Kurds. Kurds in Iran live in the provinces of Ilam, Kurdistan, Western Azerbaijan and North Khorasan. The total population of the Kurdish population of Iran is about five million people. It is worth noting that the total population of Iran is about 77 million people.

The historically settled Kurds in Iran were considered the most backward in terms of economic development. In modern Iran, the situation is changing for the better for the Kurds, but the contrast between the Kurdish provinces and the rest of Iran is still quite striking. Also close to zero is the participation of the Kurds in the political life of Iran. For example, part of the Iranian Kurds boycotted the presidential elections in Iran that took place on 14 on June 2013. By them this was due to the factthat allegedly none of the candidates running for the presidency of Iran in the program had raised the issue of the rights of national minorities. In this case, the Iranian Kurds, no one bothers to participate in Iranian politics. Although so far from the Kurdish environment in Iran has not left a single prominent politician. What cannot be said, for example, of Iranian Azeris who have given Iran dozens of famous politicians, including the current Iranian rakhbar Seyed Ali Khamenei.

At the same time, separatist sentiments among Iranian Kurds, which are heated from the outside, are strong. In particular, this is about Iraqi Kurdistan. So, in Iran there is such an association as the “Party of Free Life” (PJAK). Iranian intelligence has establishedthat PJAK funding comes through the Mossad line. PJAK fighters in 2011 were marked in Iran with terrorist attacks and armed attacks on Iranian military units. They had several dozen assassinations of Iranian military personnel, including many officers of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps. The IRGC was eventually forced to carry out counter-terrorism operations against PJAK. Part of the PJAK militants then fled to Iraqi Kurdistan, where they were pursued by Iranian units, which even caused tension on the border of Iran and Iraqi Kurdistan.

It is worth noting that PJAK is far from the only structure that stirs up radical sentiment among the Kurdish minority of Iran in the interests of third forces. There is a whole national-democratic movement of Iranian Kurds, which is a conglomeration of political organizations. On the territory of Iran, the activities of such organizations are, of course, suppressed. It is also worth noting that among the Iranian Kurds, the same PJAK has a reputation not so much of any liberation or political structure as of an organized criminal group. The militants of PJAK trade, in addition to terrorism, including in Iran, smuggling, robbery, drug trafficking, etc., therefore even relevant to the Kurdish environment. Both PJAK and the rest of the structures from the national-democratic movement of Iranian Kurds in Iraqi Kurdistan are based. From there for Iran comes the main threat in the Kurdish direction. And now I will explain why this is the case.

Kurdish Factor in Iran


So, in the O.I. Zhigalinoy "The New Stage of the Kurdish National Democratic Movement" There is a very interesting paragraph, which I would recommend to emphasize. “Saudi Arabia and other Persian Gulf monarchies are interested in the project to create the Great Kurdistan Region, which is the most important part of the American doctrine of the Greater Middle East, which want the quickest dismemberment of Iraq, Syria, Iran and Turkey. It is not for the first time that Washington is trying to actively play out the "Kurdish card" in the region and intends to use the Kurds as a "fifth column" to increase pressure on the ruling regimes, especially in Syria and Iran ". So the likelihood of the revitalization of Kurdish separatist groups against Iran is quite high. Iran and Turkey, in turn, understand this danger and even organize against the militants of the Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) joint military operations.

But the main danger for Iran now comes not from the PKK, but from Kurdistan’s President Masud Barzani. Barzani himself born in Iran in the city of Mehabad just in that short time when the Kurdish national Mehabad Republic existed there (the first and unsuccessful attempt by Kurds to create their own national state in Iran). Moreover, his father - Mustafa Barzani - was the commander-in-chief of the army of this republic. One phrase by Masud Barzani is widely known, fully reflecting all his political views on Iranian Kurdistan - “I was born in the shadow of the Kurdish flag in Mehabad, and I am ready to serve and die for this flag”. With such a political position, Barzani is ideally suited for the United States and Israel in the fight against Iran. At the same time, he also has very good relations with Turkey, which, through a certain kind of geopolitical intrigues within its elite, is also one of the most active participants in the process of destabilizing the Middle East.

As for Iran, the officials of this country accuse in support of Kurdish separatists, it was precisely the United States and Israel. Indirectly, these accusations are absolutely fair, because now it is the United States that provides political support for Kurdish separatism, and Israel supplies Kurds with modern weapons. In principle, in the event of the fall of the Bashar Assad regime in Syria during the ongoing civil war there, the creation of Kurdistan in the territory of Northern Iraq and the Syrian province of Al-Hasakah will become a reality. Taking into account that Masudu Barzani will have power in this formation with a high degree of probability, and the PKK has every chance of falling under its influence, and also taking into account the surrender of the PKK positions in Turkey at the moment, it can be argued that the main vector of activity of Kurdish separatists will move from Turkey to Iran. This, in principle, is happening at the moment.

So, on the basis of the foregoing, it already makes sense to sum up a certain result on the “Kurdish issue” in Iran. The Kurdish minority makes up about 6,5% of the total Iranian population. It lives in the least economically developed provinces in the northwest of Iran and practically does not participate in any way in its internal political life. A certain influence on the Kurdish population in Iran has various kinds of political structures that are stationed in neighboring Iraqi Kurdistan. At the same time, extremist structures like PJAK are not supported by Iranian Kurds.

At the same time, Washington, Tel Aviv and Ankara, acting through the president of Northern Iraq, Masud Barzani, who is a priori extremely negatively disposed towards the leadership of modern Iran, are trying to destabilize the situation in the Kurdish provinces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, supplying extremists weapon and providing financial support for activities directed against Iran.
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  1. makarov
    makarov 14 November 2013 08: 58
    0
    The problem of the Kurds is not only in Iran, but also in Turkey, and in Syria, and possibly in Afghanistan. But only the international community can resolve it. But I remember what authority the USSR was at one time for the Kurdish Workers Party.
    1. David_Arius
      14 November 2013 09: 22
      +2
      The Kurdish issue is relevant for Iraq, Syria, Turkey and Iran. I wrote about this in the article as well. About the Kurds in Afghanistan, at least I don’t know anything.)))
    2. smersh70
      smersh70 14 November 2013 13: 43
      +2
      Quote: makarov
      what authority the USSR was at one time for the Kurdish Workers Party.


      ... and still it sounds like a region ...... PKK-terrorist organization .. which shed a lot of blood .....
    3. Alexandr0id
      Alexandr0id 14 November 2013 14: 07
      +2
      in Afghanistan there is one problem with the Kurds - they are not there.
    4. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 14 November 2013 14: 48
      +1
      Quote: makarov
      The problem of the Kurds is not only in Iran, but also in Turkey, and in Syria, and possibly in Afghanistan.


      It remains only to tell the Kurds that they are in Afghanistan, otherwise they do not know. wink
      1. alone
        alone 14 November 2013 20: 37
        +2
        Quote: Karlsonn
        It remains only to tell the Kurds that they are in Afghanistan, otherwise they do not know.


        I think the Kurds will be shocked by this)))
        1. Karlsonn
          Karlsonn 14 November 2013 21: 29
          0
          Quote: lonely
          I think the Kurds will be shocked by this)))


          it is still poorly said! drinks wassat
          1. alone
            alone 14 November 2013 23: 56
            0
            Quote: Karlsonn
            it is still poorly said!

            drinks
  2. soldier's grandson
    soldier's grandson 14 November 2013 11: 07
    0
    no man no problem
  3. Alexandr0id
    Alexandr0id 14 November 2013 14: 32
    +2
    as I see it, now one of the main sponsors of Kurdish statehood is Turkey, no matter how ridiculous it may sound. Ankara aims to create an independent Iraqi Kurdistan under its protectorate, while it is supposed to extrude Kurds from Syria there, or at least create a permanent Arab-Kurdish war in the north-east. Syria. subsequently, when Kurdish statehood was established, Kurdistan naturally finds itself in a state of at least a cold (which is hardly likely, given the region's particularities) war with Iraq and Iran, and, as a result, in isolation. the only bridge to the world for Kurdistan remains Turkey.
    within Turkey itself, a certain departure from Turkish nationalism and the expansion of the rights of national minorities (we read - Kurds) are planned. "hotheads" will be sent to Barzani and the Syrian meat grinder, and the rest of the Turkish Kurds will have a choice - a developed and more or less prosperous Turkey or a problematic and poor independent (Iraqi) Kurdistan. if you want to live in your independent state - now there is such an opportunity - go to Erbil, if you want a calm and well-fed life - remain a Turkish citizen.
  4. Yeraz
    Yeraz 14 November 2013 15: 53
    +2
    Alexandroid agrees. The most correct and not bloodthirsty decision is to create such a place where you can shove those Kurds who pump rights in Turkey, and Erbil will have to accept them, hostility will not accept them inside the Kurds. And many let the Kurds not be mistaken. the differences between the Turkish Arab and Iranian Kurds, then the theme of urban Kurds and those who are in the mountains. As a full-fledged people in the full sense of the word, they did not form.
    1. Sour
      Sour 14 November 2013 17: 20
      0
      Quote: Yeraz
      And many let them not be mistaken in the unity of the Kurds. There are big differences between Turkish Arab and Iranian Kurds, then the theme of urban Kurds and those who are in the mountains. As full-fledged people in the full sense of the word, they did not form.

      Serious dialect and cultural differences can be found among many peoples. If anything, the Germans from Mecklenburg and the Germans from Bavaria are also very different, even outwardly. Turks from Bulgaria and Turks from Southeast Anatolia speak almost different languages, but both are Turks. Cultural differences between urban and rural populations are generally traditional for the East; they are also present among Turks and Persians. How did the full-fledged Kurds not form? This is difficult in conditions of living in several states, and even in conditions of severe pressure from the national majority both in Turkey and Iraq.
    2. alone
      alone 14 November 2013 20: 41
      +1
      Kurds do not have the concept of statehood. They have tribal-teip structures. They do not create a state with such structures. And do not forget that each leader of the tribe has its own ambitions. The Iranian Kurd will never agree that Turkish Kurd will become its leader. the issue is as smooth as it seems to us all.
      1. Sour
        Sour 14 November 2013 20: 50
        0
        Quote: lonely
        . They have tribal-teip structures.

        Ну и что?
        In Pakistan, also in the north of the country, tribal structures are strong. And in Libya, they are, and in Morocco. Any state, one way or another, is the fruit of a compromise. Absolutely any state.
        1. alone
          alone 14 November 2013 23: 57
          +1
          you know bad East and the peoples living in it))
  5. EdwardTich68
    EdwardTich68 15 November 2013 23: 32
    0
    I consider the creation of the Kudra city inevitable and necessary, hello everyone.
  6. greentrampler
    greentrampler 22 November 2013 14: 00
    0
    Directly this concerns Turkey, Iran, Syria and Iraq.

    And Azerbaijan. Given the Aliyevs and the top establishment :).