Military Review

Jet trainer Yak-32

9
The Yak-32 (according to the NATO codification Mantis (Mantis)) is a Soviet training jet aircraft. There was also a two-seat version of this machine, which had the Yak-30 index. The Yak-32 was perfectly adapted to perform complex aerobatics, it could carry them out with time-consuming overloads. The Yak-32 weighed 300 kilograms less than its two-seater counterpart and had better flight data. The Yak-32 was the world's first training and sport aircraft, which was equipped with an ejection seat. However, in serial production of the aircraft was not launched, just 3 was collected copies of the aircraft.


Even now, looking at the photographs, we can say that the Yak-32 was a very beautiful car. Thanks to the activities of lovers aviation, currently there is a flying copy of this aircraft, which still pleases the audience at various aviation holidays.

1950-e years can be characterized by the beginning of a broad expansion of jet machines, the speed of which exceeded the speed of sound. Such machines required modern, reliable turbojet engines with high power, as well as small dimensions and weight. This was dictated by the need to reduce the material costs of production, and at the same time opened up to aircraft designers ample opportunities for designing aircraft. Such engines were also needed to create light sport training and training jet aircraft that could be used in DOSAAF clubs and flight schools of the Air Force for training military pilots.

Jet trainer Yak-32

By the end of 1950-s, such engines appeared in sufficient numbers, and already in 1959, a competition was announced for the creation of a jet training aircraft. Participation in the competition took design teams from the USSR, Czechoslovakia and Poland. Especially for the competition in the Design Bureau. Yakovlev was developed training Yak-30 two-seater jet aircraft, which received the RU-19 engines designed by S. K. Tumansky. The engine weighed 228 kg and provided traction at the level of 900 kgf. Compared with the RD-10 engine with the same level of thrust, it weighed immediately in 3,5 times less, was more than 2 times less in linear dimensions, and also consumed less in fuel 2 times.

Together with the Soviet Yak-30, the Polish aircraft TS-11 “Iskra” and the Czechoslovak L-29 “Dolphin” took part in the competition. All 3 cars had very good flight performance, but the Yak-30 was recognized as the best. With other similar data from competitors, he weighed a whole ton less. However, ultimately, it was nevertheless decided to accept the Czechoslovak aircraft for serial production, since it was planned to build it in Czechoslovakia at the enterprises most suitable for this.

Already in 1961, on the basis of the Yak-30 two-seater training aircraft, a single aerobatic flight version of the aircraft was designed under the designation Yak-32. The new aircraft was even easier. This was achieved by removing the second cockpit. Reducing the weight of the machine has a positive effect on its maneuverability. Perfectly adapted for turned flights, the aerobatic Yak-32 could easily perform the most complex aerobatics even with long-term negative overloads.


The design of the Yak-32 was similar to the design of the predecessor aircraft. Yak-32 was a monoplane, made entirely of metal, with a low wing, which was made detachable with a center section. The plane received a light ejection pilot's seat and was equipped with the minimum necessary set of radio engineering and aviation equipment. The machine has successfully passed a series of tests. One of the important qualities of the Yak-32 was the ability to use the aircraft even from unpaved airfields.

History create

4 February 1959 of the year saw the issuance of a decree on the construction of a sports single-seater aircraft, which received the Yak-104PS cipher (in the future Yak-32), it was planned to equip the aircraft with an RU-19-300 engine. Already 13 of October 1960 of the year, ahead of the design deadlines for the 4,5 of the month, the Yakovlev Design Bureau assembled the first single-seater sports plane, which was designed to work out the techniques of performing flights en route, in a circle, and training in adverse weather conditions at night and in the afternoon. Also on the plane was planned to work out the technique of performing various figures of aerobatics. From the Yak-30, the aircraft was notable for the lack of a rear cockpit, an increase in fuel supply for 45 liters for longer piloting and a power plant, which was adapted to make an inverted flight. Total was built 3 Yak-32.

From 17 January to 27 July 1961, the 2 of the Yak-32 aircraft underwent a series of tests in the aerobatic (60 board) and training (32 board) versions. Flight version of the aircraft was facilitated by another 555 kg. This was achieved by reducing the stock of fuel and the mass of the empty aircraft. On the flight version of the Yak-32 there were no flaps and the area of ​​aileron was increased.


The joint tests of the aircraft were carried out by the leading test pilot V. P. Smirnov and the test pilots A. P. Bogorodsky, V. G. Mukhin and Yu. V. Petrov. A total of 49 flights were performed on the machines, and the total flight time was 23 hours 22 minutes. In addition, in preparation for the air holiday in Tushino and during the holiday, from 8 June to 9 July 1961, test pilots performed another 55 flights on the Yak-32 (the total flight time was 23 hours 14 minutes).

According to the pilots, the plane turned out to be pleasant and easy to fly, quite stable in terms of overload and speed, it had excellent visibility and a spacious cabin. At the same time, the review was equally good both in the air and on the taxiing. On the Yak-32 pilot could perform all the complex figures, both direct and reverse aerobatics, as well as rather complex multi-figured complexes. At an altitude of 3000 meters the pilots managed to get the maximum speed in 663 km / h. During the compression of the Yak-32 (acceleration of the aircraft in the canopy dive), the instrument speed of 765 km / h was achieved at an altitude of 2200 meters. The general conclusion on the results of the tests stated that the Yak-32 can be recommended as a standard machine for equipping DOSAAF aeroclubs. However, the state tests of the aircraft, which were scheduled for the second part of 1961, almost did not take place.

In 1961, at the Central Aerodrome, A. S. Yakovlev demonstrated to the Minister of Defense of the country R. Ya. Malinovsky the possibility of using the Yak-32 aircraft as a light attack aircraft. This project received the code - Yak-32Sh. On the plane were installed 2 underwing holder weapons. The aircraft was demonstrated on the ground, with various versions of mounted armaments laid out in front of it. According to the calculations that were made by 25 May 1961, the Yak-32Ш planned to increase the engine thrust to the value of 1100 kgf, the fuel stock should have been 726 kg. The take-off weight of the aircraft increased to 2900 or 2580 kg. depending on the weapons installed on the attack aircraft (716 or 300 kg, respectively). The maximum speed of the car was to be 685 km / h at an altitude of 5 thousands of meters. The aircraft could have the following weapons: artillery 2 cannon AO-9 (2150 tanks), AB-250 aerial bombs (2X275 kg), various types of missiles (from 2XXNNXX kg to 116XXNNUMX kg, and incendiary cups). ). This version is also not serially produced.


Another version of the aircraft received the designation Yak-32P. One of the Yak-32 aircraft in the 1971 year was restored in aerobatic flight. This machine received an experienced TRD RU19P-300 with 900 kgf. At the same time in the engine to ensure a longer duration of the inverted flight changed the oil system. From the original version of the Yak-32, the new aircraft was distinguished by the presence of a sealed cockpit, the GMK-1 gyromagnetic compass, the ARK-15 radio compass and the Landysh-5 radio station. In this case, the set of equipment was made removable. It was planned to use it during ferry flights, as well as en-route flights in difficult meteorological conditions. This machine, despite the positive feedback received during the tests, also did not go into the series.

On Yak-32 aircraft, Soviet pilots managed to set a number of world records. In 1961, test pilot Mukhin managed to climb the Yak-32 to a height of 14238 meters, and later 4, on the same plane, set world records G. Korchuganov, who flew a distance of 100 km. with an average speed of 714 km / h and R. Shikhina, which is based on 15-25 km. was able to reach 755 km / h.

Flight specifications of the Yak-32:
Dimensions: wingspan - 9,39 m, wing area - 14,3 square. m, the length of the aircraft - 10,14 m, height - 3,10 m.
Maximum take-off weight - 2255 kg, empty mass - 1434 kg.
The power plant - 1 TRD RU-19-300, thrust - 900 kgf.
Maximum speed - 663 km / h.
Cruising flight speed - 540 km / h.
Practical ceiling - 13000 m.
Practical range - 350 km.
Crew - 1 people.

Information sources:
http://www.luxavia.ru/item/209
http://www.airwar.ru/enc/other/yak32.html
http://ru-aviation.livejournal.com/2792802.html
http://airspot.ru/catalogue/item/yakovlev-yak-32
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  1. rubin6286
    rubin6286 13 November 2013 10: 16
    +8
    In 1961, as a child, at the air parade in Tushino, I saw the Yak-30 and Yak-32 aircraft. On the Yak-32 plane, the test pilot performed aerobatics. without going beyond the boundaries of a circle with a diameter of 300 meters, formed on the ground by spectators. I have never seen anything like it again. The Yak-30 was yellow-lemon in color, and the Yak-32, silver, as in the photo in this article. Around 1966, one Yak-32 was at the Tambov Aviation School named after Raskova. According to the cadets who flew on it and on the L-29, our plane was much lighter than the Czech one, easier and more comfortable to fly. It is a pity that the post-war fate of Jacob was not always successful.
    1. Gamdlislyam
      Gamdlislyam 13 November 2013 21: 21
      +2
      Dear Viktor Vasilievich, the fate of the Yak-30 and Yak-32 was affected by the political decision of the leadership of the USSR (the training aircraft was originally planned in Czechoslovakia and Poland), as well as the fact that Khrushchev N.S. A.S. was extremely negative towards Yakovlev (well, he could not forgive the latter for being close to Stalin). An organization such as the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) was created at this time. The Czechs aircraft factory was idle, because stopped the production of MiG-15 sparks. Having their own project, the Czechs refused to release Jacob. The Poles, reasonably, abandoned the L-29, and began to produce their aircraft. So our cadets had to fly on the worst of the three aircraft.
      1. studentmati
        studentmati 13 November 2013 22: 09
        +1
        Quote: Gamdlislyam
        Dear Victor Vasilievich (Vilenovich), the fate of the Yak-30 and Yak-32 was affected by the political decision of the leadership of the USSR (the production of a training aircraft was originally planned in Czechoslovakia and Poland), as well as the fact that Khrushchev N.S. A.S. was extremely negative towards Yakovlev (well, he could not forgive the latter for being close to Stalin). An organization such as the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) was created at this time. The Czechs aircraft factory was idle, because stopped production of MiG-15 sparks. Having their own project, the Czechs refused to release Jacob. The Poles, reasonably, abandoned the L-29, and began to produce their aircraft. So our cadets had to fly on the worst of the three aircraft.


        Very accurately and briefly noticed! good Absolutely everything is said and "in a nutshell"! drinks
    2. Vadivak
      Vadivak 15 November 2013 22: 43
      +2
      Quote: rubin6286
      According to the feedback of the cadets flying on it and on the L-29, our plane was much lighter than the Czech one, easier and more convenient to fly


      Not only
  2. karal
    karal 13 November 2013 11: 11
    +1
    Of course, Russia needs such machines in order for young children who graduate from military universities who have decided to serve their homeland faithfully to gain experience in piloting. Then the whole country will sleep peacefully!
  3. karal
    karal 13 November 2013 11: 12
    0
    Of course, Russia needs such machines in order for young children who graduate from military universities who have decided to serve their homeland faithfully to gain experience in piloting. Then the whole country will sleep peacefully!
  4. godun
    godun 13 November 2013 11: 16
    +1
    All Yakovlev's aircraft are distinguished by aerodynamically clean contours and the grace and beauty inherent in his aircraft, and according to the reviews of the flight personnel, simplicity and ease of control, good maneuverability. The Yak-30 is certainly a handsome man and in many ways it was better than the Dolphin, but, more for political reasons than for some reason, the L-29 was adopted as a training one.
  5. pahom54
    pahom54 13 November 2013 13: 40
    +1
    Here we are all the time talking about modern corruption ...
    And here is a living example of SOVIET corruption, or stupidity - why, instead of a good Yak, we had the L39 in service with the Air Force? In 1971-1973, I served these aircraft, I know firsthand about them. But about the existence of such machines as the Yak-30 and Yak-32 I learned only after 2000, and even then was surprised by comparing the performance characteristics of these aircraft.
    In general, as always, there is no prophet in his Fatherland.
    Most likely, L39 - Albatros entered service with the flight schools of the Soviet Air Force for one simple reason - it was necessary not to feed Czechoslovakia for nothing ...
    It’s good that the Yak-130 has now become a combat trainer.
    1. Argon
      Argon 13 November 2013 16: 29
      0
      My dear pahom54, the Yak-32 can be considered an analogue of the L-29 "dolphin" and the mention of the L-39 "Albatross" is inappropriate here. And the situation with the Yak-32, in my opinion, is a positive example, which I will explain below. The point is, that at this time Yakovlev was engaged in a VTOL aircraft project. The future Yak-36 "fired" a huge volume, theoretical and experimental work did not promise a result in the near future, which could not but cause irritation in the leadership of the Ministry of Aviation and Defense and displeasure in the Kremlin. the mentality of Alexander Sergeevich did not allow in principle, so the design bureau got involved in the competition for TCB. Moreover, the decision to release a promising TCB abroad was approved even before the competition, since MAP did not have a free plant for its release. And Dolphin was a huge plus. was that technologically it was ideally suited to the capabilities of the plant that would produce it. The insignificant costs required for the deployment of the L-29 series were paid by the Czechoslovak Ministry of Aviation. As a result, the country received a relatively cheap TCB in a given time and The number, albeit not with the best flight characteristics in the class. Since the projected machine was provided with production-well-thought-out, planned decisions. A similar situation with the Mi-28, Ka-50 ended in the fact that the search for the best was delayed for 30 years, and in the troops, meanwhile, the machines were operated that did not quite correspond to the tasks they were supposed to solve. Returning to the "examples" I want to note that in the case of the Yak there were sober people who were able to make a volitional decision and the best did not become the enemy of the good.
    2. castle
      castle 14 November 2013 01: 37
      +1
      L-29 double. Yak 32 single. Want to compare L-29 and Yak-30?
      USSR fed Czechoslovakia ?! Look at the CMEA documents. FROM Czechoslovakia to the USSR - Czechoslovak clothing and footwear for infants (LOANA) and children, SVIT or BAŤA shoes, women and men clothes, Czechoslovakian processing machines for Soviet industry, Czechoslovakian trams and tolibuses for Soviet (and Russian) cities, TATRA trucks, who equipped Soviet Siberia. Czechoslovak weapons in the North Vietnamese army. Czechoslovak turbines for Soviet and Russian power plants, including nuclear. Czechoslovak equipment for the mining and oil refining industries, Czechoslovak equipment for the food industry, Czechoslovak diesel locomotives in the USSR. The L-410 plane flew to the USSR not for political reasons, but because, at one time and in its category, it was the best that the USSR could afford to buy. The L-39 aircraft, officially in the Air Force, flies in 36 countries of the world. And overbought for collections and private owners who fly with them at various events, back in 8. I'm not talking about Zlín aircraft. I somehow did not hear that the Polish PZL TS-11 Iskra enjoyed the same popularity as the Czech L-29 Delfín. So, political instructor, who fed someone badass? USSR Czechoslovakia or Czechoslovakia (with a population of 15, and now the Czech Republic, with a population of 000 people - less than in Moscow) USSR (Russia). And for those who are not in the know. Czechoslovakia was able and able to sell its products to the Western market. And, even, during the CMEA. And now we are not trading in oil.
      1. Gamdlislyam
        Gamdlislyam 14 November 2013 10: 55
        +1
        Dear Hrad colleague, the CMEA organization is an organization of a kind of division of labor so as not to duplicate the output of one type of product and reduce its cost due to mass production. And therefore, what was mass-produced in Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, East Germany, Bulgaria - almost never released in the USSR. But what was produced in the Soviet Union was purchased (on the basis of offsetting) by other CMEA countries, because there was no production.
        Aircraft L-39 (L-29) was cheaper than its counterparts due to mass production (the USSR acquired almost 2500 units). After the collapse of the USSR, they spread around the world, because sold at the price of scrap metal.
        Quote: hrad
        Aircraft L-410 flew to the USSR not for political reasons

        And here you, dear colleague of Hrad, are wrong. Purchasing the L-410 was just a purely political decision. The leadership of the USSR tried to make amends for not very pleasant impressions after the thrashing that arranged for the negligent ally in 1968.
        In the USSR, two aircraft of a similar class were created, and much better than the Czech "Cheburashka". These are An-28 and Be-30/32, which, due to the lack of free capacities of aircraft factories of the USSR, were produced either in small batches or in several copies.
  6. Black Colonel
    Black Colonel 13 November 2013 16: 45
    +2
    "The Yak-32 was a very beautiful car."
    Yakovlev ALL cars were beautiful! Yak-130 is the same handsome!
  7. REZMovec
    REZMovec 14 November 2013 00: 30
    0
    The point is that both the Dolphin and, later, the Albatross could be used as light attack aircraft - they had the possibility of suspending NURSs, bombs, and cannon (machine-gun) containers under the wing. Yaks were purely training aerobatic vehicles. The yaks are beautiful and aerodynamic as always ...
  8. Corsair
    Corsair 14 November 2013 02: 57
    0
    Quote from the article:
    Even now, looking at the photographs, we can say that the Yak-32 was a very beautiful car.

    The machines of Yakovlev Design Bureau were "written" by the hand of the Master, who knows a lot not only about aerodynamics, but also in the ratio of proportions and smoothness of lines ...