28 – 30 October The 2013 of Moscow hosted the international business congress, Security and Protection of the Individual, Society and the State, in Moscow. An adviser to the commander-in-chief of the internal troops of the Russian Interior Ministry, chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (2004 – 2008), deputy secretary of the Security Council (2008 – 2012), Army General Yury Baluyevsky made a report at its opening.
Russia faces today the inevitability of finding adequate answers to the main challenges of the time related to protecting the country's sovereignty, its defense and competitiveness, ensuring strategic positions in the world. That’s what Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin said at the beginning of 2000’s: “Either a strong Russia, or there will be none.”
We will not find an answer to these challenges - we will turn into a raw materials appendage, periphery, serving the world economy.
Answer the challenges of time
The inevitability and the need for further innovative development of Russia is evident today more than ever. The country continues to lose technology, personnel, human capital. But the presence of the richest resources, a high level of education in general, a favorable geographical and geopolitical location, other objective indicators simply oblige Russia to be among the leaders of the world economy.
But these advantages practically do not work in terms of the prevailing export of raw materials. We need to take the path of creating a highly developed economy, where innovation product and innovative growth are in the first place. This is one of the most important conditions for the diversification of the economy, its liberation from commodity dependence. Unfortunately, the number of so-called deficiently developing regions of Russia is large. If in 2008 their year was 57, then in 2010 it became 63.
The differences between the subjects of the Russian Federation in terms of the main indicator - the gross domestic product per capita - have not yet been eliminated. This is because business in Russia mainly invests money in short-term projects that pay off in a maximum of three to five years. For more no one swings, not wanting to risk.
Another reason is the corruption of officials. It is like an anti-tank ditch on the way to a new economy, investing in it. But corruption is essentially a state crime, and the measures for such an act should be appropriate. Unfortunately, the number of corruption crimes detected in the country is growing annually by about 10 percent, and their volume is equivalent to 35 – 40 billions of dollars. Corruption today is one of the main threats to the security of the state, the most serious disease of society, indicating not only the systemic violation of laws in the country, but also the lost spiritual and moral norms that ensure law-abiding behavior of citizens.
In other developed countries with corrupt do not stand on ceremony. In China, in 2008 – 2012, only 650 – 25 cases were filed for personnel only, 30 – XNUMX thousands were brought to court. And the court there, as we know, is very strict - a head from the shoulders or a long prison term. In China, the costs of delegations, trips abroad, banquets, and the purchase of expensive items are also significantly reduced.
We live in an era of high-tech, high-tech, the further development of which requires more and more investments, including training. Today the volume of funds invested in the most developed countries in the training of scientists, engineers, technicians, highly skilled workers, exceeds the value of fixed production assets. That is, it was human capital that became the determining factor for development here. And we have? How and where have we invested our resources over the past 20 years?
Negative moments in the preparation and reproduction of scientific personnel in Russia have accumulated for a long time. But the most destructive blow was struck in the 90s, as a result of which the cyclic reproduction of frames was disrupted. Even then, analysis showed that the decade in which we now live will be the most difficult for scientists. Having been five or ten years behind the leading countries with the adoption of a nanotechnology program, we were even more late in taking measures for its staffing.
In the period of world transformation, our country in the last decade of the twentieth century moved in the opposite direction. The reduction in science spending was three times higher than the decline in GDP. In 1999, the expenses of all Russia on R & D were less than those of some of the world's leading companies. In monetary terms, this fall amounted to 43,3 billion rubles. As a result, the accumulated potential of scientific research has been largely spent. The gap between the generations is growing due to the discontinuity in obtaining practical and scientific knowledge.
The twentieth century was defined as the golden age of science and technology. And today science is one of the most important national treasures of any state. The level of its potential is the foundation for sustainable development. This is an axiom. A country that does not conduct scientific research, is not developing and introducing new technologies into the economy, risks losing its independence. In the same China, the goal of scientific and technological development before the 2020 year is defined as the construction of a state oriented towards innovation. Timing and indicators for achieving this goal are clearly marked:
In 1995, Russia and China had roughly the same starting conditions. Almost equal - on the order of 1,5 trillion dollars - gross products. Now China’s GDP is about nine trillion dollars, Russia is just over two trillion.
Today we have adopted a number of serious program documents aimed at developing the economy, business, and private state partnership. Unfortunately, they do not sufficiently take into account those negative changes, primarily of a qualitative nature, that have occurred and continue to occur in the country's economy. The analysis and forecast of the development of domestic science are not taken into account in detail. Moreover, judgments about the lagging of Russian science from the world science are being thrown into society, proposals to stop our research and development at all and to use the achievements of world science. Or develop natural resources using the best foreign technologies.
Such reasoning, as well as relevant advice from abroad, contributes to further reducing the scientific and technical potential, turning Russia into a raw materials appendage of developed countries. Who is responsible for the unsatisfactory innovative development of our country? Many believe that science. However, foreign business shows keen interest in Russian science and our scientists, including young ones, actively inviting the best graduates of Russian universities to work in leading foreign corporations. Domestic entrepreneurs to them, unfortunately, are indifferent.
The goal of science, especially applied science, is the solution of the tasks constantly arising before it for the development of new scientific and practical knowledge. And the goal of business in Russia is to get the maximum profit in the shortest possible time with minimal risks. How do these goals relate to each other and the innovative development of science?
Independence of scientific thought
China began economic reform in 1978. Then, with some skepticism, we watched as the Chinese tried to increase the volume of smelted metal in semi-hand-made blast furnaces, struggled with sparrows ... It all seemed rather ridiculous. But today in the Chinese economy everything is liberalized, the market volume is much higher than ours, and the reforms are permanent. In Russia, under the Gaidar government, in less than two years, they turned to market relations, which were based, in my opinion, only on price increases. This led to the gangster capitalized market.
The Chinese consistently go to their dream. By 2020, the creation of a small welfare society. To 2030-th - society of universal prosperity. To 2050-th - society welfare. We should not blindly copy their path, but it is possible and necessary to learn from their experience.
The development and creation of an innovative economy in Russia requires tight, clear consolidation of the efforts of all participants in the process - science and education, business and the state. In this case, the target setting for all participants should be as follows. The goal of science is to solve the problems of knowledge and obtaining new knowledge, including the creation of innovative resources for the implementation of innovations in Russia. The goal of the business is to obtain maximum profits based on innovations, to achieve the specific advantages of the country as a whole for the sake of the same profits. The purpose of the state is to create favorable conditions, including tax, for the first two participants. But the return from science will be possible only with its integration with education, which is extremely important during the transition of the Russian Federation to a new technological order. Only this will help create favorable conditions for high competitiveness in the global economy.
The role of the state in our time does not die off, but grows. It appears in a new quality and should adjust its attitude to the motivation of innovative activity (in terms of its activity and business responsibility). The state is called upon to motivate society, the economy and business to create know-how, to help commercialize production and consumption. In the USA, for example, the state budget provides 90 percent financing for industries such as materials science, bio- and nanotechnology, aviationspace. Such closely affiliated with the state structures as DARPA work for the same.
The country needs to actively create and own production of innovative products. The process of innovation development in Russia largely depends on the participation of the state in its organization.
When I was deputy secretary of the Security Council, we developed a draft Concept for the development of military science for the period up to 2020. The main version was prepared by the Ministry of Education. Its meaning was that everything would ruin the market. The role of the state, thus, was reduced to zero. As practice has shown, this is an erroneous approach. In no way should one rely solely on the independence and sufficiency of the business.
We need priority sustainable activities of the state to support all R & D and innovation, based on a well-established tax base of investments. A strong state should focus on controlling all participants in the innovation process, executing laws and its own obligations to finance research, widespread use of concessional lending, especially priority scientific research, and enhancing the role of material and moral incentives.
In Russia, science and high technology are provided and developed by talented scientists, designers, developers, engineers, highly skilled workers. But the age resources of the older generation are almost exhausted. Who will inherit their knowledge and experience? Can I catch up? The future of the country depends on the solution of these issues as well.
As the greatest Russian scientist, Academician Vladimir Vernadsky, said, a country that does not work independently in the field of scientific thought, but only assimilates education, someone else’s work, is a country of the dead. We need to do everything to preserve and develop the scientific potential of Russia - the most valuable wealth of the people.