Military Review

To be born Russian is too little ...

42
COAT AS DRAWNER ON


To be born Russian is too little ...

The hero of the Kulikovo battle, the son of the Lithuanian prince Koriat (Mikhail) Gediminovich - Dmitry Bobrok Volynsky, the voivode of the prince Dmitry Donskoy covered himself with military glory. Author: Victor Matorin


In 1569, the Lublin Union took place, uniting ON and the Kingdom of Poland (KP) into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth confederation. The new state had a territory of almost a million square kilometers. Its population numbered about 8 million. It was one of the most powerful states of medieval Europe.

The Russian kingdom in this period exceeded the Rzeczpospolita in territory only at the expense of Siberia, but in terms of population (5 million) and in terms of economic potential, it was significantly inferior to it. After all, the lands of the western Russian principalities, which became part of the Great Britain and the Commonwealth, were richer and more equipped than the lands of northeastern Russia.

Given this circumstance, as well as the fact that after the death of Ivan IV the Terrible Smoot reigned in Russia, aggravated by poor harvests of several years, Rzeczpospolita strengthened its expansion. It began with the fact that the Polish-Lithuanian magnates supported impostors to the Russian throne, acting under the name of a Falsmitter. The ancient coat of arms of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Carved coat of arms of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania


Carved coat of arms of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania


Well, in the summer of 1609, the Polish-Lithuanian army under the command of King Sigismund III invaded the Russian state, motivating it with the need to “establish peace and order”. It should be borne in mind that the Poles have always been convinced of their unconditional primacy among the Slavs, which allegedly gave them the right to play the role of "elder brother", ready to restore order on the lands of the "younger brothers".

In September of the same year, the army of Crown Hetman Lev Sapieha began the siege of Smolensk. In June, the 1610 th horse corps of the "winged hussars" of hetman Stefan Zolkiewski near Klushin utterly defeated the army sent by Tsar Vasily Shuisky to help Smolensk.

Taking advantage of this circumstance, the Seven-Boyars overthrew Shuisky and tonsured him as a monk. Then "Seven Boyars" and Patriarch Filaret signed a treaty with King Sigismund III and invited his son, King Vladislav, to the throne.

Further more. On the night of 21 on 22 of September 1610, the Polish-Lithuanian troops entered the Kremlin with the consent of the Moscow boyars. Poles and Lithuanians got a real opportunity to include the Russian kingdom in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and create the greatest empire in the world.

But ... Korolevich Vladislav was in no hurry to accept Orthodoxy. His father, Catholic King Sigismund, ruled Russia on his behalf. And service Poles and Litvins, or rather the Polish-Lithuanian gentry, entrenched in the Kremlin, created such “indecency” that they outraged not only Muscovites, but most of the inhabitants of the Russian land.

The nobility’s behavior was based on the conviction that only they are “political and civilized people” living according to democratic laws. True, it was a democracy only for the gentry class. Pushkin's contemporary, Russified nobleman Thaddeus Bulgarin (born Jan Tadeusz Krzysztof Bulgarin) wrote about the gentry democracy in the Commonwealth:

"In Poland, from the beginning of the centuries, they talked about freedom and equality, which no one actually enjoyed, only wealthy pans were completely independent from all authorities, but it was not liberty, but self-will ...

The gentry, lush and unenlightened, was always completely dependent on everyone who fed and watered it, and even entered the lowest positions of gentry and wealthy gentry, and patiently endured the beating - with the condition of being beaten not on bare ground , and on the carpet ...

The villagers were generally oppressed, and in Lithuania and Belarus their situation was much worse than the Negroes ... "

Russian gentry were considered not just cattle, but barbarous cattle, which should be “brought up” only with “fire and sword”. In fact, it was the “civilized” noblemen nobles who needed to be brought up with “fire and sword”.

The following facts indicate their behavior in the Kremlin. Polish-Lithuanian gentry looted and shattered the ancient churches of the Kremlin, despite the fact that there were icons of Jesus and the Virgin Mary, which the Roman Church also honored.

This happened at the beginning of their justification in the Kremlin. Moreover, these actions were not provoked by the armed resistance of the Russians. Well, when that started, the occupiers were not shy. In March, 1611, in response to the insurrection of Muscovites that began, the nobility burned down half of Moscow without any hesitation.

But the true essence of the gentry character manifested itself later when a famine began among the Polish-Lithuanian garrison blocked in the Kremlin. Eyewitnesses of events described scary pictures. In large vats lay dressed and salted human corpses.

The captured Lithuanian party Osip Buzila in his diary "History Dmitry Fake "wrote:" ... Lieutenant Truskovsky ate two of his sons, one haiduk ate his son too, one comrade ate his servant; in short, the father of the son, the son of the father did not spare ... whoever could, who was healthier than the other, he ate. ”

Recall that in the besieged Smolensk in 1609-1611. or in besieged Leningrad in 1941-1942. hunger was no less terrible, but it did not reach mass cannibalism. Nevertheless, the Poles still present their stay in the Kremlin as the great mission of familiarizing Asian Muscovy with the civilized world.

Speaking of Smolensk, it is impossible not to remember that when the 2 of June 1611, the Poles broke into the besieged city, a part of Smolensk, hiding in the Cathedral of the Virgin, performed a great feat: they blew themselves up together with the enemies. But a year later, retribution overtook the Poles.

October 26 1612 (old style) The second Russian militia led by Prince Dmitry Pozharsky and Nizhny Novgorod headman Kuzma Minin forced the Polish-Lithuanian garrison in the Kremlin to capitulate.

So the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, possessing at the beginning of the XVII century an incomparably more powerful economic and human potential than the Russian kingdom, missed the chance to become a great power, uniting the Polish, Lithuanian and Russian lands. But this does not prevent modern Polish politicians from presenting external forces and, above all, Russia, as the perpetrators of all Polish ills.



During its heyday, the GDL was the largest state in Europe, but the stakes on the Catholic West led it to death


I should add that the haughty-lordly attitude towards other peoples was preserved by the Polish gentry in the 20th century. In 1925, the well-known Polish publicist Adolf Nevchinsky stated on the pages of the Slovo newspaper that with Belarusians who rebelled against Polish oppression, they had to speak in the language of “hangers and only hangers” ... This will be the most correct resolution of the national issue in Western Belarus. The question arises. How long could a state exist in which the gallows were the main instrument for ensuring national harmony?

But back to the medieval Rzecz Pospolita. Analyzing its structure, one inevitably comes to the conclusion that this state was initially doomed to ruin. The main reason for this lurked in the Polish gentry, whose ranks joined the Litvinsky boyars.

By the XVII century, the famous gentry democracy in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth turned into anarchic freedom. And the principle of “liberum veto” (the right to a free ban or the requirement of unanimity in adopting laws in the Seimas) led to the actual paralysis of the authorities - as a result, practically no decision could take effect.

Any deputy could disrupt the meeting of the Seimas, or as the ambassador called him. For example, in the 1652 year, the gentry ambassador from the Upits povet of the Trok province was demanded to close the Sejm. Deputies without objection parted! 53 meetings of the Seimas (about 40%!) Of the Commonwealth ended in the same way.

The exorbitant arrogance of the Polish gentry and its contempt for the serfs and hamam, which the gentry considered all foreigners and heretics-Orthodox, made their contribution to the decline of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Such intolerance caused rejection among a large part of the population of the GDL, especially the Orthodox, which, after the Brest Union of 1596, turned out to be extremely disadvantaged.


ON, under the terms of the Union of Lublin, had to give way to the three richest southern provinces - Kiev, Volyn and Podolsk. Painting by Yana Moteiko


As a result, many looked with hope to Orthodox Muscovy, while the most resolute fled to the south, to the Zaporozhye region, which in the 16th century became the focus of Cossack freemen. There arose the Orthodox Zaporozhye Cossacks, which contributed to the decline of the Commonwealth.

It is known that for entry into the Army it was enough to properly baptize and speak Russian, no matter what dialect. Nikolai Gogol described this ritual most figuratively: “You believe in Christ? I believe! Do you drink vodka? Drink! Come cross! Truly a Christian soul, write it in the third smoking ... "

The Grand Duchy of Lithuania, following in the wake of the Kingdom of Poland, gradually became its junior partner, losing the remnants of its statehood. On the terms of the Union of Lublin, the Poles had to cede the three largest and richest southern voivodeships - Kiev, Volyn and Podolsk.

Poland was able to assign not only a part of the territory of the GDL, but also the history of the residence of this principality in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In many historical sources devoted to this state, Lithuanians are simply absent. All the iconic figures of the Speech, which had Lithuanian, Belarusian or Ukrainian origin, are presented as Poles. Even the motto “From sea to sea” was assigned. Meanwhile, it is known that it was the GDL lands that provided Poland with access to the Baltic and Black Seas in the framework of the Commonwealth.

There is no doubt that Moscow Rus was more acceptable for the majority of Orthodox Litvin, because it was spiritually close to them. Yes, and religious tolerance in Moscow Russia was incomparably higher than in the Commonwealth. Although the hand of the Moscow autocrats was hard, it frightened less than the unbridled pride and religious-national intolerance of the Polish-Lithuanian gentry. Apparently, this decided the victory of Moscow Russia, and then the Russian Empire in the confrontation with the Commonwealth.

RUSSIAN-LITHUANIAN AND LITHUANIAN-RUSSIAN PRINCES

It has already been said that the rise of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was largely due to Russian Orthodox men, including Rurikovich, who chose the Lithuanian principality as their Fatherland. Thus, it was documented that the Great Hetman of Lithuania, who had authority at the level of the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Prince Konstantin of Ostrog (1460-1530) led his pedigree from Prince Yaroslav the Wise of Kiev, that is, was Rurikovich.

Fame Ostrozhsky received as a commander who won the 33 battle, including the famous battle against the Moscow army near Orsha in September 1514. In the epitaph on his death, the monk of the Kiev-Pechersk Monastery Athanasius Kalnofsky (1638) called Ostrozhsky "Russian Scipio", although for Russia he was a Litvin.

Prince Ostrozhsky, as an Orthodox person, was buried in the main Orthodox shrine - the Assumption Cathedral of the Kiev-Pechersk Monastery. His son, the Kiev voivode Konstantin Konstantinovich, had the reputation of a defender of Orthodoxy in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and was captured on the monument "The Millennium of Russia".

I will cite another interesting fact. In 1512, the Grand Duchy of Moscow decided to return Smolensk, which fell under the authority of the GDL in 1404. The campaign was headed by the Moscow Prince Voivode Daniel Schenya, who took the city in July 1514 of the year. A little later, in September, the Lithuanian prince Konstantin of Ostrog attempted to return Smolensk under Lithuania. But unsuccessfully. This is the irony of fate.

Add to this the story of the famous Lithuanian hetman Jan Karol Chodkiewicz (1560-1621). He is known for his trips to Moscow during the Time of Troubles and the Polish-Lithuanian invasion. His ancestor was the Orthodox Kiev boyar Khodka (Fedor).

Grandson Khodky Grigory Alexandrovich Khodkevich (1505-1572), being the Great Hetman ON, in 1568, he set up a printing house at an Orthodox monastery in the town of Zabludovo. Moscow pioneer printers Ivan Fedorov and Peter Mstislavets continued their activities there. Well, the great-grandson of Walker, Jan Karol Chodkiewicz, is already remembered as an enemy of Russia.

It is known that Russian-Orthodox roots were the princely clans, whose representatives for centuries constituted the ruling elite of the Commonwealth. These are Vishnevetsky, Oginsky, Sapegi, Khodkevichi, Chartoryysky and the Counts of Tyshkevichi. Over time, they adopted Catholicism. Gentry liberties and brilliance of the courtyards of the yas-noble lords turned out to be more attractive to them than their grandfathers faith.

It should be recognized that the exchange process of the boyars was mutual. The power of Russia of Moscow also grew thanks to the nobility of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, who chose Moscow as a new homeland. An example of this in the XIII century gave the Lithuanian prince Nalshans Dovmont. He has a Grand Duke Mindovg publicly took his wife. Dovmont did not tolerate offense and joined the conspiracy of princes Tovtivil and Troinat, as a result of which Mindovg was killed in 1263 year.

Fearing revenge on the son of Mindovg Voyshelka, Dovmont, with his newfound wife and 300 families of his closest circle, went to Pskov in 1265. There he was baptized and adopted the Orthodox name Timofey.

The Pskov principality at that time was an outpost of Russian lands and was constantly subjected to attacks by the Danes and the Livonian knights. Dovmanta’s military talents were noticed by the Pskovs, and a year later he was elected prince of Pskov. Under his leadership, the Pskov successfully repelled raids by uninvited guests. To protect Pskov from enemy attacks, Dovmont reinforced it with a new stone wall, which until the 16th century was called Dovmont.

In the encyclopedia of Brockhaus and Efron it is noted that “not a single prince was so loved by Pskovites as Dovmont. He was very religious, judged the people right, did not give offense to the weak, helped the poor. " After the death of the Russian Church Dovmont canonized saints. His body was buried in the Pskov Trinity Cathedral. His sword and clothing are also stored there. Dovmont Pskov immortalized on the monument "Millennium of Russia".

In addition to Dovmont, some descendants of the Lithuanian prince Olgerd Gediminovich and his brothers Narimant Gediminovich and Yevnut Gediminovich chose the Grand Duchy of Moscow as their Fatherland. Their departure from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was caused by the policy of Prince Vitovt, who, in order to centralize the state, sought to eliminate the appanage princes. In addition, the decision to leave determined that the Orthodox Moscow Russia Gediminovich did not consider alien. Attitude to the Lithuanian princes in Moscow was more than welcoming.

The mass departure of the Orthodox Lithuanian gentry to the Moscow possessions began after Vitovt. This happened as a result of the aggravation of the conflict between the increasingly strong Catholic entourage of the Lithuanian grand dukes and the Orthodox Litvinsky nobility, whose rights were increasingly curtailed.

In Russia, the Gediminoviches became the second princely branch of nobility after Rurik. Practically all of them, being an important part of the Russian higher aristocracy, have played a prominent role in many events in the history of Russia since the 15th century.

The son of Lithuanian Prince Koriath (Mikhail) Gediminovich Dmitry Mikhailovich Bobrok Volynsky, voivode of Prince Dmitry Donskoy (died after 1389 of the year) covered himself with military glory.

In the 1379-1380 years, Prince Bobrok Volynsky successfully fought with Lithuania. But he distinguished himself in the battle on the Kulikovo Field (1380 year). There he commanded an ambush regiment and the successful timing of the attack decided this bloody battle in favor of the Russians.

The famous Russian commander of the times of Ivan III and Vasily III was the great-great-grandson of Narimunt Gediminovich, the previously mentioned prince-voivod Daniel Vasilevich Shchenya (tentatively 1440-1519). In 1493, he beat Vyazma away from the “Lithuanians”.

Later Schenya took an active part in the war with Lithuania for Chernihiv and Seversk lands (1500-1503). Then he struck the “Lithuanians” a sensitive defeat at Dorogobuzh. Then Shchen beat the knights of the Livonian Order. And, as already mentioned, he ensured the annexation of the Smolensk principality to Moscow. Schenya immortalized on the monument "Millennium of Russia".

The descendant of Gedimin's eldest grandson, Patrikey Narimantovich, was Field Marshal Mikhail Mikhailovich Golitsyn, an associate of Peter I, who distinguished himself in the war with the Swedes. He also attends the Millennium of Russia monument.

I should add that Patrikey Narimuntovich was the ancestor of the princely-boyar families of the Patrikevs, the Khovanskii, the Bulgakovs, the Schenatievs, the Kurakins, the Golitsins and the Koretskys. From the other Gediminas the families of Trubetskoy, Belsky, Volynsky and Mstislavsky went.

About the role played by the representatives of these clans, shows the history of the kind of princes Trubetskoy. They originate from the grandson of Gedimin, Dmitry Olgerdovich, a participant in the Battle of Kulikovo. It is known that Prince Dmitry Timofeevich Trubetskoy, a descendant of Dmitry Olgerdovich, was one of the leaders of the First People's Militia (1611), who tried to knock out the Polish-Lithuanian garrison from Moscow. He, before being elected in 1613, Mikhail Fedorovich, was the ruler of the Russian state.

For his work, Dmitry Trubetskoy received the title of “Savior of the Fatherland” and was one of the contenders for the royal throne at the Zemsky Cathedral 1613 of the year.

The fates of the Lithuanian-Russian and Russian-Lithuanian princely families listed above show how closely the fates of the Russians and Lithuanians were intertwined in the history of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Moscow principality. In this regard, it is not quite correct to assess the confrontation of historical personalities and, accordingly, the states headed by them at that time, based only on an ethnonational characteristic, as Lithuanian historians do. Wars then were fought not so much because of national discord, but for power and influence.


“To be born Russian is too little. They need to be. They need to become! ”Igor Severyanin


And often the warring were from the same family nest. But fate, as often happens, divorced them. Recall that the confrontation of the Tver and Moscow princes, who had common ancestors, was very long and was particularly brutal. It is known that Mikhail Yaroslavovich Tverskoy, twice (1305 and 1308), marched on Moscow, trying to take it under his arm. But I could not. In Moscow, then, Prince Yury Danilovich, a distant relative of the Prince of Tver, reigned.

The confrontation of these two Russian princes ended with the dismantling of the complaint of Moscow Prince Yuri Khan Uzbek in the Golden Horde. As a result, Prince of Tver Mikhail was executed. Two years later, the son of Mikhail Tversky, Dmitry the Terrible Ochi, filed a complaint against Yuri Moskovsky and won the right to kill him right in the Khan's tent. In those days, such bloody squabbles were not uncommon.

Concluding the topic ON, we can draw the following conclusions. The Russian Orthodox component in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was decisive, which makes it possible to evaluate the history of this state as an essential part of the history of Russia and Russia. With all the negativity that some Russian scholars often endow with VKL, it did a lot to make the population of the Russian principalities survive dashing times and later become an organic part of the Russian Empire.

Obviously, it was not by chance that the Lithuanian princes Gedimin, Olgerd, Keystut and Vitovt were immortalized at the monument “The Millennium of Russia”, opened on September 9, 8 by Alexander II in Novgorod the Great. It was a tribute of imperial Russia to the Grand Dukes of Lithuania for their contribution to the preservation of culture, identity and the peoples of the western Russian principalities.

It should be borne in mind that the Russian Empire repeated the experience of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, with “affection” absorbing new territories, new peoples and new beliefs into its borders. The new “blood” gave a new impetus to the development of Russia. And the indigenous peoples of Siberia and America still remember the good attitude of the Russian pioneers.

The American Indians in Alaska and in California still remain faithful to Orthodoxy, bear Russian names, and cherish the good memory of Russian settlers. Those respecting the customs and traditions of the American Aborigines taught them a lot.

Although it should be recognized that affection affection, and Moscow guns often fired, ensuring the accession of new territories. However, there were Russian features of this process. Thus, the descendants of the Siberian Khan Kuchum, with whom Yermak fought, in Russia began to be called the Siberian princes and were entered into the pedigree "Velvet Book" of the Russian nobility. They served the New Fatherland with zeal. The descendants of the leaders of the American Indians could not even dream of such a thing.

TO BE BORN TO RUSSIAN TOO LITTLE

Summing up the discourse on Russia the Great and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, it should be concluded. For any multinational state, and especially for the Russian Federation, death is like making one nation titular, the rest minor, one religion - the sovereign, the others - minor.

Today, when interethnic and religious strife has spilled onto the streets of cities in several countries of the world, attempts to reanimate the historical content of the terms “Great Russians” and “Great Russia” in the Russian Federation will inevitably lead to an increase in interethnic tension.

At the same time, it should not be forgotten that the Russians are the state-forming nation, which places special responsibility on them for the fate of Russia. But this does not indicate their exclusivity or birthright. They just have more responsibility.

In this regard, I once again want to note the importance of the term “Great Russia” proposed by Pavel Evdokimov, as a triune Russian people, uniting Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians, or rather, uniting all “Russians” of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. It is not by chance that the poet Igor Severyanin at the beginning of the twentieth century wrote: “To be born Russian is too little. They need to be. They need to become! "

The historical development of Russia / Russia also testifies in favor of the term “Great Russia”. In its territory over the past centuries, a truly Babylonian intermingling of nations and nationalities took place. In this regard, the pompous statement of some Russians that they are “Great Russians” brings a smile. I will mention several well-known surnames, whose representatives without hesitation can be referred to as genuine “Great Russians”. But…

This is the associate of Peter I, Count Boris Petrovich Sheremetev (1652-1719), the poet Gavrila Romanovich Derzhavin (1743-1816), the first first president of the Russian Academy of Sciences Ekaterina Romanovna Dashkova (1743-1810), the famous admiral Fedor Fyodorovich Ushkov, and the graduates of the Russian Academy of Sciences. historian and writer Nikolai Mikhailovich Karamzin (1744-1817), Chancellor Alexander Mikhailovich Gorchakov (1766-1826), writer Ivan Sergeevich Turgenev (1798-1883), writer Mikhail Afanasyevich Bulgakov (1818-1883). Their RUSSIANNESS, it would seem, no doubt.

However, it is little known that the founders of these Russians were the Golden Tatars. This is documented. For example, the aforementioned historian Karamzin was descended from the Crimean Tatar family of Kara-Murza. The writer Turgenev's ancestor was the Tatar murza Arslan Turgen, and the Bulgakov had the Horde khan Bulgak.

I should add that the Russian nobility Suvorov, Apraksins, Davydovs, Yusupovs, Arakcheevs, Golenishchevs-Kutuzovs, Bibikovs, Chirikovs came out of the family of Khan Berke, brother of Baty. By the end of the 20th century, there were approximately 70 thousand nobles in Russia with Tatar roots.

Tatar ancestors were Russian scientists Mendeleev, Mechnikov, Pavlov, Timiryazev, researchers of the North Chelyuskin and Chirikov, composers Scriabin and Taneyev. What should they count? The story gave an unequivocal answer to this question. They are great RUSSIANS and have always recognized themselves as Russians, while knowing and proud of their ancestry.

Great Russian steel and people from other nations. We all know the great Russian poet Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin. He is remarkable not only for his literary works, but also a huge contribution to the formation of the modern Russian language. Meanwhile, Alexander Sergeevich's great-grandfather was “arap Peter the Great,” an Ethiopian Abram Petrovich Hannibal.

Vladimir Ivanovich Dal made a no less significant contribution to the formation of the modern Russian language. In 1880, he published the Explanatory Dictionary of the Living Great Russian Language. This dictionary is still in demand. Dahl's father was a Dane, Johan van Dahl, and her mother, a Frenchwoman, Maria Freytag.

Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov's ancestor was the famous Scot Lermont, about the exploits of which Walter Scott wrote a ballad. In the Soviet school, Russian writer Denis Ivanovich Fonvizin, the author of the famous Nedoroslya, was known to all. He was descended from a Livonian knightly family von Wiesen (German von Wiesen). But Pushkin said about him that he was "from Russian Pereruskie".

At the Kazan Cathedral in St. Petersburg there are two bronze figures - Michael Illarionovich Kutuzov and Mikhail Bogdanovich Barclay de Tolly. One is a representative of an ancient Russian noble family with Tatar roots, the other is of the same old Scottish family. Both are Russian commanders who made a huge contribution to the victory in the 1812 Patriotic War of the year.

It is impossible not to recall another Russian commander of Georgian origin, Pyotr Ivanovich Bagration. Napoleon considered him the best Russian general. The prince laid down his head after being fatally wounded at the Borodino field in 1812, giving his life for Russia.

Everyone from school has known the names of the Dane Vitus Bering, the Russified Germans Thaddeus Bellingshausen and Adam von Krusenstern. These mariners glorified Russia, defeating the oceans and discovering new lands. Today, the world's largest Russian sailing barque is named after Kruzenshtern.

The history of Russia testifies to the unique ability of the Russian people to attract foreigners to the service who can significantly accelerate the development of the country. Fedor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky called this ability "worldwide responsiveness."


The rebels were buried in the so-called Russian cemetery under the coat of arms of the USSR. Texel Island, Norway


Let me give a few names of our contemporaries. Russian people in spirit, but ethnically not completely Russian. The Russians well remember the untimely deceased Russian General Lev Rokhlin, whose whole life was a vivid example of serving Russia. His father was a Jew. The ballet dancer Nikolai Tsiskaridze, twice laureate of the Russian award, is known for his struggle for the purity of Russian culture. His parents are Georgians. Well, about Elena Isinbayeva can not speak. It glorifies Russia not only with its sporting achievements. For many in the world, it is the standard of Russian femininity and morality. Her father is Dagestan, her mother is Russian.

The list of Russian “foreigners” who have made and are making a great contribution to the prosperity of Russia could be continued. But it is too extensive. I will only add that "foreigners" in Russia have always been divided into two categories. Those who knew how and wanted to work for the good of Russia, and those about whom Lermontov wrote: "Laughing, he defiantly despised the lands of a foreign language and manners."

Unfortunately, recently the dominance of the latter has been observed in Russia. Accordingly, there is a revival of Russian ethnic nationalists, who believe that people should be assessed not so much by their deeds and attitudes toward the Fatherland, as by the purity of their blood. This is a dead-end approach for Russia, and Pavel Evdokimov’s article “From the Russian Federation to Great Russia” debunks it.

In this regard, a few words about yourself. In Lithuania, for the protection of the rights of Russians (Russians there are considered to be all Russian speakers), I face life imprisonment. According to Lithuanian prosecutors, the correspondence court on this matter will take place next year. However, if we proceed from the logic of some Russian nationalists, in Lithuania I had to take the position of an outside observer.

After all, I am only a mother (Voronezh peasant) Logunova Maria Ivanovna purebred Russian. And on the line of my father - the Swede Nikolai Andreevich - in my ancestors are listed: Greek Varvara, Zaporizhzhya Kozak Vasily Gruntenko, Polka Anna Khrenovska and an unknown Swede who gave our family a surname.

Therefore, I once again want to note the importance of the thought set forth in the article by Pavel Evdokimov. He emphasizes that the Russians are “all who consider themselves RUSSIANS”. This conclusion is of conceptual significance for the formation of modern Russian policy with regard to the “Russians” in the broad sense of the word.

In conclusion, I cannot fail to state one more fact. 7 May 2008, the newspaper "Arguments and Facts" published an article entitled "And then we were all" Russian. " It described how from April 5 to 20 in May 1945 of the year on the Dutch island of Texel there was an uprising of Georgian prisoners of war of Georgian nationality.

The locals called these prisoners "Russians." It is significant that the Georgians chose the Russian words “Happy Birthday!” As the password for the uprising. "Russian" Georgians courageously fought with the Nazis. But the forces were unequal. Germans threw to the island Aviation and about five thousand soldiers of the Wehrmacht.

They did not take prisoners. They forced a hundred of captured Georgians to dig a grave, and then they shot them. Before their death, the Georgians in Russian sang the Internationale. Only 228 rebels survived. The rest are buried in the so-called Russian cemetery under the emblem of the USSR. The countries that, during the war years, not only rallied people of many nationalities, but raised them in a single system, as RUSSIAN, to the defense of the freedom and independence of the Soviet homeland. It is known that Joseph Stalin (Dzhugashvili) called himself "a Russian man of Georgian origin."

Russians should not forget the wonderful traditions of interethnic friendship that took place in the country of the Soviets. And to revive them in the new historical realities is the task of every true patriot of Russia.
Author:
Originator:
http://www.specnaz.ru/
42 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. And Us Rat
    And Us Rat 12 November 2013 08: 15
    15
    A good article, correct, sorry not everyone will understand it correctly. recourse
    1. Nicholas C.
      Nicholas C. 12 November 2013 08: 58
      +4
      Yes, the author began for health and the article even began to like. Just to write such articles, you need to have more knowledge. Then you will not like your enemies to call your country Muscovy. Do not know the sources of that time as the same Europeans called our country then?

      And what is the illustration from a falsified map. Okay with the complexes of 140 years old ukrov and the southern border of Lithuania. But, after all, back in 000, when "standing on the Ugra", the border with Lithuania passed along the Ugra and Zhizdra. It's common knowledge. Or read which principalities were called Verkhovsky so that their image on the "map" does not offend your intellect. There is an educational program here: dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/ruwiki/1480
      The map is not falsified: www.hist-geo.net/media/blogs/blog/BRE/Verh_kn-va_BRE.jpg

      Well, he was outraged by the frank tolerastic nonsense about "a native of other nations" of our entire Pushkin. Pushkin is a 600-year-old nobleman, his chronicle ancestor Ratsha still served Alexander Nevsky and beat the Swedes. And the maternal great-grandfather does not make him any "descendant". At least read Pushkin himself ("My pedigree") www.pushkiniada.ru/tekst/535.html
      1. Marek Rozny
        Marek Rozny 12 November 2013 11: 29
        +1
        Quote: Nikolai S.
        Well, he was outraged by the frank tolerastic nonsense about "a native of other nations" of our entire Pushkin. Pushkin is a 600-year-old nobleman, his chronicle ancestor Ratsha still served Alexander Nevsky and beat the Swedes. And the maternal great-grandfather does not make him any "descendant". At least read Pushkin himself

        Sorry, have you read it yourself? Pushkin deduces his ancestor Ratsha from the Germans. Whatever one may say, but all the same it turns out that he is a descendant of "natives".
        1. Nicholas C.
          Nicholas C. 12 November 2013 12: 43
          0
          Quote: Marek Rozny
          Pushkin leads his ancestor Ratschu from the Germans.

          Without reference, such a false statement. The topic is disclosed in detail here, the Pushkins did not "deduce" the Ratsha from the Germans: Yuri Vitalievich Konovalov "ABOUT THE ANCIENT ANCESTORS OF AS PUSHKIN" uiro.narod.ru/rodoved4/04_05.htm
          1. Marek Rozny
            Marek Rozny 12 November 2013 13: 15
            +2
            Quote: Nikolai S.
            Without reference, such a false statement. The topic is disclosed in detail here, Pushkin's Ratsha were not "taken out" of the Germans


            Pushkin A. S. "The beginning of an autobiography" // Pushkin A.S. Complete Works: In 10 vols .-- L.: Science. Leningra. Department, 1977-1979.
            T. 8. Autobiographical and historical prose. History of Pugachev. Notes by Moro de Braz. - 1978. - S. 55-59.

            "BEGIN AUTOBIOGRAPHY

            We descend from the Prussian native of Radshi or Rachi (her husband is honest, says the chronicler, i.e., a noble, noble), who left for Russia during the reign of St. Alexander Yaroslavich Nevsky ...
            ... My mother's pedigree is even more curious. Her grandfather was a Negro, the son of a sovereign prince. The Russian envoy in Constantinople somehow got him from the seraglio, where he was being held as an amanat, and sent him to Peter the Great, along with two other Arapchat. The sovereign baptized little Ibrahim in Vilna, in 1707, with the Polish queen, wife of Augustus, and gave him the surname Hanibal. In baptism he was named Peter; but as he cried and did not want to bear a new name, he was called Abram until his death. His elder brother came to Petersburg, offering a ransom for him. But Peter kept his godson with him ... "

            "Velvet Book" in the eighteenth century she wrote:
            "Ratsha came from Nemets, and Ratsha has a son Yakun. And Yakun has a son, Alex. And Alex has a son, Gavrila Aleksich. And Gavrila has children: Ivan Morkhinya ..."
            1. Nicholas C.
              Nicholas C. 12 November 2013 13: 36
              +5
              You still can't calm down. Where is there about that, Pushkin "took" Ratsha out of the Germans? Regarding all of the above, incl. on the "Velvet Book", chewed on my ALREADY given link above.

              "The Pushkins [considered Ratsha] - a descendant of the Baltic Slovenes, a native of Prussia [8]."

              "information from the genealogy about the arrival of Ratsha to Alexander Nevsky contradicts the news of the chronicle that his great-grandson Gavrila Oleksich served the same Alexander Nevsky, and even in the initial period of the prince's activity. To resolve this chronological discrepancy, P. N. Petrov identified Ratsha with the boyar Ratsha , known from the chronicles in 1146 [15], that is, he neglected the biographical information of the genealogy about Ratsh. The anachronism of information about Ratsh and Gavril Aleksich is not the only contradiction of sources regarding the family in question. "
              1. Marek Rozny
                Marek Rozny 12 November 2013 17: 51
                -2
                Quote: Nikolai S.
                Still, do not calm down.

                Try to calm down.
                Quote: Nikolai S.
                Where is there about that, Pushkin "took" Ratsha out of the Germans?

                Pushkin writes in his own autobiography: "We trace our lineage from Prussian a native of Radsha or Racha (an honest husband, says the chronicler, that is, a noble, noble), who left for Russia during the principality of St. Alexander Yaroslavich Nevsky ... "
                And just do not remember any lyutiches or polabs, trying to prove that "a Prussian native" supposedly meant "a Slavic native" in the mouth of Pushkin.
                Quote: Nikolai S.
                "The Pushkins [considered Ratsha] - a descendant of the Baltic Slovenes, a native of Prussia
                Question - Who exactly from the Pushkins considered Ratsha a descendant of the Baltic Slovenia? Where did Comrade Veselovsky come up with? Personally, I don’t know any evidence where the Pushkins talked about some words. I know that they said that it was not from Prussia, but from Germany itself, but there was never a word about the word.
                And since when are the Prussians - Slavs (Slovenes)? These are the Balts, who later became Germanized. If Ratsha had been a Slav, no one in Russia would have thought of calling him a "German"!
                Quote: Nikolai S.
                "information from the genealogy about the arrival of Ratsha to Alexander Nevsky contradicts the news of the chronicle that his great-grandson Gavrila Oleksich served the same Alexander Nevsky, and even in the initial period of the prince's activity. To resolve this chronological discrepancy, P. N. Petrov identified Ratsha with the boyar Ratsha , known from the chronicles in 1146 [15], that is, he neglected the biographical information of the genealogy about Ratsh. The anachronism of information about Ratsh and Gavril Aleksich is not the only contradiction of sources regarding the family in question. "

                And then you read your text? There, the author says that the information that Gavrila Aleksich is a descendant of Ratsha is incorrect in the root. The descendant of Ratsha was another Gavrila - Gavrila Kyyaninovich. And in conclusion, the author says that Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin was right when he said that his ancestor Ratsha was a contemporary of Alexander Nevsky.
                The author is wrong only in that he called the Prussians - Slavs. These are BALTS, they are related to modern Latvians and Lithuanians, who are not Slavs, essno.
                Let me summarize again: 1) Pushkin himself claimed that Ratsha was a Prussian; 2) Russian noble books asserted that Ratsha was "German"; 3) The Prussians are not the "Baltic Slavs", but the "Balts".
                1. Nicholas C.
                  Nicholas C. 12 November 2013 20: 51
                  +2
                  You have obvious problems with the Russian language, you misinterpret it for the sake of your demagoguery. "From Prussia" in Russian does not at all mean that a person is Prussian by nationality. And comrade Veselovsky did not "invent", but wrote a proof book, to which the link is given. If you are not able to read it, then moderate your aplomb.

                  Quote: Marek Rozny
                  The descendant of Ratsha was another Gavrila - Gavrila Kyyaninovich

                  Why are you lying again. The author writes: "Only Gavrila can be considered the first reliable ancestor of the Pushkins." Moreover, Ratsha "from Nemets" is a contemporary of Gavrila, and not a great-grandfather as in the genealogy. The great-grandfather could have been another - from the chronicle of 1146 (obviously, not "from the German").

                  Do not bother with the answer. I really do not like to correct direct lies.
                2. projdoha
                  projdoha 12 November 2013 23: 06
                  +1
                  what nonsense, 12 centuries ago Prussia was inhabited by Slavic peoples and individual tribes of the "Balts", archaeological excavations confirm this. In connection with the brutal expansion of the West Europeans, the peoples moved east. Therefore, a thousand years ago, Prussia is the same Estonia 700 years ago or today's Pskov ..
                3. Selevc
                  Selevc 12 November 2013 23: 24
                  +1
                  Quote: Marek Rozny
                  And since when have the Prussians been Slavs? These are the Balts, who later became Germanized.

                  Well, you came up with some mysterious Balts ... And how do you like the purely Baltic names of their rulers? Vartislav, Ratibor, Sobeslav, Vitoslava, Miroslav - for some reason I do not observe at all any roots related to modern Baltic names !!! And who then do you think lived in Prussia, Polabia and Pomerania before the Germans colonized it if not the Western Slavs? And even now, some of the names of cities in eastern Germany are Slavic and not German roots - for example, Lubeck, Rostock, Varin, Wolin, etc.
                  Quote for the untrusted
                  Luzhichans, Lužice Serbs (German Sorben, N.-puddle. Serby, V.-puddle. Serbja, N.-puddle. Serbski lud, V.-puddle. Serbski lud), Sorbes, Wends, Lugia - Slavic ethnic group. The remainder of the non-assimilated Slavic population of eastern Germany currently reside on the territory of the Puddles, a historical region that is part of modern Germany. The puddle is divided into Lower Puddle (Dolna Łužyca, Niederlausitz) - in the north, in the federal state of Brandenburg, and Upper Puddle (Hornja Łužica, Oberlausitz) - in the south, in the federal state of Saxony. The last surviving ethnic community of the Slavs of Germany, whose representatives use the Slavic language.
                  This is perhaps the last remnant of the Western Slavs in Germany miraculously survived from Germanization ...
                  1. Selevc
                    Selevc 12 November 2013 23: 55
                    +1
                    It was in the 18th century under Catherine the 2nd that a historical tale appeared about how noble Varangians-Swedes colonized barbarians-Russians !!! And the German scientists came up with this at the Russian court - because the tsars liked this version because they themselves had strong German roots ... And by the way, I think that Lomonosov was just struggling with this - but he didn’t achieve much success because he was against power !!!
                    1. Alibekulu
                      Alibekulu 13 November 2013 16: 13
                      +1
                      Quote: Selevc
                      It was in the 18 century under Catherine the 2 that a historical tale appeared about how noble Varangians-Swedes colonized barbarians-Russians !!!
                      Well, like the Russians, the identities themselves distinguished themselves in this field - they launched a tale about how noble Russians broke into villages and villages and just what they did, they built schools, universities and cities in Central Asia wink
      2. GastaClaus69
        GastaClaus69 12 November 2013 15: 02
        +1
        Quote: Nikolai S.
        Then you will not like your enemies to call your country Muscovy.

        On a map of Delineatio generalis Camporum Desertorum vulgo Ukraina made by Dutchman William Gondius in 1648. according to the records of the Frenchman Guillaume de Beauplan (did the Dutch and French then beat Russia's worst enemies?) Russian lands are designated as Magni Ducatus Moscovie Pars.
    2. Very old
      Very old 14 November 2013 22: 38
      -1
      I agree. I accept. Tomorrow I will print and save.
  2. Rambiaka
    Rambiaka 12 November 2013 08: 19
    +9
    No one forgets anything, unlike our neighbors near and far. And those who want to live side by side with the Russians, do not forget - our monastery has its own charter! Please respect, but you will be respected!
  3. air wolf
    air wolf 12 November 2013 08: 23
    -9
    It is necessary to raise the issue of paganism, it is time to accept the true faith of the Slavs!
    1. Andrey57
      Andrey57 12 November 2013 12: 55
      -3
      The true faith of the Slavs was Orthodoxy - they glorified Prav, and the name "Orthodox" was added to the new Christian church of the Eastern rite already in Soviet times, before the revolution of 1917 the term "Orthodox" was not in the name of the church. On the face of a typical substitution of concepts, for the destruction of the memory of the people of the original concept of "Orthodoxy" hi
      1. GastaClaus69
        GastaClaus69 12 November 2013 22: 38
        0
        Perun and Horse are indignant!
        1. Andrey57
          Andrey57 13 November 2013 11: 48
          0
          in the Russian Empire there was no Russian Orthodox Church. The Christian church existed under a different name - "Russian Greek-Catholic Church." Or as it was also called "Russian Orthodox Church of the Greek Rite." A Christian church called the Russian Orthodox Church appeared during the rule of the Bolsheviks. At the beginning of 1945, by decree of Joseph Stalin, a local cathedral of the Russian church was held in Moscow under the leadership of senior officials from the USSR State Security, and a new patriarch of Moscow and All Russia was elected. It should be noted that many Christian priests who did not recognize the power of the Bolsheviks left Russia and continue to profess Eastern Rite Christianity abroad and call their church nothing more than the Russian Ortodox Church or the Russian Orthodox Church.

          In order to finally move away from a well-created historical myth and find out what the word Orthodoxy really meant in ancient times, we turn to those people who still keep the old faith of their ancestors.

          “Having received their education in Soviet times, these learned men either do not know or are carefully trying to hide from ordinary people that even in ancient times, long before the birth of Christianity, Slavic lands had Orthodoxy. It covered not only the basic concept when our wise ancestors praised the rule, i.e. world of ancient Slavic gods. The deep essence of Orthodoxy was much larger and more voluminous than it seems today. The figurative meaning of this word also included concepts when our ancestors praised the Law. But this was not Roman law and Greek, but ours, our native Slavic. It included the Family Law, based on the ancient traditions of culture, the horses and foundations of the Family; Community law, creating mutual understanding between different Slavic clans living together in one small settlement; Mop law which regulated the interaction between communities living in large settlements, which were cities; Weighted law, which determined the relationship between communities living in different cities and settlements within the same Vesy, i.e. within the same area of ​​settlement and residence; Evening law, which was adopted at a general gathering of the whole people and was observed by all kinds of the Slavic community. Any Law from the Family to the Vechevy was arranged on the basis of the ancient Konov, culture and foundations of the Family, as well as on the basis of the commandments of the ancient Slavic gods and the instructions of their ancestors. It was ours, native Slavic Law. Our wise ancestors have commanded to preserve it, and we preserve it. Since ancient times, our ancestors praised the Right and we continue to praise the right, and we keep our Slavic Law and pass it from generation to generation. Therefore, we and our ancestors were, are and will be Orthodox.

          Perun and Horse, as well as other Slavic gods, have no cause for indignation.
          And the term "Orthodoxy" itself was replaced by the term "Orthodoxy" by Nikon during the church reform in the 17th century, and this served as a split, since the introduction of this term was considered by the Old Believers to indulge in "paganism".

          here is a link to a more detailed description:
          http://www.revers-sun.fi/russko-slavyanskoe_rodnoverie/kak_poyavlyalis_istoriche

          skie_mifi__quotpravoslaviequot.html
  4. Prapor Afonya
    Prapor Afonya 12 November 2013 08: 42
    +4
    It is not enough to be born Russian-Russian!
  5. The comment was deleted.
  6. makarov
    makarov 12 November 2013 08: 50
    +8
    Probably, the author of the material should have begun the story from 1410, because it was then that the Battle of Grunwald took place, and Poland survived thanks to the stamina and courage of the 3 Smolensk regiments, the soldiers of which almost all died, but fulfilled their military duty.
    1. Marek Rozny
      Marek Rozny 12 November 2013 11: 35
      +1
      In the battle of Grunwald on the side of Poland and the Litvinians were, and the Crimean Tatars (cavalry Jalal-ad-Din). And all showed themselves perfectly on their battlefield.
      By the way, I don’t know if there is a monument to the people of Smolensk in Poland, but the Poles erected a monument to the "Tatar wars" in honor of the anniversary of the Battle of Grunwald several years ago. The President of Poland opened it personally. This monument is not only to the cavalry of Jalal-ad-Din, but also to all the other natives of the Horde who served in the Polish army until modern times. The last Polish "Tatar squadrons" were killed in battles with the Germans in the fall of 1939.
      1. smile
        smile 12 November 2013 12: 19
        +8
        Marek Rozny
        Poles have no monument to Smolensk residents. I declare responsibly. Monuments to Russians are intolerant. And in general, all the Polish troubles from the Russians, they didn’t want to, you see, they were polonized ... :))) The exception was only Soviet monuments that still remained. And that is regularly defiled.
        1. Marek Rozny
          Marek Rozny 12 November 2013 18: 39
          +3
          Well, about the "love" of the Poles with the Russians is understandable. But the monument to the "Tatar Wars" not only for the contribution to the Battle of Grunwald (although timed to coincide with the anniversary of this battle), but also for all subsequent wars in which the Turkic nomads fought for Poland. Therefore, there is a "Tatar" in the uniform of a rider of the 13th Ulan Tatar regiment of the Vilna Ulan division of the Polish army during the 1920-1930s.
          If Smolensk people had been fighting for Poland for centuries, maybe they would also have erected a monument to them.

          Unlike the gentry, Cossacks and mercenaries, the "Tatars" always remained loyal to the Polish king and never retreated in battle. The Poles' respect for the former Horde was so strong that they never tried to convert them to Catholicism, allowing them to freely practice Islam.
          And here are excerpts from the speech of the Polish President Komorowski at the opening of the monument:
          “I myself came here at the call of my heart. I sincerely wanted to be present at the unveiling of the monument to the Polish Tatar in order to express deep gratitude to many generations of Polish Tatars who, loyally loving Poland, have faithfully served it for 600 years. Commonwealth ...
          ... The Battle of Grunwald opens the book of their laudatory deeds, and this should be recalled today. Then they fought in the Lithuanian forces. ... There was no such enemy of the Commonwealth, on which they would not have tested the strength of their weapons, defending their homeland. ... Without the Polish Tatars there would have been no glorious victory in the Battle of Vienna, for which King John III Sobesski especially loved them, revered by the Polish Tatars themselves.
          Hot Tatar blood was shed in all, starting with Kostyushkovsky, national uprisings. It also absorbed into the foundations of the Polish state revived in 1918, the second Commonwealth ... Polish Tatars ... fought on all fronts of the Second World War: from the September battles of 1939 to Monte Cassino. Everyone who has visited the cemetery in Monte Cassino can visit the graves of those who faithfully served Poland to the end. He will also find the graves of Polish Muslims, soldiers devoted to the last ... "

          ZY "Arrogant" Poles sincerely thanked the Turks for their military service. And in Russia there are monuments to the steppe inhabitants who, since the time of Ivan the Terrible, have faithfully served the Russian state? I know the answer. But I think it would be nice and fair if such a monument appeared in Russia.
          1. Anatole Klim
            Anatole Klim 12 November 2013 19: 28
            +2
            Quote: Marek Rozny
            Turkic nomads fought for Poland.

            Will they also erect a monument to the Ukrainians, Belarusians, Lithuanians, or did they not selflessly fight for Poland? By the way, the "steppe inhabitants", unlike Poland, are a state-forming nation in Russia and there are many monuments to the great Tatar leaders.
          2. Lopatov
            Lopatov 12 November 2013 19: 45
            +5
            Did the Poles thank the Tatars for helping them lose Ukraine?

            Once again I was convinced that the profession of a politician is akin to the profession of a prostitute.

            Quote: Marek Rozny
            And in Russia there are monuments to the steppes who, since the time of Ivan the Terrible, faithfully served the Russian state? I know the answer.

            Is there a monument to Russians in Russia? Do you know the answer too, or suggest?
          3. smile
            smile 12 November 2013 22: 02
            +3
            Marek Rozny
            So what do I dispute? No, that's right, the Tatars often acted together with the Poles, and you gave a good example.
            If the Poles didn’t destroy the Russians, didn’t try to make enemies from the bottom, didn’t try to destroy their religion, the population of the lands that were previously captured by the Poles would not break free, and if the Poles did not try to enslave the rest of Russia, then the Smolensk could be part of Poland, and Poland would have kept statehood ... but alas, the Poles could not, otherwise they would cease to be Poles. They themselves pushed away from themselves the population of the captured Russian lands.
            Therefore, choosing the path - an attempt to enslave the Russians, the Poles signed a death sentence to all their ambitions ... and the state at the same time .... :)))
        2. Corsair
          Corsair 12 November 2013 23: 12
          +2
          Quote: smile
          Poles have no monument to Smolensk residents. I declare responsibly. Monuments to Russians are intolerant. And in general, all the Polish troubles from the Russians, they didn’t want to, you see, they were polonized ... :))) The exception was only Soviet monuments that still remained. And that is regularly defiled.
          The Ambassador of the Republic of Poland has been summoned to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation for explanations regarding the unrest at the building of the Russian Embassy in Warsaw.
          ITAR - TASS.

          Clickable Image:
          1. Corsair
            Corsair 12 November 2013 23: 23
            +1
            How many openly anti-Polish films have been shot in Russia?
            Translation for a poster, I think it’s not necessary ...

            Clickable Image:
  7. tank64rus
    tank64rus 12 November 2013 08: 56
    0
    There is strength in unity. The Americans understood this while helping the degenerated "elite" to destroy the USSR. And the common people realized late that they had been pushed into the abyss.
  8. Neo1982
    Neo1982 12 November 2013 09: 06
    0
    Fedorov about the national question and foreign occupation:
  9. The comment was deleted.
  10. predator.3
    predator.3 12 November 2013 10: 02
    +3
    In the 1379-1380 years, Prince Bobrok Volynsky successfully fought with Lithuania. But he distinguished himself in the battle on the Kulikovo Field (1380 year). There he commanded an ambush regiment and the successful timing of the attack decided this bloody battle in favor of the Russians.


    And D.M.Bobrok-Volynsky died in 1399 in another battle against the Horde - in the battle on the Vorskla River, where Edigey defeated Vytautas.
  11. mountain
    mountain 12 November 2013 10: 47
    +3
    Thank you, thank you and thank you very much again. It is such articles that raise a patriotic spirit in me.
    I also doubt my origin, but what I'm sure of is that I'm Russian, I'm Russian.
    You can answer some of the above statements.
    But I will not do this, so as not to spoil my mood.
  12. alebor
    alebor 12 November 2013 11: 04
    +8
    It is always surprising why we have so many people who want to prove that there are no Russians as such, but there is some kind of amorphous ethnic mixture? Why don't the same people say the same about Germans or Italians or Turks, Uzbeks or any other people? There, if you look, you can find no less "impurities".
    It makes no sense to go into the depths of the centuries and seek out from the Russian people some distant non-Russian ancestor, lost in the centuries - a Tatar, a Varangian or even a Cro-Magnon. If we proceed from the modern evolutionary theory of the origin of man, we all had common ancestors, who once emerged in small numbers from Africa, even it is said about a certain "mitochondrial African Eve" - ​​the genetic foremother of all mankind. If we proceed from the Biblical tradition, all peoples have ancestors - Adam and Eve. So whatever one may say, if you plunge into the distant and very distant past, it turns out that all people are relatives. "All men are brothers." But does it follow from this that there are no separate peoples, with their own languages, cultures, histories, mentality, and even with their own external appearance - characteristic racial features? No, you shouldn't. The presence of their own culture, language, mentality speaks of the isolation of the people, their difference from another, that they developed and formed separately. For centuries, people communicated and interacted within their group, resulting in a single language and culture. And the racial characteristics of the people, which outwardly distinguish it from other peoples, indicate that they got married and got married also among their own group, and therefore, about a much greater genetic similarity among their own compared to strangers. If it were not so, there would be one language and one race on Earth.
    1. erg
      erg 12 November 2013 11: 40
      +8
      Well, firstly, no one except some originals says that Russian does not exist as such. It has always been emphasized that the Russian nation (or nationality) was formed by mixing several nationalities, but the Slavs played a key role. That is, the Slavic tribes served as the basis, but they accepted and dissolved in themselves parts of other peoples. Therefore, the terms Slavic and Russian can be considered synonymous. As for other peoples, in particular about the Uzbeks it is always indicated that this people is a mixture of the indigenous inhabitants of Central Asia of the pre-Mongol period and the alien Mongol tribes, and their name is on behalf of the Mongolian prince Uzbek. The Turks represent the same mixture of peoples. The word Turks generally for a long time (and even now) meant residents of the Turkish state, and not nationality. The Germans and Italians generally do not consider themselves one nationality. Belonging to the same language group - yes, to the same state - yes, but they always emphasize the difference in the origin of the inhabitants of certain regions of these countries. So, the Bavarians still distance themselves from the Prussians (typical representatives of the Prussians are Berliners, even pronunciations among the inhabitants of Berlin are more harsh. Compare them - I am in German; look - in the Prussian dialect), and the inhabitants of Sicily are from residents of other regions of Italy. In Europe, in general, they like to emphasize their individuality, including at the national level. So the inhabitants of the south of France consider themselves descendants of the Gauls, and the north - the Franks and Germans. At the same time, southerners sincerely consider northerners invaders (like, we Gauls, we ourselves could create a great state, etc.)
      1. Marek Rozny
        Marek Rozny 12 November 2013 12: 14
        +2
        Quote: erg
        It has always been emphasized that the Russian nation (or nationality) was formed by mixing several nationalities, but the Slavs played a key role. That is, the Slavic tribes served as the basis, but they accepted and dissolved in themselves parts of other peoples.

        Everything is correct. Even the pre-revolutionary Russian historian Klyuchevsky in his "History of the Russian State" mentioned that the Great Russians consisted of 2/3 of a mixture of Slavs and Finno-Ugric peoples. He did not write anything about the remaining third, but these are the Russified Turks, and the Russified Caucasians, and the Russified Germans, and the Russified Jews.
        Quote: erg
        As for other peoples, in particular about the Uzbeks it is always indicated that this people is a mixture of the indigenous inhabitants of Central Asia of the pre-Mongol period and the newcomer Mongol tribes, and their name is on behalf of the Mongol prince Uzbek.

        Again, everything is correct. Although I would put the word "Mongolian" in quotation marks, since in reality they were Turkic tribes. There is not a single real Khalkha-Mongolian clan among the Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Turkmens, Tatars, Azerbaijanis.
        But all these nations were formed as a result of the mixing of multilingual peoples. UZbeks - Tajiks + Sarts (officialized Tajiks and settled Turks) + the Uzbeks themselves (Turkic nomads). Kazakhs are Indo-Iranian Scythian (Saka) nomads + Turkic nomads (there are also clans of Arab origin). Turkmens are Turkic nomads + Persians. Buryats - Mongolian tribes + Turkic-speaking Yenisei Kyrgyz.
        Quote: erg
        Bavarians still distance themselves from the Prussians
        When Bavaria joined the growing German Empire, the elector of that principality declared: "Wir wollen Teutsche sein, aber Bayern bleiben" ("We want to become Germans but remain Bavarians"). And he blurted out the word "Deutsche" as "Teutsche". And how many differences they have in language, cuisine, clothes and culture that I still wonder how they still manage to be considered one nationality.
        Quote: erg
        Compare - their - I am in German; look - in the Prussian dialect.
        "Ich lib dikh" (hoch-deutch), "Ish lib dish" (Bavarian dialect) and "Ik lib dir" (Berlin dialect).
        1. erg
          erg 12 November 2013 19: 17
          +2
          Maybe I’ve messed up something about dialects. But I remember that at school a German teacher said that the characteristic hissing pronunciation (see, eat) is typical of Berlin. Maybe she was wrong. By the way, in the topic of the article, the Russian language at my school from 4th to 7th grade was taught by a German by nationality, William Nelly Ottovna. It’s a straightforward joke that German teaches Russian, Russian - German.
          1. Marek Rozny
            Marek Rozny 13 November 2013 08: 24
            0
            It is not surprising to get confused in German dialects. There are a lot of them even within the same federal state. Also, German is very fluid, they change spelling rules regularly. For example, 20 years ago, they wrote Betttuch (cover), and now they have removed one letter t - Bettuch. "False letter S" (escet) is now allowed to be replaced by a double regular "ss", umlauts can be replaced by a double "ae", "ue", etc.
            As for the Berlin dialect, it regularly changes with them. Either under the influence of the Low German dialects, then under the influence of the High German.
            Berliners now say ik instead of ich. A hissing pronunciation is typical usually for southerners (Bavarians).
            In modern German, tuyeva is a lot of new borrowings from English. Even more than in Russian. Especially the speech of youth is clogged with Americanisms. And where to go if the cultural influence of the USA is now the strongest in the world.
        2. Pancho
          Pancho 12 November 2013 19: 50
          +1
          This is when they managed to participate in the formation of the Great Russian nation, the so-called Russified Caucasians, Jews, Germans, etc.? I consider this remark unwise. The aforementioned ended up on the territory of the Russian Empire in the 19th century, the Germans were 50 years earlier, and what, did they immediately mate with the Russians? Apparently you are a Pole, then everything is clear.
    2. SPAAARTAAA
      SPAAARTAAA 12 November 2013 14: 41
      +2
      alebor - fully join your words, a very accurate comment.
  13. The comment was deleted.
  14. Sergey Medvedev
    Sergey Medvedev 12 November 2013 11: 22
    0
    One-sided approach to the ethnic component of the Russian Civilization. The author stuck out all Russian people with non-Russian roots. And this is contrary to the Russian worldview. The Millennium of Russia monument does not divide people into Russians and non-Russians. But the Swede divides, drives a wedge. He never became Russian.
    1. Marek Rozny
      Marek Rozny 12 November 2013 11: 54
      -1
      Quote: Sergei Medvedev
      The author stuck out all Russian people with non-Russian roots.

      And where to go if the "immigrants" from non-Slavic peoples just really make up the lion's share of the great people of the Russian people? Russified, became Russian.
      The author talks about the uniqueness of the mentality of the Russian people, which allowed a person to become Russian, even if he was a descendant of Germans, Jews, Turks, Caucasians. To be Russian, it is not necessary to be born into a Slavic Russian family. It is enough to love Russia, the people of Russia (which is the main nation, the ethnic components of the Russian people) and glorify Russia with their labor and deeds.
      Well, if he was born a purebred Russian, but besides this fact, a person has nothing more to be proud of, then what kind of Russian is he? So simple ... Russian-language drone. Every citizen of Russia should make his country and his people better - only then he will be a real Russian (although you do not need to forget your ethnic roots).
      1. smile
        smile 12 November 2013 18: 31
        +3
        Marek Rozny
        May I correct your wording? You are wrong to say that "the" natives "of non-Slavic peoples simply really make up the lion's share of the great people of the Russian people."
        Your further words "Russified, became Russian", this your statement actually levels out, indeed, Russified.
        And what is this Russification?
        Let's look at my example. :)))
        Look, I don’t have a drop of Russian blood in me (even though I consider myself Russian :)))). My son is already half Russian.
        The grandson is likely to be Russian by three quarters. Although my last name is not going anywhere. :)))
        And if he becomes a great man (of which I, of course, am convinced, like every parent :)))), then what, you will also consider him a non-Slavic people? And then what to do with the "lion's share" of his Russian blood? :)))
        Maybe it would be fairer to consider him Russian, some of whose ancestors were of non-Slavic blood? :)))
        So those whom you call the lion's share are just Russian people, a small part of whose ancestors were non-Slavs.

        Although, of course, I believe that engaging in the calculation of blood shares is an utter nonsense, which only those who have nothing more to do .. :)))
      2. Pancho
        Pancho 12 November 2013 19: 59
        -1
        In short, if you are just a Russian guy, a worker there or a peasant, then you are a “Russian-speaking drone”, well, that’s not going into any gates. They don’t love you, Psheks. If someday a part is formed to conquer Poland I’ll be the first to sign up there.
  15. Marek Rozny
    Marek Rozny 12 November 2013 11: 38
    +2
    I did not know about the Dane of Dahl and the Jew Rokhlin. Suddenly. I always thought they were of Slavic origin.
  16. Humpty
    Humpty 12 November 2013 12: 06
    +1
    It’s good to be Russian, but hard.
  17. Minsk
    Minsk 12 November 2013 12: 16
    +2
    Yes, even if you are a Polish-Tatar-Jewish Mongol, but if you live on this earth, if your soul is clean and there is still room in your heart for kindness and faith in people, although the whole world will prove the opposite to you, if it’s ready to help for the hundredth time giving the stranger the last and not hearing words of gratitude in return just smile, you can safely consider yourself RUSSIAN!
    1. ytqnhfk
      ytqnhfk 12 November 2013 13: 21
      +3
      Russian - attitude to their land, ancestors, history! In our history there were many people who, until their last breath, lived in this country and died for it!
    2. smile
      smile 12 November 2013 18: 44
      +1
      Minsk
      By the way, if the "Polish-Tatar-Jew Mongol" you cited as an example lives in Israel, then, in my opinion, he will be considered a normal Jew there. :))) And nothing. In this regard, they are doing the right thing.
  18. faraon
    faraon 12 November 2013 12: 41
    +7
    I recalled a poem on this subject.
    I'm sitting on my suitcase and how the rocket is ready
    to start. In Russia I was a Jew, and here
    in Israel, the new Russian.
    This is what Russia has been a multinational state for centuries, so historically speaking and speaking with Russians as a separate ethnos is inappropriate, since there has been a constant mixing of blood over the centuries. It is most likely to say the population living in Russia who contributed to the defense, culture, education, brought up on the traditions of Russian national culture is called Russians, Russians, and all other fabrications are the machinations of the enemies of Russia, which would divide, sow discord between ra ethnic groups inhabiting Russia to capture and enslave. This is what happens in our time. But in the terrible years of the Second World War, there were Tatars and Uzbeks, Georgians and Armenians in the trenches. Most of them died for their homeland. And no one was divided into nations and on ethnic groups look at mass graves
  19. The polar
    The polar 12 November 2013 14: 54
    0
    I especially liked the Georgian uprising at the end of the war. Holland was already liberated, and 5 thousand soldiers are half a regiment where to get it for a punitive expedition, in addition to aviation. Apparently this is from Latynina Yu. She likes such fried facts
  20. Vitmir
    Vitmir 12 November 2013 16: 44
    +1
    About the Tsar of Muscovy Vasily Shuisky, the author forgot to write how the hetman Zholkevsky brought him to Warsaw, the humiliated tsar and his brothers were brought as prisoners to King Sigismund and swore allegiance to him on their knees, then died in prison in Gostyninsky Castle.
    1. smile
      smile 12 November 2013 18: 59
      +1
      Vitmir
      Well, Muscovites called us our enemies, the Poles who believed. that all of Russia is their slave corral, because the name you mentioned is incorrect.
      About knees ... yes, the Poles by that time forcibly Polonized the entire nobility of the ON - both Russians and Lithuanians, but sometimes they defeated us (in part, because otherwise we would simply have died), but they could never capture us completely, but themselves after the total defeats, we got so much cancer that they formed a victim complex from it, although we spared them and never behaved with them the way they behaved with ours.
      What is your addition to? To the fact that they destroyed the Russians when they were stronger, and we almonds when we cut off their raking legs, although we could wean them from the word Pole? How did the Germans do this to them?
      So we already know about it.
      1. Vitmir
        Vitmir 13 November 2013 14: 55
        -1
        Quote: smile
        Vitmir
        Well, our enemies, Poles called us Muscovites ...
        ... Poles by that time forcibly polonized the entire nobility of the ON - both Russians and Lithuanians

        You write nonsense, my French sorry, you don’t know your own or your closest neighbors ...
        Particularly delivers your unreasonable desire to equate Russia with Muscovy ... It is ridiculous to read ...
        And there is no desire to argue with this generally completely delusional article ...
  21. Vitmir
    Vitmir 12 November 2013 16: 44
    0
    About the king of Muscovy, Vasily Shuisky (the one who Yuryev canceled the day, by the way), the author forgot to write how the hetman Zholkevsky brought him to Warsaw, the humiliated tsar and his brothers were brought as prisoners to King Sigismund and swore allegiance to him on their knees, then died in prison in the Gostyninsky castle.
  22. The centurion
    The centurion 12 November 2013 19: 06
    0
    Quote: Marek Rozny
    Even the pre-revolutionary Russian historian Klyuchevsky mentioned in his "History of the Russian State" that the Great Russians are 2/3 of a mixture of Slavs and Finno-Ugric peoples. He did not write anything about the remaining third, but these are the Russified Turks, and the Russified Caucasians, and the Russified Germans, and the Russified Jews.

    Russians are not a ethnic, but a symbiotic nation, appeared as a result of several symbioses of proto-Slavic tribes with Ugrophins, Balts, various Turks, Bulgars, Scythians, Sarmatians, Huns, Mongols, Tatars, etc. etc. Gumilyov considered the indigenous Russian-Tatar symbiosis. Moreover, he understood the word Tatars as the Mongols understood it, and for them the Tatars meant "others", i.e. not the Mongols. This tradition has taken root in Russia, where all non-Russian peoples of the southeast were called Tatars in a generalized way, and non-Russian peoples of the west were called Germans. Gumilyov had a lot of reasons for his theory of Russian-Tatar symbiosis, because he dug a lot on the terraces of the Don and had a lot of archifacts of the material and spiritual connection of cultures. If he dug to the north, he would have obtained the same number of facts of the Slavic-Ugric connection. From these three main sources and three component parts (Proto-Slavs, Turks and Ugrians), Russians appeared as an ethnic group. This has always been said by historians, ethnographers, and the people themselves understood if there was meat in their heads. For example:
    The eye is narrow, the nose is ply, according to the passport is Russian
    Our main people across the Volga
    Maybe this is a proverb. but attributed to Tvardovsky
    Now, to all this, exact science has been added - genetic analysis. Here is a quote from the magazine "Power": "Russian scientists have completed and are preparing to publish the first large-scale study of the gene pool of the Russian people. The publication of the results may have unpredictable consequences for Russia and the world order. ” They lie and pump. The sensation will be only for the ignorant. In fact, the numbers will simply quantify and reflect what Klyuchevsky and others said a long time ago.
  23. The centurion
    The centurion 12 November 2013 19: 16
    +2
    Quote: Marek Rozny
    Well, about the "love" of the Poles with the Russians is understandable.

    The zigzags of Russian-Polish relations cannot be considered without regard to the peculiarities of the Polish mentality. In terms of mentality, Poles are a unique people, even by the standards of unlimited European bigotry, hypocrisy and political prostitution. They fiercely hate all their neighbors, and the Russians, contrary to our common opinion, are far from the first place in this hatred. It is very difficult and very dangerous for them to live in such an environment, therefore for their safety they have traditionally been looking for sponsors and patrons over the sea, over the ocean for many centuries. Under their patronage and patronage, the Poles furiously and with impunity spoil all their neighbors, causing them no less fierce dislike. But life is striped, the strip is light, the strip is black. And in the period of the black band, when foreign patrons of Poland are very busy with themselves and their problems, for example, the North American War, Poland’s neighbors quickly begin to be friends against her and clean up her face. Approximately in this almost everyday scenario, in the second half of the 18 century, Poland’s neighbors staged her 3 section. But the Poles are still craving, their face is constantly chronically scratched. So it's not over yet. As soon as their current patron uncle Sam breaks his leg or arm somewhere, the Polish neighbors will immediately write out another pill for chronic face scabies. And as always, their old doctor, Germany, will speak here as the main doctor. And despite my already middle-aged age, for some reason it seems to me that I still have time to attend.
  24. Gato
    Gato 12 November 2013 22: 20
    +2
    The Russian kingdom in this period exceeded the Commonwealth in the territory only at the expense of Siberia

    Nonsense.
    Ermak’s campaign took place in 1582 (according to some reports, he fought with the ON as early as 1581). So at the time of the conclusion of the union in 1569, there was no talk of any Siberia.
    Dear author, learn the story.
    By the way, the coat of arms shown in the picture is a remake, very similar.
  25. baku1999
    baku1999 12 November 2013 23: 46
    0
    AND HERE, DOGS SPARKED .............
  26. jury08
    jury08 13 November 2013 02: 51
    -1
    In the ON, the Litvinians (titular) were the ancestors of the current Belarusians. Russian (Ruthenians) the ancestors of the Ukrainians, the jamoites are the current Lithuanians and the masks of the current Russians. The ONU with Poland was created exclusively by fleeing the Moscow intervention, trying to avoid the fate of Veliky Novgorod, Pskov, Tver, which Incidentally gravitated precisely to Lithuania! And do not say that ordinary peasants in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania simpotized the expansion of Moscow, and the gentry and peasants, both Orthodox and Catholics, repulsed as much as possible. Error of the Russian Empire, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the USSR in the national noy policy was the desire to reforge all ethnic groups in the one-Russian or Polish in the RP-that has always led to the disintegration of the state!
    1. Vitmir
      Vitmir 13 November 2013 14: 51
      -2
      True, I totally plus ...
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Pancho
      Pancho 14 November 2013 20: 30
      0
      But what difference does it make to us like any kind of nonsense someone calls it. And these pseudo-historical arguments of yours are not worth a penny. All the same, the history was made by the Russian people, whom some group calls yami. And it was our ancestors who mastered 1,6 part of the land, while yours tried on all sorts of names on themselves. They would immediately have been called Spartans, why trifle.
  27. Nomad
    Nomad 13 November 2013 06: 26
    +1
    Quote: Marek Rozny
    "Arrogant" Poles sincerely thanked the Turks for their military service. And in Russia there are monuments to the steppe inhabitants who, since the time of Ivan the Terrible, have faithfully served the Russian state? I know the answer. But I think it would be nice and fair if such a monument appeared in Russia.

    On the topic: "Kazakhs in the Patriotic War of 1812" http://titus.kz/?previd=31026
  28. marine
    marine 17 November 2013 17: 41
    0
    Marine, poor archers, Poland, Ukraine and Georgia will never forgive RUSSIA for its greatness, and for its mediocre statehood.
  29. Rodokon
    Rodokon 26 August 2019 13: 47
    +1
    In essence, in its original meaning, the word "Russian" does not mean belonging to nationality, but belonging to the Russian Spirit - the desire to live according to the Light: Truth, Conscience, Good and Justice. As in our fairy tales, the negative characters said: "Here is Russia, here it smells of the Rusky Spirit!" Because the Russian Spirit is Light, which the forces of Darkness do not love. To whom this Spirit is close, who wants to live according to the principles of the Light, he can call himself Russian, regardless of the nationality of his parents, and, conversely, the one who is recorded in the passport as Russian cannot be considered him if he lives as a parasite or does evil by hurting others. The main commandment of our Ancestors was: "Holy honor your Gods and Ancestors, live according to your Conscience in harmony with Nature." (Initially, Russian was written with one "s", this can be seen in ancient sources).