Military Review

History of Sweden. The era of Kalmar Union. Stockholm Blood Bath

8, 9 and 10 on November 1520 of the year on the central square of Stockholm held a massive execution of the most distinguished, prominent aristocrats of Sweden. This event, which remained in the annals under the name "Stockholm bloodbath", is still one of the most tragic in all stories northern powers. The origins of the confrontation that led to this dramatic denouement, originated much earlier ...

In 1397, the Queen of Denmark, Margarita, united Denmark, Sweden and Norway into the so-called Kalmar Union. These countries, under the authority of the Danish kings, sacrificed their independence, but maintained self-government. The union concluded by force did not bring peace and prosperity to its participants - both between the united states of the world and within them petty discords constantly occurred, resulting in time into open conflict between the Danes and the Swedes.

At the end of 1514, the archbishop of Sweden, Jacob Ulfsson, resigned in connection with his old age. He was succeeded by the twenty-six-year-old Gustav Eriksson Trolle, who graduated from a German university and was a zealous supporter of Denmark. Complicated intrigues, the details of which, unfortunately, are unknown to historians, dragged around the approval of his candidacy. Returning to 1515, the homeland, Troll began an active struggle with Stan Stour the Younger, who seized Stockholm in July, 1512, during the peasant uprising and proclaimed himself regent of Sweden.

Seeing that the church took the side of the hated Danes, Sture expressed a desire to limit its influence in the country. In order to quickly deal with the new archbishop, he put forward a number of demands for the deprivation of Gustav Troll of his castle in Stack (including all the surrounding lands, which for a long time belonged to representatives of the Church). Sturer the Younger and his supporters set out their views on this conflict in numerous letters and leaflets, as well as constantly speaking to the people in the markets and squares. The controversy escalated to the point where Sten sent his father Troll to prison. The archbishop was forced to take refuge in the walls of the Stack, but soon the troops of Sture besieged the castle. An open civil war began.
The next step for Sture was an attempt to enlist the support of an all-class representative assembly - the Riksdag. Such meetings, where representatives of all classes were present, and each participant spoke on behalf of a certain territorial region, were convened in Sweden for a long time. However, they did not have a permanent form and met only under special circumstances. Nevertheless, substantial state affairs were resolved at meetings of the state council (Riksrod), which was a representative of all sorts of social groups (estates) of the country. However, in the second half of the fifteenth century (and especially during the life of Sture), discussion of various issues at public meetings began to take on an increasingly prominent role in the political life of Sweden. Even Sten Sture Senior, who was twice the regent of this state, wanted with the help of an expanded representative system, which included citizens and peasants, to form a new authority, which occupies a seat above the state council. His case was continued by Sten Sture the Younger, whose favorite motto was words from canon law: "Those who affect everyone must receive the consent of all."

The opinion of the Riksdag was of great importance in the struggle of Stur and Gustav Troll. At the beginning of 1517, a meeting of representatives was held in Arboga, at which Sten Sture, together with his comrades in arms, explained in detail his point of view in a conflict with the archbishop. As a result, the assembled "noblemen, residents of the mining and industrial districts and trading cities, distantCarcians and other peasants" supported him. With the approval of the Riksdag, Sture continued to besiege the Troll castle in Stack. The archbishop could do nothing but betray the enemy's troops anathema. However, soon the young king of Denmark Christian II moved to help him. His troops approached Stockholm, but were defeated by Stour and expelled from Sweden.

In November of the 1517 year in Stockholm, a regular meeting of the Riksdag was held, to which Gustav Troll himself arrived with a safe conduct. Here over the archbishop did a real court. In conclusion, his Riksdag on behalf of all whom he represented himself, as well as on behalf of the State Council (including several bishops), observing all the formalities, decided to destroy Staket. The text said: "... being the cause of great evil, must be completely destroyed, so that it can no longer serve as a refuge for traitors to the homeland, support and hope for the Danes and foreigners ... Everyone swore in this unanimously and promised that we would never have Gustav Troll Archbishop of Sweden ". Thus, the struggle between the state and the church continued, exactly as the siege of the castle. The defenders of the castle fought off bravely, but the Stack was nevertheless captured and destroyed to the ground. Together with the death of the castle, all the most valuable relics enclosed within its walls were lost. The beaten archbishop was thrown into prison, and many of his supporters were beheaded and wheeled. Passions in Sweden raged with might and main. Church property was abolished, Sten Sture wrote: “As long as I am alive, I will take care of the good of the holy church with all my mind. However, I do not intend to intercede for those who, in word or deed, intend to destroy the state and ordinary people. ”

Denmark was strongly disagree with this state of affairs. In 1518, King Christian II organized a new campaign. However, this time his troops were defeated at the battle of Brennchurka. After being defeated, the Danish monarch started talking about peace, demanded a personal meeting with Stour, and for his safety he asked six Swedish aristocrats to be taken hostage (among them were: young Gustav Eriksson Vaza and Bishop Hemming Gad).

However, shortly after the start of negotiations, Christian’s troops without warning hurriedly embarked on the ships and sailed to Denmark. Together with them, six notable Swedes set off as captives. Thus, the truce was broken, in the relations between the countries hung the same tension. But such a traitorous behavior of Christian II gave Sture an excellent material for his anti-Danish propaganda. And soon he managed to enlist the support of the papal legate, Jan Angelo Archimboldi, who organized the trade in indulgences in Sweden. For allowing the representative of the Vatican to sell indulgences, he was charged with the duty to regularly preach against Denmark and Gustav Troll.

Returning to his homeland, Archimboldi made a very big mistake, deciding to take a walk along the lands of Denmark. All the funds he collected for indulgences were confiscated by the king, who used them, in particular, to equip his new army. It should be noted here that Christian never abandoned the idea of ​​regaining power over Sweden. On the lands of his neighbor he was seduced by a lot, but above all the huge mountain riches of Bergslagen. There is evidence that the influential trading house Fuggerov, holding in his hands virtually the entire European trade in copper, really wanted to dispose of the Swedish deposits.

Christian (or Christian) II was born on July 1 of the year 1481 and was the son of the Danish king John. From childhood he was distinguished by intelligence, energy, courage and cruelty. In his youth, he could often be seen on city streets and in taverns in the companies of ordinary people. Obviously, this is where his future hostility towards the nobility and clergy originates, while the lower classes of the Danish people found in him a patron and protector. As a test of the future monarch, his father sent him to tame a revolt in Norway. Christian drowned the rebellion in the blood, and then took such measures against the local nobility that it virtually disappeared in this state. In 1514, he was crowned Copenhagen. Many historians have noted his outstanding ability to make the right decisions in difficult circumstances. In addition, he was distinguished by such traits as stubbornness, deceit and suspicion. In Bergen, he met the Dutch innkeeper Sigbrittoy and passionately fell in love with her daughter, Duvec. Despite the fact that in 1515, he officially married Isabella of Hapsburg with his mistress, he did not break the bond. It should be noted that Duveke had a beneficial effect on the king, restraining his dark side. In 1517, she passed away under mysterious circumstances, and in Christiane there were drastic changes for the worse. Following the investigation into the death of his mistress, a prominent tycoon Torben Oaks was executed. Having hardened, Christian II fought against the Danish nobles, at the same time falling under the influence of Sigbritta (mother of Duveke). She was appointed chairman of the ministry of finance and did her best to increase the influence of the middle class. The consequence was the growing discontent between the Danish aristocracy and the king, who, according to the deep conviction of the nobility, was bewitched by the "vile Dutch warlock". It is not known what all this would have ended if the king had not been distracted by the struggle with Sweden.

For the next conquest, Christian II prepared a huge (at that time) well-armed army. He also enlisted the support of the pope, receiving from him a bull with a statement about the excommunication of all of Sweden from the church. It should be noted that, having accepted the implementation of the papal sentence, Christian II declared war, almost a new crusade, which gave him the right to unlimited collection of money and funds. In 1520, landsknechts recruited in France, Germany and Scotland crossed the Halland border and invaded the Swedish province of Westergotland. On the frozen lake Osund, the decisive battle of Christian's troops with the peasant militia Wall Sture took place. The Swedish squad lost the battle and retreated north. The peasants of Westergötland surrendered to Christian and paid the stated contribution. The next battle took place in the Tived forests, where the Swedes were defeated again. But the real tragedy happened two days after the Tived defeat. On the way to the capital, right in the sleigh, Sten Sture, seriously wounded in the leg, died. The Swedish people lost their distinguished leader, and no one could replace him. After some time, some representatives of the Swedish church and aristocracy began to look for ways to come to terms with the Danes. Gustav Troll was released, and the Council of State agreed to recognize Christian II as the ruler of Sweden. Soon a truce was concluded, the Danish command expressed the conviction that Christian would be merciful to his new vassals and would prefer a constitutional form of government.
However, the resistance of the Swedes has not yet been completely broken. Christine Yllenscherna, the widow of Wall Sture and Jeanne d'Arc of her people remained alive. With the remaining loyal supporters of her, with the support of Poland and the free city of Danzig, she began a fierce and hopeless struggle. The inhabitants of Stockholm, inspired by her patriotism, kept the city, and Christine herself managed to defeat the Danes in one of the battles. As a result, the enemy forces met in the Uppsala 6 area of ​​March 1520. The fierce battle lasted for several hours without any advantage, in the end, Christine's warriors could not stand it, they faltered and were defeated. However, the warrior herself survived and even the whole summer of 1520 of the year, detachments of peasant militia attacked Danish troops. In May, the 1520 of the Danish fleet approached the shores of Sweden, and Stockholm was besieged from land and from the sea. At the end of the summer, Christina was forced to capitulate. However, this happened only after the Danish king signed a number of conditions offered to him, namely: full amnesty for Stour's supporters, confirmation of his family’s possessions and submission of the king to resolutions of the state council.

On September 7, the Danes occupied the capital of Sweden, and on November 4 Christian was anointed Troll in the Stockholm Cathedral, taking the oath of observance of the old Swedish laws. The new king of Sweden behaved very kindly, reiterated the promise of a general amnesty, promised to rule in the country through governors, who would be chosen from among the indigenous people. The coronation was continued with the solemn dedication of Christian knights, chic feasts and all kinds of ceremonies. For three whole days, libations incessantly followed in honor of the new monarch, and on November 7 a different kind of fun began.
The archbishop burning revenge demanded from the king a trial of his old enemies from among the supporters of Sture. The 7 numbers in the Stockholm castle king, members of the state council and a number of high-ranking officials heard a complaint written by Gustav Troll. In it, the archbishop sought the help of the king in restoring justice and punishing the "late heretic Stan," as well as his assistants. In order to circumvent the amnesty promised by Christian, Troll declared all the actions of the accused open heresy. The promises made to the heretics were not necessary at all.

In the evening, on the orders of the Danish monarch, several detachments of soldiers broke into the feast hall and drove out several people. Then all the doors of the hall were locked with a key, and the remaining people, who were blacklisted by Gustav Troll in advance, were left to themselves for the whole night. The next day, in the presence of the king, a quick interrogation was held over the seized people. The ecclesiastical court was headed by the archbishop himself, he also pronounced the sentence. It emphasized that the “unholy union” was undoubtedly turned against the Roman church. The decision of the court - "guilty of heresy" - was distributed according to canonical law not only to convicts, but also to their supporters. However, the church did not stain its hands with an indication of the degree or kind of punishment. “Secular power” was engaged in this business - in this case Christian II himself. It was by his decision that at twelve o'clock at night over the secular and ecclesiastical persons ever seen among the supporters of Sture, the execution began. The first in the central city square beheaded the bishops of Skara and Strongnes. They were followed by fourteen nobles, three burgomasters, fourteen members of the city council - all prominent citizens of Sweden. Then they went to the lower nobility and ordinary citizens of Stockholm. The property of those executed was confiscated in favor of the monarch. The executions did not stop all the next day, rivers of blood flowed from the Stortorget square through the streets. In total, according to various sources, about a hundred people were killed, beheaded and hung. However, this seemed not enough to Christian. Having settled with the living, he decided to dig up the corpses of Stan Sture the Younger and his child from the ground. On Holy Saturday, a huge bonfire was made in the southern suburb, into which all the dead bodies, including the remains of Sture, were thrown. The massacre of people went down in history as Stockholm Blodbath (“Bloodbath in Stockholm”), and since then Christian II has been called “Tyrant” in Sweden. Curiously, Christine Yllensherna avoided the sad fate of her comrades, she was declared “dead in life” and forever imprisoned in a dungeon.

The venue for the mass execution was the Stockholm square called Stortorget or “Big Square”. She was the center of the medieval capital, around which the city was built. Three streets originate on the square: Black Monks, Merchants and Bashmachnaya. The width of each of them does not exceed five meters. In the center of the square in ancient times there was a pillory, in the seventeenth century a well was dug next to it. The buildings around the square were built in different eras, and the final appearance of the complex of buildings was obtained in 1778 after the construction of the stock exchange building. Now this building houses the Nobel Museum and Library, as well as the Swedish Academy. After the tragic events of the Stockholm Massacre, ninety-two white stones (according to the number of executed) were built into the outer wall of one of the houses on the west side of the square. Near the Stortorget square one can find a monument to St. George, erected by order of Wall Sture Elder in memory of the victory over the Danes in 1471 year.

As a result of the lack of material, today it is quite difficult to talk about the proportion of guilt of all participants in this crime. Historians have not even decided on the one who played the main role in this massacre: Archbishop Troll and his party or King Christian with his advisers. It is only known that in defending the people of Sweden for the murders, the new sovereign called them preventive measures that allowed the country to avoid imposing a papal interdict (prohibiting any ecclesiastical actions) due to the appearance of a huge number of heretics. In addition, he apologized to the Pope for the murder of two bishops, placing all the blame for this act on his subordinates.

So, the royal power of Christian II in Sweden has become truly unlimited. It seemed that all Sure's like-minded people were destroyed, and the rebellious mood of the Swedish peasantry was broken by the relevant laws. However, the king's plans went much further. Christian dreamed of the great Scandinavian empire, the Scandinavian trading society, capable with the assistance of the Dutch to outshine the famous Hanseatic League. With these thoughts, the king set off on his way back to his homeland.

However, in reality, Sture’s party was not crushed at all. The survivors organized a series of small uprisings in Dalecarlia and Småland. The massacre in Stockholm gave into the hands of the supporters of the deceased regent a huge amount of material to attract new people. The legal subtleties of the ecclesiastical court and the interrogation of the “heretics” said absolutely nothing to the public, but the behavior of the conquerors instilled fear and horror in their hearts. Very little time has passed since the departure of Christian, and a general uprising is already overdue in Sweden. The only question was the lack of a proper leader, a man capable and willing to lead people, to drink this cup to the end, whatever it was. The best and the most capable supporters of Sture were killed, Christina Yllensherna and her sons were in prison, the highest nobility in full force took the side of Christian. Even before her conclusion, the widow Wall Sture received a message from far away Carlisians, in which it was written: “It seems to us quite miserable and nasty that there are no good people from noble knights who want to support the Swedish peasantry and punish the enemies, the royal servants who climbed our lands, rob, burn and kill ... ".

Christina's closest relative was Gustav Eriksson Vaza, the nobleman who was given to Christian as a hostage in 1518 year, and then taken to Denmark by deception. The widow Stena Sture was his maternal aunt. In addition, the Vazov dynasty was related to the Sture family. In 1419, Gustav Vaza, disguised as a cattle drover, escaped from his prison in the city of Lübeck (north of Germany). Despite the Danes' demand for the fugitive's extradition, the city authorities provided him with asylum and patronage. In 1520, Gustav managed to return to his homeland. He stopped at his old friend, Anders Persson, but soon his stay was discovered, and Gustav again set off on the run. He moved to the borders of Norway, and the authorities pursued him. Hiding from the daylight and people, Gustav himself reached Dalecarlia, where the supporters of Sture retained their long-standing and strongest ties. Despite the fact that in those years he was young and unknown among the people, the locals immediately elected Gustav as their leader, and in January of 1521, Christian II heard about him.

Of course, Gustav Waza, with all his heart, was eager for revenge. During the Stockholm massacre, the invaders executed his father and son-in-law, while his mother and sister languished in captivity in faraway Denmark. He had a hot, persistent and determined character, a brilliant oratorical talent and an attractive appearance. Great importance in the nomination of Gustav Vaz played family ties with Wall Sture. However, no one imagined that this modest nobleman in his youth would turn into one of the most prominent political figures that Sweden had ever known. Very soon the uprising in Dalecarlia gained its full strength. For the peasants, the miners from copper mines, and throughout Sweden, from province to province, from one resident to another, passed the call of the rebels: "Fight with us to free your children and yourself, as before, devotees of Sweden did!". Soon all the northern regions of central Sweden joined Gustav, he was also supported by the corsairs, who at that time fought the marque of the Letter to the Danes in the Baltic Sea.

At the end of the spring of 1521, the units of Gustav Vasa approached Stockholm. Gustav Troll's troops marched towards him, but were defeated, and the archbishop himself locked himself in the capital. Vermlands and Smolanders joined the rebels, and at the beginning of the summer, Westergötland joined the Gustav Vasa movement. The words of one noble nobleman from this province are known: “It is better to stand next to the most worthy on your land than to ask for alms in a foreign land.” After the rebellion was supported by Bishop Hans Brask of Linkoping, Gustav Vasa was elected regent-governor of Sweden. Very soon, only the Kalmar fortress (in which the Kalmar Union was signed) and the capital of Sweden remained in the hands of the Danes. Without waiting for the capture of Stockholm, the governors of King Christian (including Gustav Troll) fled to Denmark, and Gustav Vasa, whose situation improved every day, in 1522 won the support of Lübeck. Long ago hostile to the Danish monarch, the inhabitants of the free city decided to help the Swedes with people, fleet and money. In 1523, Gustav Vasa liberated Stockholm, and soon the whole country was cleared of the Danes (in their hands remained only the southern part of modern Sweden - Skane). Castle Kalmar also after a series of battles passed into the hands of the Swedes. From that moment on, the Kalmar Union ceased to exist, and on June 6, 1523, Gustav Erickson Waza was officially elected king of Sweden. Thus began the "era of the Vase."

Gustav Waza is rightfully the national hero of Sweden. Bright and controversial in character ruler, according to many domestic historians, most of all resembles Peter the Great. Both of them, trying to modernize their states, to build them according to their own understanding, interfered in any business, both large and small.

Gustav Vasa completely changed the system of relations between church and state, having carried out the famous Reformation. As a result, the size of church estates decreased, the income of the clergy (in particular, the bishops) fell tenfold, and the jurisdiction of the clergy was limited only to the right to observe morality. The king was declared the head of the Swedish church, having received the right to impose his will on any church reform. In 1544, Gustav, instead of electoral monarchy, approved a hereditary (power was transferred to the eldest of descendants through the male line), finally turning the nobility into a bureaucratic class, obedient in all the will of the ruler. The king of Sweden was engaged in the development of Swedish industry and trade, developed animal husbandry and horse breeding. In particular, tribal animals were imported into the country in large quantities. After the collapse of the Kalmar Union, Gustav Vaz’s foreign policy was aimed at stopping attempts at its restoration. He strongly advocated the sovereignty of Sweden, laying the foundations of a national state. It should be noted and the king's love for wealth. Starting his political career, Gustav owned only twenty yards, but before his death he had more than five thousand of them.

Gustav Waza 29 died on September 1560 of the year, his child from his first marriage, Eric XIV, became the successor. The situation in the country during this period was stable, the management was well-established. Sweden was at peace with its neighbors, and finances were in order. After a few years, this stability came to an end ...

It is interesting to trace the fate of the rest of the “heroes” of the events under consideration. Returning to his homeland, Christian II was full of ambitious plans for future transformations. In 1521, he unexpectedly went traveling, traveled around many cities, recruiting local artisans for him. During the trip, he made acquaintance with the German painter Albrecht Dürer and the famous humanist scientist Erasmus of Rotterdam, discussing future reforms with them. In a conversation with the latter, he said: “Moderation is vain. The surest and best methods are shaking all the basics. ” Returning on September 5, Christian earnestly got down to business.

On the basis of the Dutch model was developed and published a code of laws called "Landelove". It contained quite bold decrees for that epoch, for example: “Cancel the sale of peasant people. ... the evil, non-Christian custom of selling and giving men and Christians by confession, like meaningless cattle, should disappear from now on. " In addition to the ban on the trade of peasants, the power of higher clergy was limited, the creation of unions of large merchants to the detriment of small ones was prohibited. Of course, these fairly correct reforms did not find support from the elected parliament and the Danish nobility, who were accustomed to have full power "over the neck and hand of their peasants." Moreover, some of them directly violated the provisions of the Charter of Liberties. And it was precisely at this time that Gustav Vaz's uprising broke out in Sweden. Since the possibilities of Norway and Denmark have already been exhausted, in order to find funds for the next war, Christian increased the Zunda fee (tax levied by the Danes for the passage of foreign ships through the Sund strait), delaying ships that refused to pay it. Because of this, relations with neighbors worsened, Lübeck and other cities of the Hansa began to prepare for war. Finally, not enduring, on January 20 of 1523, the highest nobility of Denmark offered the throne to the son of the Danish king Christian I - Frederick Holstein. Not finding support, Christian II had no choice but to escape from the country.

He settled in Holland, where he began to prepare the invasion of Denmark. Here he was joined by another exile - Gustav Trolle, who actively campaigned for the restoration of Christian II. In the end, 24 October 1531-th year, the former king sailed home, but the storm dispersed his small fleet near the Norwegian coast. July 1 The 1532 authorities in this country issued him to Frederick I, and for the remaining twenty-seven years of his life Christian lived in captivity in Sonderborg and Kalundborg castles. According to the preserved information, he was treated like a nobleman and allowed to walk around the fortresses without leaving their walls. The Archbishop Troll remained in Norway, later he took part in the “Count War” - an internecine massacre for the throne of Denmark after the death of Frederick I in 1533. Troll was wounded in the battle of Exnebjerg and died in the 1535 year. It is curious that after the death of the Danish king Christian III in 1559, there was a great likelihood of the return of the decrepit Christian II to the throne, but he also died a few days later and was buried with honors in Odense.

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  1. Peaceful military
    Peaceful military 9 November 2013 08: 31
    This is all a related showdown, for the Swedes, Danes, Norwegians and Icelanders are one ethnic group (they have one language).
    More fun story of modern Swedish royal dynasty founded french Marshal Jean-Batiste Jules Bernadotte, enthroned by Napoleon ... smile
    1. Fobos-grunt
      Fobos-grunt 9 November 2013 11: 00
      Do not say: Danes are Scandinavian French. The Swedes are Scandinavian Germans, and the Norwegians were closer to the Baltic peoples and the Russian people! They tolerated each other only because of common sea lanes.
      1. Peaceful military
        Peaceful military 9 November 2013 13: 48
        Quote: Fobos-grunt
        Do not say: Danes are Scandinavian French, Swedes, Scandinavian Germans and Norwegians were closer to - Baltic peoples and Russians! They tolerated each other only because of common sea lanes.

        No. This is one people divided in the manner of fragmenting the Russian people by the sons of Yaroslav the Wise. I repeat, they even have one language.
        And they were divided up and turned into enemies to each other willingly, under the tacit control of their own relatives, who became the highest British nobility, who, at that time, fiercely competed with their own relatives, who became part of the highest nobility in France.
    2. Vinny-buh
      Vinny-buh 9 November 2013 11: 13
      Some historians claim that Bernadotte had a tattoo, Death to the Kings!
      1. Yarik
        Yarik 10 November 2013 10: 00
        So it was.
  2. svp67
    svp67 9 November 2013 08: 42
    Each country has its own "dark stories", but because of this they do not feel guilty to anyone and do not apologize to anyone. History is history and cannot be changed.
  3. Ols76
    Ols76 9 November 2013 09: 03
    Cases of bygone days.
  4. Aleksey18
    Aleksey18 9 November 2013 09: 33
    It was a bloody era. The fate of Christian II is very reminiscent of the young years of Ivan the Terrible, whose first wife was poisoned and how, as a result, the oprichnina was organized.
    1. vahatak
      vahatak 9 November 2013 18: 27
      Quote: Aleksey18
      It was a bloody era.

      100 (one hundred) people were executed after the trial? What is bloody here?
      1. Yura
        Yura 10 November 2013 00: 56
        Quote: vahatak
        100 (one hundred) people were executed after the trial? What is bloody here?

        Well, if you are pathetic to put it, then cut out almost the entire color of the state of that time. If another hundred people were cut out of the remaining nobles, then I think we would not know now that there was some kind of Sweden, or we would know, but only from history textbooks.
        1. vahatak
          vahatak 10 November 2013 22: 22
          Quote: Jura
          Well, if you are pathetic to put it, then cut out almost the entire color of the state of that time.

          You probably have a poor idea of ​​what the nobility is. In France, for example, in the 18th century there were 400 (four hundred thousand) nobles. Sweden, of course, is smaller, say 000 times, and the 10th century, not the 16th, but still the nobles in any decent country number at least tens of thousands, so 18 people is a trifle. In the same France there was Bartholomew’s night, 100 killed in one night without trial, but the nobles did not disappear.
  5. Simon
    Simon 9 November 2013 10: 46
    Yes..! It was hard given the freedom and independence of quiet and calm Sweden.
    1. Yura
      Yura 10 November 2013 01: 08
      Quote: Simon
      Yes..! It was hard given the freedom and independence of quiet and calm Sweden.

      And at the same time, pirates (Vikings) and privateers of Sweden have been terrorizing the coastal states for centuries around the world for centuries. It is difficult to name the places where they were not marked. The Swedes themselves say that they discovered America long before Columbus. As for the article itself, an excellent informative article, a good unobtrusive syllable, links to chronology.
  6. Fin
    Fin 9 November 2013 11: 22
    Gustav Ericsson Troll,

    So that's who it came from. Both Sweden and Denmark trolllaughing.
  7. Sergei 163
    Sergei 163 9 November 2013 12: 03
    Whether it is with us in Russia. Ivan the Terrible ordered the boyars to go to the chopping block, they meekly lined up in line and drooping beards ... let's go. And there are no problems with the rebels.) In general, there was a very interesting relationship in those days between the aristocracy and the rulers. Article "+".
  8. samoletil18
    samoletil18 9 November 2013 12: 35
    And Europeans still have the audacity to tell Russia how democracy should be developed. am
    1. vahatak
      vahatak 9 November 2013 18: 28
      And where is democracy? One nation has gained independence from another. This is what many should learn.
  9. BBM
    BBM 9 November 2013 12: 36
    A bright and contradictory character ruler, according to many domestic historians, is most reminiscent of Peter the Great

    with that tiny difference that, unlike the maniac Petrukha, he did not execute his mistresses and sons, nor did he imprison his "lawful wife" in a monastery ...
    1. samoletil18
      samoletil18 9 November 2013 12: 45
      In Holland I learned this.
    2. Mature naturalist
      Mature naturalist 9 November 2013 20: 57
      Quote: BBM
      unlike the maniac petruha

      I am more and more inclined to the version of replacing the real Peter, indeed, with a maniac.
  10. AK-47
    AK-47 9 November 2013 22: 02
    On the way to the capital, right in the sleigh, Sten Sture died seriously wounded in the leg.

    Death Wall Sture the Younger on the ice of Lake Mälaren in 1520 Hood. Hellqvist K.G. (1851-1890).
  11. AK-47
    AK-47 9 November 2013 22: 29
    Gustav Waz had a hot, persistent and decisive character, a brilliant oratory talent and attractive appearance

    In the meadow in front of the church in Mura in 1520, Gustav Vasa called on the inhabitants of the city to take up arms.
    Hood. Hellqvist K.G. (1851-1890).
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