Military Review

English classic against Russia

16
English classic against RussiaUpon learning of tapping their telephone conversations by American intelligence, the leaders of France, Germany, Brazil and several other countries demanded an explanation from the US president or otherwise expressed their outrage at this espionage activity. However, the leaders of Great Britain did not protest against American espionage. And soon it became known that British intelligence worked closely with the US in the implementation of an unprecedented operation to spy on the governments of sovereign states, including NATO allies.


During the Cold War years, the British secret service worked closely with American intelligence. By that time, UK intelligence had accumulated considerable experience in conducting a number of successful operations. Employees of the British intelligence services were able to uncover a German conspiracy to kidnap the former king of Great Britain Edward VIII in order to turn him into the head of a pro-German puppet government. They managed to lure Rudolf Hess to Scotland. Having thrown the body of an imaginary British officer together with specially fabricated documents to the Germans, the British intelligence officers convinced the German command of preparing the Allied troops in Greece and managed to conceal plans for the upcoming operation in Sicily. British intelligence officers skillfully used the detection of the German Enigma cryptographic machine on board the captured submarine in order to obtain reliable information about the movements of the German armed forces and their plans throughout the war. English intelligence had other successes.

English knights of cloak, dagger ... and pen

The activities of British intelligence relied on the age-old national traditions in the culture and life of the country. Stormy история Britain's civil wars, feudal troubles, palace intrigues and conspiracies, as well as the rampant robbery gangs influenced the national character of the British, reflected in folklore, and then in fiction. And although the time of the bloody wars of Scarlet and White Rose passed, and the objects of conflict were crushed, secret intrigues and associated tracking down the enemy, the exchange of information received about him and the development of clever moves against him continued to occupy the minds of many inhabitants of the British Isles, which was reflected in the novels English writers.

Although not England became the birthplace of the detective novel, it was here that the most famous authors of detective literature appeared - Arthur Conan Doyle and Agatha Christie, as well as the characters they created - Sherlock Holmes, Hercule Poirot and Miss Marple.

The UK is still noticeably ahead of other countries in the world in terms of “spy novels”.

Even in English classical fiction, far from a detective or spy genre, examples of complex conspiracies with reconnaissance moves, used by the heroes of the novels, were repeatedly captured.

Cunning conspiracies with skillfully carried out espionage operations were undertaken by the heroes of many novels of the 19th century writer Anthony Trollop in their attempts to seize small church positions. In his novel The Masters, writer Charles Snow described in detail how twentieth-century university scholars prepare conspiracies and counter-conspiracies to achieve the post of rector as soon as they become aware that the owner of this position was ill with cancer.

Probably, it is not only for the English that the ability to track down, meticulously analyze the received observations and report their results to the participants of a narrow circle of people for the development of intrigue against the object of surveillance. However, it is obvious that, in telling about the life of their compatriots, English writers devoted many of their works to surveillance, analysis of the information gathered and the development on this basis of carefully thought-out decisions.

These features of the English writers have long ago decided to use the rulers of Britain to collect reliable information about the underlying currents in society that could destabilize the existing system. At the beginning of the 18th century, an influential grandee at the court of Queen Anne (1702-1714) Count Oxford wrote: "It would be extremely useful to have a humble writer on the side of the government even for an accurate statement of the truth." Rightly judging that the writer's observation, his ability to deeply analyze what he saw, unconventional and independent mind, the ability to find capacious words and vivid images for presenting observations and conclusions could be used to obtain timely and meaningful information, wise and original judgments, the graph drew for confidential informing the authorities of Daniel Defoe and Jonathan Swift.

And soon the creator of "Robinson Crusoe" created an effective organization of nationwide surveillance of attitudes in society, their analysis and the adoption of appropriate responses.

Although Great Britain was not the only country in the world in which some writers were not only masters of the pen, but also "knights of cloak and dagger" in combination, there was a tradition in this country before others to involve authors of artistic works in secret information of the government. With the spread of British possessions around the world, London began to take measures to use the masters of fiction to collect high-quality information about what was happening on the entire planet. Therefore, many famous British writers were used not only for collecting information and analyzing it, but also for organizing clandestine operations in various countries of the world, which were possible thanks to the connections of word masters in various public circles in many countries of the globe, as well as trust in them in international community. British intelligence writers were Graham Green, Ian Fleming and many other prominent English writers.

Plot of Maugham

The well-known English writer William Somerset Maugham, who spoke about the secret pages of his life in his autobiography, Summing Up, also ended up in these ranks. Maugham explained his agreement to cooperate with the military intelligence of Great Britain as follows: "The work attracted me because of my love for romance and at the same time because of the craving for absurd and ridiculous situations." The writer also spoke in detail about his intelligence activities in his stories about Eshenden, under the name of which he derived himself ("Eshenden, or the British Agent").

In 1917, British intelligence executives sent Maugham to Russia. The writer recalled: "My instructions required me to come into contact with forces hostile to the government, and prepare a plan that would keep Russia from getting out of the war." Although the Entente countries, including Britain, were in no hurry to help Russia weaponsthey feared the conclusion of peace on the Eastern Front. To prevent it, they planned to carry out a coup in Russia.

According to Maugham, he "felt timid, not being sure that I had the qualities necessary to complete the task. However, it seems at that time there was not one suitable person. At the same time, the fact that I was a writer , served as a good "cover" for the assignment.

Even when Maugham became a living classic of English literature, he recalled his trip to Russia as "the most significant mission he ever performed."

According to him, he "was satisfied with the responsibility that was imposed" on him. Describing himself under the name Eshdenden, Maugham wrote: "He had to act independently, without obeying anyone. He had unlimited means at his disposal (in the belt that he had on his body, there were bills for such a sum that he was dizzy, when he recalled it.) He had to carry out a job that exceeded human capabilities, although he did not know it, and therefore he was confident in his ability to cope with the task. "

In the story of Eshhenden, Maugham colorfully described his arrival in Russia on August 1917: “Vladivostok. Truly the end of the world. Eshhenden made a long journey: first from New York to San Francisco, then on a Japanese steamer across the Pacific Ocean to Yokagama, then Russian ship ... across the Sea of ​​Japan from Tsuruki to Russia. In Vladivostok, he had to transfer to a trans-Siberian train in order to get to Petrograd. "

On the way, Möem was accompanied by "four devotees of the Czechs, who were supposed to act as liaison officers between me and Professor Masaryk (the future president of Czechoslovakia. - Yu.E.), who had about sixty thousand of his compatriots in various parts of Russia under his command. ".

By this time, England and France decided to use the Czechoslovak Corps as a "military-police force" to "restore order" in Russia.

In addition to the leaders of the Czechoslovak Corps, Maugham mentions his regular contacts with Boris Savinkov, the leader of the Social Revolutionary terrorists, the murderer of the Minister of Internal Affairs of Russia V. K. Plehve and the Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich. A ruthless terrorist made an indelible impression on Maugham - "one of the most amazing people I've ever met." Together with Savinkov, other right-wing SRs — his associates — also participated in the organization of the conspiracy.

Until the end of his life, Maugham was sure that "there was a certain chance of success if I had been sent six months earlier." When the writer arrived from Vladivostok in Petrograd, the situation in the country reached a critical stage. “Things were deteriorating in Russia,” Maugham wrote. “Kerensky, head of the Provisional Government, was eaten by vanity and dismissed any minister who, he thought, was a threat to his position. He made endless speeches. Food shortages were becoming more and more menacing, were approaching there was no fuel during the winter. Kerensky made speeches. The Bolsheviks, who were in the underground, became more active, Lenin was hiding in Petrograd, they said that Kerensky knew where he was, but did not dare to arrest him. He made speeches. "

By the end of October 1917, Maugham completed his work to create a powerful underground organization, ready to speak. He sent an encoding to London detailing the final plan for the coup d'état. Maugham recalled that "the plan was adopted and all the necessary means were promised." However, the organizer of the conspiracy fell into time trouble.

The lack of time was largely due to the fact that the ruling circles of Russia showed a pathological inability to act quickly, even in the name of self-preservation.

Maugham wrote: "Endless chatter, where actions, hesitations, apathy were needed, when apathy led to destruction, high-sounding declarations, insincerity and a formal attitude to the work that caused my disgust with Russia and the Russians." It is possible that the acute attack of Russophobia, which many people from Western countries have always been infected with, also did not contribute to the success of Maugham.

In addition, the activity of Maugham, the terrorist and writer Savinkov, as well as the leaders of the Czechoslovak corps and other participants in the conspiracy, was opposed by the determination and organization of the Bolshevik party headed by Lenin. According to Maugham, at the end of October 1917, "the rumors became more ominous, but the Bolsheviks became more and more frightening. Kerensky rushed back and forth like a frightened chicken. And then thunder broke out. On the night of 7 November 1917, the Bolsheviks revolted ... Kerensky’s ministers were arrested. "

The very next day after the victory of the October Revolution, the writer warned that the Bolsheviks were looking for a secret resident of Great Britain. Having sent an encrypted telegram to London, the leader of the conspiracy urgently left Russia.

Britain sent a special battle cruiser to take out their super spy from Scandinavia.

Why did Maugham go to Petrograd through the USA and Siberia?

Although Maugham wrote about the failure of his mission in Russia, subsequent events in Russia suggest that the activities of the intelligence writer had more significant consequences for our country, in addition to the failure of the coup plan. Did Maugham tell all about his conspiracy? Why, if "time was running out," the British intelligence officer, accompanied by four Czechoslovakians from Masaryk's entourage, arrived in Petrograd not through the North Sea and the neutral countries of Scandinavia (which would have taken several days), but traveled the way that he described in the story about Eschenden? After all, having chosen such a long road to Petrograd, the intelligence officer risked falling into time trouble and eventually got into it!

The presence of the USA and Siberia in the route of Maugham and his companions during their 1917 trip of the year was hardly a coincidence. Even before the outbreak of the First World War, the United States occupied the leading place in the world economy. Profiting from the supply of various goods, including weapons, during the First World War, the United States turned the leading powers of the world into its debtors. Having entered the fighting on the side of the Entente in April 1917, the United States proceeded from the assumption that without taking into account their opinions, the most important international issues, including the fate of Russia, cannot be decided.

Russia's dependence on the United States has also increased. While exports from Russia to the United States from 1913 to 1916 fell by 3 times in the year, imports of American goods increased by 18 times. If in 1913, US imports from Russia were slightly higher than their exports from the US, in 1916, US exports exceeded Russian imports to the US 55 times. Russia's dependence on the United States was rapidly increasing, and the Americans demanded prompt payment of the growing Russian debts, including the granting of new concessions to them on bonded terms.

Shortly after the start of the February Revolution, US Ambassador to Russia David Francis offered Russia a new loan in 100 million dollars to temporarily repay debts. But for this and previous loans, the Americans demanded immediate payment in kind. Under an agreement with the Provisional Government, a mission was sent to Russia from the United States "to study issues related to the work of the Ussurian, East China and Siberian railways."

It can be assumed that Moema’s trip and the four Czechoslovakians on the Trans-Siberian Railway were connected with the “study” of British intelligence in coordination with the Americans of the way through Siberia and the possibilities of establishing control over it.

It is known that soon after the completion of the trip of Moehm and his companions on the Trans-Siberian road in the middle of October 1917, the so-called "Russian railway building" was formed. The "Russian" corps consisted only of Americans. In his twelve squads there were 300 railway officers, mechanics, engineers, craftsmen, dispatchers who were to be stationed between Omsk and Vladivostok. As the Soviet historian A.V. Berezkin, "the US government insisted that the experts it sent should be invested with broad administrative authority, and not limited to the functions of technical observation." In fact, much of the Trans-Siberian Railway came under American control.

The October Revolution prevented the implementation of these plans and, although 14 in December 1917 of the Russian Railway Corps as part of 350, a man arrived in Vladivostok, after three days he departed from there to Nagasaki.

However, soon the Trans-Siberian Railway again became the object of negotiations, during which the question arose of the presence of another foreign corps along its entire length. Since February, 1917, negotiations of the Soviet authorities with the leadership of the Czechoslovak Corps began, during which it was decided to deliver the Czechs and Slovaks to France. Although it is obvious that any route to the detour of the Central Powers was not near, yet the roads through the Caspian Sea and Persia, or through Scandinavia and the North Sea, and even through the Barents Sea the sea would not be short, for some reason the longest road was chosen - through Siberia , and then by sea to Western Europe. According to the agreement signed by 26 March 1918, before boarding the trains, the soldiers of the Czechoslovak Corps were to hand over weapons to the Soviet authorities.

This provision of the agreement caused concern to the Western powers at secret meetings of their diplomats, held in Moscow in April and May of 1918. Then D. Francis wrote to his son in the United States: "At the present time I am plotting ... to disrupt the disarmament of 40 thousands or more of Czechoslovak soldiers whom the Soviet government offered to surrender their weapons." Discussing plans to use the Czechoslovak Corps, US Secretary of State R. Lansing at this time wrote to US President Woodrow Wilson: "Is it impossible to find a core for the military occupation of the Trans-Siberian Railway among these skillful and loyal troops?"

Although it was later claimed that the Czechoslovak statement was caused by the demand of the Soviet authorities to surrender their weapons in accordance with the agreement of March 26, it was obvious that the insurgency was prepared in advance and carefully.

With the general collapse of the country and the absence of significant armed forces of Soviet Russia (by the end of spring 1918, the Red Army, along with internal formations, had only 116 thousand infantrymen and 7940 cavalrymen) 45-50 thousand armed representatives of two peoples of Central Europe, speaking 25 May, in a matter of weeks, the vast territories of the Trans-Volga region, the Urals, Siberia and the Russian Far East took control.

Immediately after the beginning of the Czechoslovak insurgency, Russia's former allies in the Entente announced that it was necessary to save the Czechs and Slovaks from the Bolsheviks. 29 June, on the day when the Czechoslovakians occupied Vladivostok, British troops also arrived there. The Japanese armed forces already in Vladivostok were reinforced. And soon the 120 of thousands of foreign interventionists came out to defend the Czechs and Slovaks. In addition to the British and Japanese, military units of Americans, French, Canadians, Italians and even Serbs and Poles landed in Vladivostok.

This is how the time bomb launched by Maugham in the fall of 1917 of the year worked, opening the way not only for the Civil War, but also for full-scale foreign intervention.

The pursuit of gold reserves of Russia

Apparently, not only Transib, but the untold riches that were in its path, were the goal of the Western powers. Speaking at the US 20 Congress on June 1918, Senator Sherman emphasized the need to seize the opportunity to conquer Siberia. The senator stated: "Siberia is a wheat field and pasture for livestock, having the same value as its mineral wealth." In December, at a meeting at the State Department, 1918 outlined a program for the "economic development" of Russia, which provided for the export of 200 thousand tons of goods from our country during the first three to four months. In the future, the pace of export of goods from Russia to the United States should have increased.

The most attractive bait for the interventionists was the country's gold reserves, most of which were taken to Kazan (and a smaller part to Nizhny Novgorod) after the onset of the German and Austrian forces in 1915 year.

After the start of the rebellion of the Czechoslovak Corps, in the middle of June 1918, by order of VI. Lenin's chief commissar of the People’s Bank of the Republic, T.I. Popov ordered Kazan Bank to prepare for a possible evacuation of valuables in Nizhny Novgorod, where a part of the country's gold reserves was already located. To this end, hastily began replacing bags that had rotted from time, in which gold was stored from 1915 of the year.

June 27 in the midst of preparation for the evacuation of the gold reserve commander in chief of the Eastern Front, Social Revolutionary MA Ants summoned the manager of the Kazan branch of the State Bank Marina to himself and demanded to stop preparations for the export of gold, since this, they say, provokes panic. Upon learning of this, Popov from Moscow immediately demanded that the preparatory work be continued, having wired: “Do not flatter yourself with Muravyov’s self-praise.”

Then Muravyov began to prepare the transportation of gold not to Nizhny Novgorod, but to Simbirsk. On July 10, he arrived in Simbirsk himself, where he announced a truce with the White Czechs, the start of the war against Germany and the offensive of the Eastern Front forces on Moscow. However, Muravyev’s rebellion did not last long. Muravyov himself was killed by a Red Army man during the suppression of the rebellion.

Four days before Muraviev's arrival in Simbirsk, 6 in July, riots broke out in Yaroslavl and several other cities of the Upper Volga region under the leadership of the Union for the Defense of Motherland and Freedom, headed by right-wing SR Boris Borisovka. Later, many wondered why Savinkov had rioted in Yaroslavl, Rybinsk, Rostov, Vladimir, Murom, where the forces of the right-wing Social Revolutionaries were small, and not, say, in Kaluga, where they had a powerful organization. It is possible that Nizhny Novgorod and one part of the republic’s gold reserves were one of the targets of the rebels.

On the eve of the rebellion in the Upper Volga region, Savinkov visited Kazan, where he met with his supporters, as well as members of the Serbian corps, ready to rebel as the Czechoslovaks approach Kazan. Savinkov also maintained contacts with the leadership of the Czechoslovak Corps, which were formed during the preparation of the Maugham plot. Even before the start of the insurgency, members of the Union for the Defense of Homeland and Freedom were brought in by Masaryk Immediate Assistant I. Kletsand.

Although Savinkov’s rebellion was suppressed, the Czechoslovak corps’s offensive against Kazan continued. August 5 was still fighting on the outskirts of Kazan, bank employees managed to load 100 boxes of gold into trucks. They were taken out of Kazan. However, the bulk of the gold reserves could not be removed, and the Czechoslovak detachments, assisted by members of the Serbian corps, seized the Kazan branch of the State Bank.

But in September, the Reds launched an offensive. As they approached Kazan, it was decided to evacuate the gold to Ufa, where by that time the so-called "State Conference" was convened, which chose the "Provisional All-Russian Government" (it was called the "Ufa Directory").

The total amount of valuables exported from Samara to Ufa was 1 billion 100 million gold rubles. However, much of this cargo disappeared along the way.

When they again began to evacuate him eastward in October 1918 of the year, this time to Omsk, the valuable cargo was placed not in five, but in two railway echelons.

As far as moving eastward, stocks of gold and other jewels began to melt again. When in May 1919 of the year in Omsk, an audit of gold reserves exported from Kazan was carried out, the total value of gold and other valuables was 651 532 117 rubles 86 kopecks, that is, 2 times less than its estimated value in Samara. In the future, the gold reserves began to decline again as the Kolchak government paid them with the Western powers for supplying his army. At the same time, neither weapons nor uniforms were delivered to Russia.

Explaining the meaning of the policies of the Western powers towards Russia, the British Ambassador to France, Lord Bertie, wrote in his 6 December 1918 diary: “There is no more Russia! It broke up, the emperor and religion disappeared, which connected different nations of the Orthodox faith. If only we will be able to achieve independence of the buffer states bordering on Germany in the east, that is, Finland, Poland, Estonia, Ukraine, etc., and no matter how many were able to fabricate, then, in my opinion, the rest can go to hell and cook in their own juice. "

In the meantime, the Red Army approached Omsk and the gold reserves were again being prepared for transportation. October 31 1919, he was taken from Omsk Bank to the station. There, gold was loaded into 29 cars, and on November 12, two trains with these cars, guarded by the Czechoslovak Corps, left Omsk. Admiral Kolchak rode in one of these echelons with his government.

12 January 1920, the red partisans presented an ultimatum to the Czechoslovakians: they are ready to let them go east on the condition that they give Kolchak, members of his government and cars with a gold reserve to the authorities in Irkutsk, which by this time was in the hands of the rebels. During the negotiations, Czechoslovakians accepted the terms of the ultimatum. A mixed guard of partisans and Czechoslovakians was created to guard trains with Kolchak and gold.

Later, as historian Vladlen Sirotkin pointed out, the Czechoslovakia "ensured the protection of these valuables and official representatives of the" Chekhovsk "signed protocols on the surrender of the remains of the Kazan treasure to the coalition political center of Irkutsk, which already at the last stage (March 18 1920) finally gave" gold echelon "to his commander - Bolshevik-security officer Kosukhin, and he finally delivered this echelon 3 of May 1920 to Kazan".

The last circumstance is paid attention by those Czech historians who claim that their compatriots, having held gold, silver, etc. for almost two years, returned everything to the last ingot and the last precious jewel. However, Sirotkin had reason to doubt the veracity of these allegations. He pointed out that after returning to Kazan, it turned out that "" the Kazan treasure "had noticeably" lost "- on whole 27 Pullman four-axle cars from those 40 that were loaded completely at the time of sending gold from Samara at the end of September 1918." .

Suspicions that the rapid development of Czechoslovakia after the 1918 year was largely due to the use of the gold stolen in Russia has not yet subsided.

Of course, the damage from the possible theft of a part of the gold reserves by the Czechoslovak legionnaires does not exhaust the damage that was inflicted on our country by their performance of the full-scale Civil War 1918 - 1920. and foreign intervention. Their result was the ruin of the country. Production in various industries fell to 4 - 20% of the pre-war level. Damage was caused to agriculture, deprived of the supply of industrial goods. Over a dozen million people died in battles, from indiscriminate massacres, famine and disease. Such were the grave consequences of the now forgotten conspiracy of British intelligence, which was directly led by prominent English writer US Maugham.
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  1. makarov
    makarov 9 November 2013 09: 08 New
    +4
    It remains unclear why a number of writers are drawn to the spy industry? There are many such measurements. Probably the reason is the craving for thrills (!), And maybe in the "golden body".
  2. Dimy4
    Dimy4 9 November 2013 10: 14 New
    +7
    Kolchak’s government paid them with the Western powers for the supply of his army.

    But now the directors are shooting well, very patriotic tearful films about the "noble savior" of Russia, Admiral Kolchak. They simply do not have enough brains to understand that they are now living in a country that the Bolsheviks saved from ruin and practically from destruction.
    1. smile
      smile 9 November 2013 11: 55 New
      +2
      Dimy4
      Indeed, it is disgusting to listen to the cry of modern Yaroslavl about white knights tearing Russia to pieces in the interests of various sponsors, from Japanese and Americans to some Latvians and Finns. Just imagine what would have remained of Russia, if not for the Bolsheviks - a dozen bloodless colonies, with administrations under external French. English, American, and even some external management, living at the expense of concessions, like African semi-colonies of the 20 century .... and Polsk from Mozhzh, and Great Suomi with Peter, renamed the Finnish way, and Murmansk and Arkhangelsk under Anglo-Saxons, and The Far East is the scene of a fight between the Americans and the Japanese over Russian land .... Yeah, the bad Bolsheviks prevented such prosperity, the villains ... they also treated the enemies intolerantly ...
      1. samoletil18
        samoletil18 9 November 2013 18: 40 New
        +1
        They fought to maintain their position, for the most part
  3. Wiruz
    Wiruz 9 November 2013 10: 27 New
    +7
    Not so long ago I saw some Russian documentary about the murders of Litvinenko and Berezovsky, and so there they interviewed a KGB veteran. He told a lot of interesting things, I don’t remember everything, but among other things, he said that the CIA is essentially garbage, the British special services have always been and remain the main adversary of the KGB and the Union (and now Russia), which, according to only them Reasons, fiercely hated by Russians.
    1. smile
      smile 9 November 2013 12: 01 New
      +6
      Wiruz
      Well, the reasons have long been known and quite intelligible - since the 18th century we have been like a bone in the throat of the Anglo-Saxons along the path of establishing world domination. And they do not care, we have the Communists or the monarchy. The main goal is Russia and Russians. If we compare their propaganda in the 19th century, in 20 and 21, it turns out that they write the same thing and literally the same words, only changes — tsarism, Bolshevism, communism and Putin’s totalitarian regime ....
  4. Wiruz
    Wiruz 9 November 2013 10: 34 New
    +5
    By the way, here is a documentary from the SVR, which, among other things, says that England was an ally of Hitler and also had its own plans for the Union’s lands
  5. avg
    avg 9 November 2013 15: 49 New
    +3
    It is high time for the gay people to roll out the lawsuit, in which, at least starting from Napoleon, the damage should be calculated. And on any allegations of stupidity stupidly demand restoration of historical justice.hi
    1. Alex
      Alex 12 January 2014 16: 22 New
      +2
      Quote: avg
      It is high time for the gay people to roll out the lawsuit, in which, at least starting from Napoleon, the damage should be calculated.
      As a purebred Ukrainian ( wink ), I can’t insert my five cents:
      LAUNCH ANGLES HETMAN GOLD GRAVES WILL BE RETURNED !!! AND ALWAYS WITH RELIABLE INTEREST !!! angry lol
  6. Enot-poloskun
    Enot-poloskun 9 November 2013 17: 15 New
    +3
    I quote: “The senator declared:“ Siberia is a wheat field and pastures for livestock, which have the same value as its mineral wealth. ”In December 1918, at a meeting at the State Department, a program was outlined for the“ economic development ”of Russia, providing for the export 200 thousand tons of goods from our country within the first three to four months. In the future, the rate of export of goods from Russia to the United States should have increased. "

    Outraged.

    Why are the goals of Europeans and Americans always just to rob?

    Before Hitler, oh how far it was ...
  7. Jarserge
    Jarserge 9 November 2013 18: 33 New
    +3
    England, together with the United States being the godfather and mother of Adolf Aloisevich, left the Second World War in different weight categories. So England from Great Britain actually turned into one of the states of the USA. Since since then they do not have their own voice but follow in the wake of the river with an eye on the Americans. So talking about England as an independent state is simply ridiculous; they cannot spoil the air without agreement with the United States
    1. Alex
      Alex 12 January 2014 16: 24 New
      +2
      Quote: Jarserge
      England, together with the United States being the godfather and mother of Adolf Aloisevich, left the Second World War in different weight categories. So England from Great Britain actually turned into one of the states of the USA. Since since then they do not have their own voice but follow in the wake of the river with an eye on the Americans. So talking about England as an independent state is simply ridiculous; they cannot spoil the air without agreement with the United States
      And they also turned into a real garbage collector for any scum like Litvinenko and Berezovsky, which even the Americans don’t want to bother.
  8. mountain
    mountain 9 November 2013 19: 14 New
    +4
    England This is that prostitute and. as soon as the United States blows, parvut and this whore. No need to walk a long way, recent events with the wiretapping of all NATO friends and girlfriends, England is again implicated. She’s not a single tire.
  9. Corsair5912
    Corsair5912 9 November 2013 20: 20 New
    +5
    In 1917, British intelligence officials sent Maugham to Russia. The writer recalled: "My instructions demanded that I make contact with forces hostile to the government and prepare a plan that would keep Russia from withdrawing from the war." Although the Entente countries, including Britain, were in no hurry to help Russia with weapons, they feared the conclusion of peace on the Eastern Front. To prevent it, they planned to carry out a coup d'etat in Russia.

    The Naglo-Saxons wanted Russian soldiers to die for the interests of Small Britain. And after all, they found bastards in Russia who were ready to drive Russian peasants to the front.
    The Bolsheviks were right that they left the war and handed over the Social Revolutionary bastard, who sold Russia to the British.
    1. Shur
      Shur 10 November 2013 13: 48 New
      -1
      Only the terror of red dragged on right up to Nikita Khrushchev. The bright beginnings of some passed into the dictatorship of others. And then everything wilted. Something important did not happen, there was no continuity. Khrushchev failed all, well removed, but late. And then a dead end. The red elders faded. They all pissed off, not the people.
  10. Mature naturalist
    Mature naturalist 9 November 2013 22: 10 New
    +6
    Suspicions that the rapid development of Czechoslovakia after the 1918 year was largely due to the use of the gold stolen in Russia has not yet subsided.

    No suspicion, everything is obvious. Look at Prague, at the quarters in the historical part of the city - all pre-war, solid, multi-storey. Building almost at the same time.
    Where else could the Czechs get so much money for a construction site. They have no oil. Only beer, which even neighbors pour in.
  11. 1536
    1536 9 November 2013 23: 11 New
    -4
    Quote: smile
    Dimy4
    Indeed, it is disgusting to listen to the cry of modern Yaroslavl about white knights tearing Russia to pieces in the interests of various sponsors, from Japanese and Americans to some Latvians and Finns. Just imagine what would have remained of Russia, if not for the Bolsheviks - a dozen bloodless colonies, with administrations under external French. English, American, and even some external management, living at the expense of concessions, like African semi-colonies of the 20 century .... and Polsk from Mozhzh, and Great Suomi with Peter, renamed the Finnish way, and Murmansk and Arkhangelsk under Anglo-Saxons, and The Far East is the scene of a fight between the Americans and the Japanese over Russian land .... Yeah, the bad Bolsheviks prevented such prosperity, the villains ... they also treated the enemies intolerantly ...

    Frankly, I'm tired of your comments. Any of your messages does not go further than hanging labels on everyone and everything, according to the principle you understand alone. Don't confuse people. Yes, at first the "Bolsheviks" were not understood by the governments of the Entente countries, and therefore seemed dangerous. I would venture to suggest that these "misunderstandings" were calculated very quickly, and when the Bolsheviks showed their strength, drowning in blood the opposition to their policy within the country with the "red terror", it became clear that, alas, this is the only force in Russia capable of providing the West with more or less tranquil existence. Realizing that it is possible to negotiate with them to their advantage, the governments of Western countries, of course, stopped supporting the so-called opposition in the person of the "white movement", which for the most part advocated the return of that strong Russia, which the West feared like plague throughout new and recent history. This is business, nothing personal. Nobody needs competitors. Everyone has always loved Russian vodka, matryoshka dolls and caviar with champagne. But these brands had to be completely under the control of those who determined and determines policy in the world. I forgot about oil and gas. At that time it was Baku oil and Lena mines. And the royal gold, well, what is the "royal gold"? There have always been dark stories with gold at all times. The mission described in the article is a classic example of the actions of British intelligence for the benefit of their country.
    1. smile
      smile 10 November 2013 00: 47 New
      +2
      1536
      There is such an anecdote - "I don't like Chingachgook - don't eat" ... :))) in the end, you can bring me into an emergency situation and it's all about hat - you won't hear what you don't like, I have something to do with it. :)))

      Who am I labeling in this comment? Which "All"? on which "All"? I am very glad that both supporters of my point of view and opponents perfectly understand by what principle I evaluate certain events and individuals. It's a pity that my simple criteria are incomprehensible to someone ... well, those who do not understand - sorry - it would be better if they did not agree with me ... you know - even with the enemy you can agree ... but with ... narrow-minded - no. :)))

      1. The Red Terror began after the democratic terror began - first, supporters of the Reds in the Baltic states, in Finland, were drowned in blood (and there about 100 thousand Finns were for the Reds - they were subjected to total extermination). Everywhere on the outskirts, "whites supported the separatists" who drowned in blood all local supporters of the Reds, who wanted to preserve their territories within Russia ..
      All the White Movements, both Wrangel, and Kolchak, and the Czechs, in the end, and in general, h..know who - they all had different sponsors. Different states of the Entente relied on different figures.
      Some wanted to take control of the Trans-Siberian Railway, Others - the Far East, others created buffer states, fourth tried to turn Odessa into a free city, in general, all port cities had to be taken under the control of the Entente.
      White knights agreed - they do not care about Russia. the main thing for them is to exterminate and restore the estates and privileges of the Bolsheviks, and the fact that Russia is being helped to tear to shreds is not the most important thing ...
      Britain concluded treaties with its white knight allies ... different, for example, for transferring Turkestan to their use for 50 years, with the provision of local rights similar to those of the Negroes of the Orange Republic and Transvaal. :)))
      This is specifically indicated in the contract - if you want, I'll find it tomorrow. And in general I can get bogged down tomorrow 3-4 such as this one in terms of detailed comments but only with documents and quotes. You then will become very sad ... :)))

      That's it, I have to finish ... my name is to the table.
      If you want me to answer - write, a description of what white movements I need to give from those that, in your opinion, really were not someone else's puppet - that you do not specify, I will not describe, because I will consider that even you consider them to be independent.
      I’ll answer tomorrow at lunch in Moscow ... but I would like you to answer my tomorrow's comments ... at least something ... is it coming? I just want to look at your pale look - I'm sorry, here I am so vindictive ... :)))
      So,
      1. 1536
        1536 10 November 2013 09: 10 New
        -1
        Did you eat? Flushed, I suppose. At the table, probably, you could tell the cutlets from the flies? For sure, yes. Write about the conclusion by representatives of the Entente countries of treaties with participants in the "white movement". Do you seriously not understand why this was done? And this comparison with blacks in general does not climb into any gate, you know, my dear. And there is no need to "bang" anything, please. Calmer. You just have to admit one thing. Each country playing its role in the international arena, sometimes a great role, has had, has and always will have long-term interests determined by the socio-economic and political development of these countries, it is easier to say by its ruling elite in power. If you look at Russian history through this prism, you will understand a lot.
        1. smile
          smile 10 November 2013 13: 29 New
          0
          1536
          I ate. Thank you. :)))
          And what do I need to admit? Do you really have to admit the banality that you said? This is so clear to everyone. But do you remember how we started the controversy? Yes, that's it. that each country acted in its own interests ... and only the White Knights acted in the interests of those countries. that at the moment they were their sponsors .... like that. And you need to admit it.

          And what did you dislike about the mention of blacks? It was your white knights who signed this. In the actual text of the treaty, it was indicated that the population of Turkestan was transferred "under the exclusive influence of England" which would enjoy the same independence as the English colonies of the Transvaal. The Orange Republic will have the rights granted to the Zulus. All of them there were even too lazy to specify in the contract - what these rights are - sold, sold ... after such reproaches against the Bolsheviks shamefully fade ... :)))
          1. 11111mail.ru
            11111mail.ru 10 November 2013 22: 43 New
            -1
            Quote: smile
            the population of Turkestan transferred "under the exclusive influence of England" which will enjoy the same independence as the English colonies of the Transvaal. The Orange Republic will have the rights granted to the Zulus. All of them there were even too lazy to specify in the contract - what these rights are - sold - sold it ... after such reproaches against the Bolsheviks shyly fade

            So what did the creators of the 3rd Comintern respond to such and such passages?
            "We will respond to any adherence to principles with complete unprincipledness" - approximately so Leiba Davidovich Bronstein said.
            And the defeat of N.N. Yudenich is only explained by the denial of the priority of the international over the national.
            Do not distort, dear, candelabra while they are in designated areas.
            Cancellation of the Brest peace with its obscene appendices (for some reason, secret protocols to it with the signatures of the corresponding power holders of the Soviet government and the German authorities were not considered by the public by the "democratic" press, unlike the notorious Molotov-Ribentrop pact), had to be done after the Compiegne Armistice.
        2. 11111mail.ru
          11111mail.ru 10 November 2013 22: 07 New
          -1
          What is sober on the mind, then your opponent has the language. Yes, and I will not oppose you, but only you didn’t see the agreements you mentioned live, and we don’t even have a dialect of almost 100 years ago, as well as knowledge of the undercover realities of that time to read a diplomatic document with understanding all aspects of the preamble to the relevant text in the relevant context. The history of events therefore is written and edited in such a way that other users could not turn the text of a specific agreement in favor of a specific person who has read the existing agreement!
      2. 11111mail.ru
        11111mail.ru 10 November 2013 21: 50 New
        -1
        Quote: smile
        . understand - even with the enemy you can agree ... but with .... near-minded - no. :

        Only specialists have the right to establish the degree of compliance of this individual with medical indicators! Your presentation diploma! Commission members with relevant documents too! And quick! And then alcohol, individuals opposing!
        1. smile
          smile 11 November 2013 01: 06 New
          -1
          11111mail.ru
          Ohohoh ... how much aplomb ... dear poor fellow, what is the degree of illiteracy you should have if you considered the word "narrow-minded" I used to be a "medical indicator" ... :)))
          even if they google it and recognize the term "diagnosis", this is also stupid, but the expression - your quote - "the degree of compliance of a given individual with medical indicators, only specialists have the right!" sounds generally absurd ... :))) Who are medical indicators? :))) What does it mean - the correspondence of an individual to these very indicators? :))) .... both laughter and sin, and these people demand some kind of medical commission to establish that someone is narrow-minded ... :)))) and a diploma :))) and more about alcoholism broadcast ... without any surveys :)))

          Thundered senility, and fingers bent ... :)))))
          Congratulations on .. :)))
          1. 11111mail.ru
            11111mail.ru 11 November 2013 17: 52 New
            -1
            Quote: smile
            even if they googled and found out

            You have expressed your quote and horizons and a way to expand your intellectual boundaries! Unlike your methodology of unconditional reliance on network publications, I rely on the totality of my knowledge, gleaned, in view of age, mainly from PRINTED BOOKS. The eclecticism of your answer indicates a peculiar chastity in comprehension of the questions presented to you.
            Quote: smile
            ... :)))

            Quote: smile
            :)))

            The characters you specified in the form of closing "parentheses" do not match the text you quoted. Where, then, are the open parentheses separating the main function from the argument? (I hope that at least such concepts: argument, function are familiar to you from the high school curriculum ?!). Pay attention to the last two paragraphs of your answer to me. There, the number of your reflections in writing clearly does not correspond to the number of parentheses used. Moreover, in the comments to this article, only you used folding, but not your opponents, hence the thundering ma ... zm and your sincere congratulations on the incident that happened to you, as you announced in the last paragraph of your comment. I express my sincere sympathy!
            1. smile
              smile 12 November 2013 11: 49 New
              -1
              11111mail.ru
              1. You have not explained why the "body of your knowledge" is so insignificant that you allow yourself phrases like "Only specialists have the right to establish the degree of compliance of a given individual with medical indicators!"
              I have clearly shown you that the phrase is absurd and illiterate from a medical point of view. But you, apparently, didn’t even understand this? ... What, brains were not enough? :)))

              Your addiction to high-flown words looks pitiful against the background of general illiteracy. One gets the impression that you are memorizing them :)))

              Further. Here you say, "You have expressed with your quote and horizons and expanding your intellectual boundaries! In contrast to your methodology of unconditional reliance on network publications"
              Well, who told you that a person seems smarter if he starts talking pretentiously? Especially if he carries nonsense. :)))
              Well, where did you, unfortunate person, get information about "methods of expanding my horizons"? This is really funny. Not only did I begin to "expand" it when there were no personal computers yet, so I declare that printed books are better. than books digitized can only be a complete ignoramus ... or someone who has not seen anything but books ... artistic. :)))
              The fact that you attacked my emoticons, I understand ... this is from powerlessness :))) do not worry ... :)))

              But your phrase "The eclecticism of your answer testifies to a kind of cetanism in understanding the questions presented to you." amused again. Not only is eclecticism under great doubt, but also the use of the word "pedagogy" in this context is impossible in principle. This is the most terrible illiteracy ... you at school did not try to teach the rules of the Russian language? But in vain - now they would not look so ... an illiterate person who has memorized a few words that he considers smart ... :)))

              Thanks for the answer. sincerely laughed.
              Advice - do not pretend to be a creepy intellectual, especially using artsy speech and words that are unfamiliar to you. :))) It looks pretty silly. :))) Pay more attention to the content of your comments, and not to the form, and you will no longer be considered a swaggering empty-handed. :)))
              1. 11111mail.ru
                11111mail.ru 12 November 2013 19: 49 New
                -1
                Explain, highly intelligent: what information do you carry in your messages: ":)))"? Some kind of computer newspeak? Or is it bursting so much that there are not enough normal words for self-expression? Why are you trying to level all your opponents under the plinth? Are you constantly drunk or high? The trend, however ...
                1. smile
                  smile 12 November 2013 21: 43 New
                  0
                  11111mail.ru
                  You know, unlike you, I quite simply, without stitches, set forth my thoughts.
                  You are trying not to express thoughts, but to show off.
                  You see, if you weren't showing off, I wouldn't have caught you on the wildest illiteracy and on the fact that you are subject to a rather ridiculous habit of using words whose meaning is not clear to you, but which, in your understanding, are used by "smart people".
                  I don’t cling to this usually ... but for your sake you allowed yourself to deviate from the rules - you really beg for it and you are too short for a person who claims to be an intellectual esthete juggling with words.

                  And to be honest, I’m too lazy to answer your personal attacks :))) it’s very pathetic and helpless you get it .... neglect ... :))) Shake yourself, google, ask for help from a friend, and try again. I’ll stop by later and see what you’ve got .... :))) And if you succeed, I promise you not to punish ... :))))
            2. 11111mail.ru
              11111mail.ru 12 November 2013 19: 35 New
              -1
              Smiley, promote once again bet, otherwise the rating for some reason does not change per day?
        2. 11111mail.ru
          11111mail.ru 11 November 2013 18: 04 New
          -1
          Smirk, don’t minus in vain. For example, I do not deny the opponent a priori, I think that other participants in the discussion should judge, unless, of course, this is not a scumbag.
    2. 11111mail.ru
      11111mail.ru 10 November 2013 21: 19 New
      0
      Quote: 1536
      a classic example of British intelligence for the benefit of their country.

      The cinematographic staff of "Shurik" would say: bird..itschka..alco. But a real statesman - Alexander III, would remember the words of Nikolai Pavlovich's grandfather (not "palkin", but the last KNIGHT on the throne: And the Englishwoman - SHITS!
  12. Stasi
    Stasi 10 November 2013 18: 11 New
    0
    England has always intrigued and plotted against Russia in every possible way, this can be traced as a red thread throughout its history. As for the cooperation of writers with the special services, this is quite understandable: from the special services they received data and information that they used in writing, and they supplied the special services with their ideas and plans, the fruits of intellectual labor. Such writers as Ian Fleming, famous for his James Bond novels, and Tom Clancy, the author of the novel "Red Storm", in which NATO and the USSR clashed in a war against each other but did not dare to use nuclear weapons, collaborated with the secret services. In the practice of Western intelligence services, it has become quite common to use for planning operations and in every possible way to use ideas gleaned from world literature, as well as to study ideas from science fiction. If we talk about England, then its era is coming to an end despite all the efforts of the British elite. The place of the British is increasingly occupied by immigrants from Muslim and Asian countries, the proportion of the white population is declining.
    1. 11111mail.ru
      11111mail.ru 10 November 2013 22: 53 New
      0
      [quote = Stasi] England has always been intriguing and intriguing in every way against Russia, this is a red thread in its entire history.
      It was not noticed by us, dear, even Nikolai Alexandrovich, "the palkin, who sternly reprimanded the awesome Decembrists," loved to comment: and the Englishwoman - SHOOT! That's because the Russian monarch had a CHUTYO! Which was confirmed after the Sinop VICTORY!
  13. Savva30
    Savva30 10 November 2013 19: 15 New
    0
    Velvet paws hide sharp claws - Velvet paws hide sharp claws
  14. mehmeh
    mehmeh 6 December 2014 11: 52 New
    0
    What country do you live in? The heroes exhibit destructive elements are the Decembrists Solzhenitsyn dissidents and in the regions nationalists are separatists.
    Everywhere there is a policy similar to the Ukrainization of Ukraine as in an alliance. literally by tribe. Divide the country. Perm Komi and so on and type
    Organized and purposefully everything is as in a union ((