History Cities began 10 May 1932, when the ships "Comintern" and "Columbus" landed on the Amur coast, near the village of Perm, about a thousand builders of the future city. Today, this event is reminiscent of a memorial stone and a monument to the builders. The city was officially formed by the Decree of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee on December 10 1932 of the year.
Memorial stone on the embankment in Komsomolsk-on-Amur
The new city on the bank of the Amur was conceived as the center of the defense industry in the Far East. From the very beginning of the construction of the city, aviation, shipbuilding and metallurgical enterprises were laid.
The construction itself was carried out in the most difficult conditions. Despite the fact that Komsomolsk-on-Amur is located south of Moscow (approximately at the latitude of Belgorod and Voronezh), according to its climatic characteristics, it is equated to the regions of the Far North. Snow cover in the Komsomolsk region falls in late October - early November, and comes down in late April. The average annual air temperature is 1,5 ° C.
Extreme climatic factors: in summer - sweltering heat combined with high humidity and midges, in winter - frosts below –40 ° C and strong wind. Poor living conditions and logistics, monotonous and often inadequate nutrition have led to a shortage of manpower at construction sites. On 1 on April 1934 of the 2500 Komsomol members who arrived for construction, there were 460 people available, the rest left the site in various ways. This shortage was soon partially compensated by military builders, and to a greater extent by prisoners.
In the vicinity of the city, many “zones” of Amurlag were built, a significant part of their inhabitants remained in the Far Eastern land forever.
Contrary to all the difficulties, the enterprises built as soon as possible actively produced defense products during the war years, contributing to the victory. The industry of the city supplied: ferrous metal, warships and airplanes.
After the war, Komsomolsk-on-Amur was actively developing. Housing was built at a rapid pace, industrial output increased. The status of the city as the main producer of military high-tech products has increased even more. By the end of 80-x at Komsomolsk-on-Amur aviation production association them. Yu. A. Gagarin (KnAAPO) mastered the mass production of X-NUMX-generation Su-4 fighters. Shipyard № 27 named after Lenin Komsomol (ZLK) built the DPL Ave 199 and submarine Ave 877.
In 1986, in the Amurstal metallurgical plant, in addition to the existing capacities, the following electric steel melting shop (EFHC-2) and the Rolled profiling shop (Prokat-3) were launched. To meet the needs for heat and electricity, CHP-3 and numerous power transmission lines have been built.
Increased production and other enterprises of the civil sector. In agriculture, there was a high growth rate in animal husbandry. In the middle of the 80-s, a number of livestock-raising complexes (now completely destroyed) were erected, which made it possible to mainly satisfy local meat needs. Suburban state farms grew vegetables in considerable quantities, adapted to local conditions. Now all food products are imported from other regions and the PRC.
The population of Komsomolsk-on-Amur reached its peak in 1991, and amounted to -318000 people. In reality, the number of residents was much higher, taking into account the numerous military units and ITK located in the vicinity - at least 350000 people.
If you do not take into account military personnel and prisoners, the main factors holding the able-bodied population in the region were high wages, northern benefits, and the ability to quickly get comfortable housing.
The city since its foundation is inextricably linked with the military. For a long time, it remained closed. This is due to the large number of defense enterprises, as well as the geographical location of the city, which, in the event of military threats, remains the only city located on the BAM-e, remote from the maritime theaters of military operations (240 km) and the state border (300 km).
At present, most military units are disbanded, equipment has been removed or “utilized”, and military camps that have been well-equipped in the past have been abandoned and looted.
With the collapse of the USSR and the beginning of the "economic reforms" at the industrial enterprises of the city there was a collapse in production.
The government of the country began to consider the Far Eastern region a burden for the country's economy. The statement of Prime Minister E. Gaidar, who visited the city on October 1 on October 1993, is well known: “In these parts, it’s enough to leave 30 of thousands of people for logging.”
It would seem that the coming “well-fed” 2000-s and sufficient financial resources that were at the disposal of the country's leadership should have changed the attitude towards the Far East. However, this did not happen: the money was invested in anything, but not in the development of the territory.
Hopes for foreign investment in industry and processing industries from China, Korea and Japan proved to be untenable. It is naive to believe (taking into account unfavorable climatic factors, high level of corruption, administrative arbitrariness and expensive energy resources) that foreign investors will invest in the development of Far Eastern territories. It is much easier for them to receive raw materials and energy from us, and at prices that are much lower than in Russia itself.
As an example of an extremely short-sighted approach, one can cite the activities of Chinese timber harvesting companies in the Khabarovsk Territory.
Far Eastern taiga
What is the point of the Chinese paying our leshozes a good price for the forest when they themselves harvest in the far eastern taiga? Without worrying about forest reproduction and leaving behind a desert.
What remains after the Chinese "loggers"
The general perplexity among the inhabitants of the region is caused by the tariff policy of the authorities in the field of electricity and automobile fuel. It’s impossible to call it as the suffocating one. The cost of a kilowatt / hour in Komsomolsk is 3,47 ruble. In the near future, the introduction of the so-called “social norm” is expected, i.e. energy to the population will cost even more. This is despite the fact that there is an excess of generating capacity in the region, and the “surplus” energy is supplied to China at prices many times smaller than for its own consumers!
The inhabitants of the region from the Zeyskaya and Bureiskaya HPPs built have nothing but environmental problems and the deterioration of the hydrological regime in the Amur.
During the next press conference on the question of V. Putin about why this is happening, no clear answer was received.
In response, there was a verbiage about the globalization of the economy, freedom of pricing, tariff policy, etc.
Fuel prices at gas stations in Komsomolsk-on-Amur
All this applies to the price of gasoline, which inevitably affects the final prices for food in retail outlets.
The introduction of fair prices for electricity and fuel, tax breaks in the real sector of the economy, the construction of roads and housing could give a real impetus to the development of the Far Eastern territories.
But, apparently, to pump money into the Caucasian regions, Olympiads, US securities for our leadership closer and more familiar.
Environmental problems are especially acute in comparison with other Far Eastern cities in Komsomolsk-on-Amur. Groundwater, small water bodies are polluted, the main source of water intake - Amur - is subject to strong anthropogenic impact. Due to the constructed hydroelectric power stations and the discharge of sewage in the upper part of the Amur (in particular, this is the city of Khabarovsk, as well as settlements of China) there is a high bacterial contamination, which does not allow it to be used for recreational purposes and forces to chlorine drinking water with higher doses, which leads to the exacerbation of the problem of the formation of carcinogenic organochlorine compounds.
Komsomolsk-on-Amur is a “risk area” for the incidence of leukemia, malignant tumors of the skin and respiratory organs. The incidence of cancer is increased - up to 403,9 per 100 thousand population. Skin cancer prevails in the incidence structure - 16,1%, trachea, bronchus and lung cancer - 13,8%, breast cancer - 10,6%, female genital organs - 8,2%, stomach cancer - 7,9%.
There greatest groundwater contamination compared to Krai cities - chlorides (to 520 mg / dm3 - 1,5 MPC), lead (0,039 mg / dm3 - 1,3 MPC), cadmium (0,0063 mg / dm3 - 6,3 MPC), beryllium (0,0018 mg / dm3 - 9 MPC), aluminum (2,58 mg / dm3 - 5,16 MPC), titanium (1,556 mg / dm3 - 15,56 MPC).
After the elimination of the forest protection service in the spring-summer period, taiga and peat bogs burn around the city. Smoke and smoke from forest fires leads to a high concentration of carbon monoxide, several times higher than the MPC. Visibility on the roads may be less than 100 m.
In the summer of 2012, emissions of “unknown gases” occurred at the Komsomolsk Refinery. The situation was the scale of this ecological disaster. However, representatives of Rosneft, despite the strong smell of gas and deterioration of health among many residents of the city for a long time, continued to deny everything.
Health care in the city is a polyclinic and outpatient. To obtain better medical care, residents are forced to turn to medical organizations in Khabarovsk, Moscow, and Novosibirsk.
Severe climatic conditions, environmental problems, lack of improvement, lack of affordable housing, and, most importantly, low wages and higher tariffs and prices compared to central regions, lead to a massive outflow of people from the city. First of all, the most active part of the population is leaving - the youth.
It turns out a vicious circle. The low level of remuneration at the industrial enterprises of the city leads to personnel hunger and a lack of qualified labor, which is an obstacle to increasing the production of high-tech products.
T-50 produced by KnAAZ at MAKS-2011 air show
Even at an enterprise like Komsomolsky-on-Amur aviation Yu.A. Gagarin Plant (KnAAZ OJSC), where Su-35 fighters are manufactured, the PAK FA program is being implemented, Sukhoi Superjet 100 airliners are being assembled, and there is an acute shortage of workers. With an average factory wage of 42000 rubles. (which is like the "average temperature in the hospital, taking into account the morgue"), the real salary of the collector-riveter is 25000 rubles. The difference is the money received by "effective managers."
At the Amur Shipyard the situation with the level of wages is even worse.
This once flourishing enterprise, due to the absence of a defense order and theft of leadership, has been brought to bankruptcy.
The promises made during a visit to the plant shortly before the elections by the current president about the state order and financial investments remained just words.
Moreover, not so long ago it became known that submarines would no longer be built at the NEA. And after all, the enterprise was “sharpened” for their production.
Not less questions cause actions of local and regional authorities.
The position of the head of the city since 1991 has been permanently held by an honorary citizen of the city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Candidate of Economic Sciences, a member of the party "ER" from 10.02.2006, Vladimir Petrovich Mikhalev.
Vladimir Petrovich Mikhalev - Candidate of Economic Sciences
V.P. Mikhalev was awarded with state awards: the Order “For Merit to the Fatherland”, IV degree (2007), the medals “For Labor Valor” (1981) and “For the Construction of the Baikal-Amur Railway” (1988), the Order of Honor (1998), Order of the "Holy Prince Daniel of Moscow" - II degree (2001), the medal "200 years of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia" (2002), the medal "300 years of the Russian Fleet"(2004), was awarded the Main All-Russian Public Prize" Russian National Olympus "in the personal nomination" Mayor of the Year 2002-2003 ", with the diploma and public order" For Honor and Valor "(2003), the first three times Hero of the Soviet Union A.I. Pokryshkin "(2004).
According to official data, the number of residents in the city has decreased from 318 600 to 257 800 residents during the management of the city by this honored and treated person by the authorities. In reality, the outflow of the population is much greater, in Komsomolsk-on-Amur residents are moving from nearby Amursk and Solnechny, where living conditions, the situation with employment and remuneration is even worse. The villages along the BAM are almost deserted, the lack of work, basic amenities and any prospects forces people to leave their homes and move to Komsomolsk.
Many industrial enterprises ceased to exist, and the majority of those who remained with difficulty survive. In order to "save" eliminated a number of educational and health facilities. Housing construction has practically ceased, many roads even in the city center are in unsatisfactory condition.
On the other hand, numerous shopping centers are being built and, oddly enough in permafrost conditions, fountains.
Barracks built 30-ies on Pioneer Street (almost in the city center)
At the same time, part of the population continues to live in the barracks, built in the middle of the 30-s by the first builders of the city. All the "amenities" in this "housing" are on the street.
A unique feature of the mayor of Komsomolsk is his amazing ability, if necessary, to negotiate and find a common language with anyone.
For example, V.P. Mikhalev got along well with the well-known criminal authority Yevgeny Vasin (Jem).
From the beginning of the 90s, Komsomolsk-on-Amur began to enjoy the dubious fame of the "criminal capital" of the Far Eastern region.
The influence of “Jem” and the “Obshchak” organized criminal group created by it was very great. Members of Obshchak were engaged in extortion with impunity, putting under control or imposing a tribute to many enterprises and many entrepreneurs. With those who did not agree to pay, they brutally cracked down. The level of thefts, robberies and car thefts was extremely high. Representatives of this criminal group 23 on April 1995 of the year in the Leninsky district of Komsomolsk-on-Amur were bombarded with a police grenade.
Despite numerous crimes committed by members of the Obshchak and appeals from citizens, the authorities limited themselves to half measures, at best, bringing to justice the ordinary members of the criminal group.
At the beginning of the 1990-s, Vasin organized a youth camp on the Amur island of Malaikin near Komsomolsk-on-Amur. There, almost legally, adolescents from dysfunctional families underwent combat training and were trained in thieving "concepts."
Only an arson of 22 in February 2001 of the year by members of the organized crime group Cafe "Enchantress", which led to mass death of people and caused widespread protests among city residents, led to the arrest of Jem. Thieves in law thus expected to strike at the owner of the "Sorceress", who did not pay tribute to "Obshchak."
During the attack, gangsters in masks threw the premises with incendiary cans (including at the threshold to cut off the road to the exit). The flames quickly spread to the crowded cafe. As a result of the arson, four people burned alive (and they did not die from burns - they were actually cremated alive, the bodies of the dead were charred to the bone), another four died in the hospital, over twenty people received burns, many of them were disabled. People who managed to escape from the cafe, on the street peeled skin. All the dead and most of the victims were young people between the ages of 15 and 25.
On charges of this crime, Vasin was arrested and soon died in the Khabarovsk SIZO, according to the official version, from heart failure.
However, everything that happened had no effect on the leadership of the city.
The actions of local authorities during the preparation and liquidation of the aftermath of the flood, which for some reason they are bashfully called flooding, deserve a separate assessment.
Komsomolsk-on-Amur embankment near the river station during the flood
A few weeks before the “big water”, when the Amur region was drowned and the flood wave shifted down the Amur, no action was taken. Except, of course, optimistic statements in the local media.
During this time, it was quite realistic to prepare, build up protective dams and avoid flooding large areas. But time was lost, work began when flooding became inevitable.
Only thanks to the selfless actions of conscript soldiers, emergency workers and volunteers from among the local residents managed to avoid flooding the central part of the city.
During the passage of the “peak of the flood”, the activities of the head of the city fell out of sight of the public and the media. In the reports and directly in the flooded areas, only his deputies could be seen. At one time, even residents of Komsomolsk-on-Amur even circulated information about the removal of V.P. Mikhalev with the post.
Vladimir Petrovich showed up when it became clear that the threat of flooding the city was over.
The central areas of the city avoided serious flooding, but the private sector was severely damaged. In many flooded homes, the water level has reached 1,5 meters and more.
Against the background of the approaching winter (the first snow fell in Komsomolsk on October 15), the issues of restoring destroyed housing and paying compensations remain largely unresolved. Apparently, many citizens will have to resolve these issues in court.
Flood streets of the village Parkovy
Nothing, except a bitter smile, does not cause the last 8 of September 2013 of the year, in the midst of a flood, gubernatorial elections. With the turnout of 26%, the current governor Vyacheslav Shport voted 62,48% of voters, i.e. Slightly more than 13% eligible to vote.
Vyacheslav Shport was born and began his career biography in Komsomolsk-on-Amur. He has held various positions at KnAAPO. December 19 1999 was elected to the State Duma of the Russian Federation.
30 April 2009 was appointed by the decree of the President of Russia as the acting governor of the Khabarovsk Territory, replacing the former elected governor, Viktor Ivanovich Ishayev.
Unlike V.I. Ishayev, who did not hesitate to criticize the central government, had his own opinion and demonstrated a certain independence, the current governor always showed loyalty, often to the detriment of the interests of the region.
During his governorship, there were no significant positive changes in the development of the region and his native city.
In 2013, the budget deficit of the Khabarovsk Territory was 15%. To cover it under the guarantees of the regional government, loans were taken from commercial banks. The economic growth planned in 2013 in the region - 103% - most likely will not be achieved. How to extinguish these credit obligations is not clear.
Most likely, it will be necessary to get out of the situation with the help of the next increase in tariffs, local taxes and excises, which are already among the highest in the country. And this will once again lay an additional burden on residents and businesses, reduce the purchasing power of the population and the investment attractiveness of the territory.
The unresolved social and economic problems, the low standard of living, the cutoff due to high transport tariffs from the center, the inattention of the federal authorities to the needs of the Far East - all this leads to an increase in the degree of social discontent and the growth of separatist sentiments.