Military Review

China has become a global locomotive of scientific activity.

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China is gradually taking the leading position in the world in the field of experimental development and scientific research. By the number of patented inventions, the number of publications and citation indexes in 2013, China will surpass Japan, coming to the net 2-th place in the world after the United States. In terms of the number of published scientific papers, China almost caught up with the States and is more likely to overtake them in this indicator in the near future. Such conclusions were made by members of the Royal Society of Great Britain (which is an analogue of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Russia), who appreciated the recent successes of various countries in carrying out scientific activities.


British researchers analyzed a number of indicators, including the number of articles that were published and reviewed in periodical scientific journals (source Scopus scientific articles database). By the number of scientific publications, China has reached the 2-th place. The United States is traditionally located on the first, but if the share of American scientific articles from 1993 to 2003 was at the level of 25%, then from 2004 to 2008 it fell to 21%. During the same time, the same indicator of China grew from 4,4% to 10,2%, which allowed China to take off from 6 to 2 ranking position, passing the UK by the way (the percentage of English scientific works fell from 7,1% to 6,5%).

In addition to the number of scientific publications, the authors of the study studied the number of references to Chinese scientific publications in the works of other authors. This indicator today gives an idea of ​​the quality of the conducted scientific work: the greater the number of scientists mentioning specific work in their articles, the greater its scientific value. Over the same time period, the number of references to Chinese research papers has grown, but not to the level to which the number of publications has grown.

China has become a global locomotive of scientific activity.

It is worth noting that China from the most ancient times was known for its inventions. It was China that gave the world four great discoveries: paper, gunpowder, compass and typography. Despite this, these discoveries did not lead the Celestial Empire to an industrial “explosion” in modern and modern times, as it happened, for example, in Europe (XVII - XVIII centuries) or in neighboring Japan (in the middle of the XIX - early XX centuries). Perhaps it was the insidious British who blamed China on the “opium needle” and were the first foreigners to impose unequal treaties on the country, and perhaps it was the teaching of Confucius, which, according to European sociologists, did not contribute to the formation of active rational thinking in the country .

In any case, Taoist monks and Confucian scholars are in the distant past, and today are more likely to lure tourists. The current China is one of the recognized world leaders. The science of China today is driven by ambitious and young scientists: chemists, physicists, mathematicians, biologists, technologists, programmers, many of whom have been educated abroad and have experience in European and American scientific centers and laboratories. Today, the “highgay” effect (the so-called scientists who returned to China after studying abroad) is working on the development of Chinese and world science. In addition, one should not discount such factors as emigration from China. Nowadays, tens of thousands of scientists of Chinese origin work in elite European and American universities.

At the same time, the leadership of the People's Republic of China (it is worth noting that all the recent leaders of the country consider themselves to be technocrats) pursues an active policy to return home to ethnic Chinese, as well as those who were sent abroad in the 1990-e and 2000-e. After returning home, they receive even more comfortable conditions for work and life than they had. The Chinese government assumes all costs for the purchase of expensive scientific equipment - even if the work is carried out as part of a foreign grant. At the same time, the authorities of the country provide their own “internal” Chinese grants, which today are completely comparable with the Western ones.


The average salary of scientists in the PRC has increased by a factor of 1998-27 since 28. For example, the annual income of an employee of one of the research institutes of the Chinese Academy of Sciences ranges from 25 to 65 thousand dollars per year (average values), but can go up to 150-200 thousand dollars including all grants and fees. A professor at the Beijing National Institute of Biological Sciences for the year earns about 50-60 thousands of dollars. For the Middle Kingdom is just an excellent salary. It is not surprising that today the Chinese view scientists as real pillars of society. Engineers, scientists and professors in Chinese society are increasingly valued every year. Due to the prestige of the profession and the high level of wages (explosive growth), most of the most promising college graduates associate their future life with science. Chinese scientists are constantly experiencing social support for their research from society. Moreover, since 2006, Beijing has been implementing a special program: “An Action Plan to Increase Public Understanding of Science”, which has been worked out until the 2020 year.

There are in the Chinese university education and problems similar to the Russian. The main one is the redundancy of higher education institutions in the country, mainly due to the emergence in recent years of early maturity "academies" and "universities" that do not possess the high quality of student learning. Because of this, the number of graduates exceeds the demand for 20-30% in the country, and the prestige of higher education is reduced.

Despite this, China has a very high quality education. The Institute of the Far East of the Russian Academy of Sciences published its research on building up the scientific and technical power of the PRC. At present, China already occupies a place in the world 1 in terms of the amount of resources allocated (including the instrumentation base) per researcher, and in the number of scientific and technical personnel whose number has already reached 51 a million people, the country also has no equal. And if such a large figure can be tied to the largest population in the world, then you cannot explain the high level of education. In the year 2009 in the number of universities that entered the top 200 universities in the world, China ranked third (11 universities), passing only the United States and the United Kingdom. At the same time, 3 ranks PRC with Holland and Japan, although only a decade ago, the top 200 included only one Chinese university (Fudan in Shanghai).


Problems of Chinese science

The most important problem of science in the PRC is to ensure national innovation development, taking into account the appeal to an intensive economic model, which is based on the development, production and export of Chinese technologies. This is a very difficult task, since before the 2007 of the year, according to the domestic scientist Jacob Berger, the dependence of China’s main industries on imported high-tech components was very high. For example, with the release of automobiles, the PRC depended on foreign developments by approximately 70%, in the manufacture of IT products - by 95%, and in the production of TVs and mobile phones - by 100%.

Until recently, the main problem was that Chinese enterprises did not “digest” foreign technologies to create their own, national ones, often engaging in rather rough and mechanical copying, which was accompanied by copyright infringement. Moreover, Chinese experts have even created special methods for replicating and copying foreign technologies. This way is easier and cheaper, but the strategy of simple copying has fully developed its resource.

In the coming 20 years, the industry and science of the PRC must respond to a new strategic challenge. According to the plans for the development of science and technology in China, by 2020, the country will have to reach the world level in 11-ti main areas of scientific activity, and in 3-5 positions in each of these areas to secure a leading position. By 2050, China expects to create a knowledge economy. In 2006, China adopted a long-term plan for the development of scientific activity, which implies an increase in the financing of science. By 2020, science plans to allocate up to 2,5% of GDP (now at the level of 1,5-1,7% of GDP).


The problem is also the combination of innovation and science. In 2007, the approximate ratio of funding for academic and university science was at the level of 5 to 1, this proportion remains the same now. At the same time, the Chinese leadership is aware that the main thing here is not the amount of funding, but the effectiveness of its use. Nowadays, in conjunction with the Academy of Sciences - University - Ministry - Industrial Enterprise, structures are being developed with the goal of turning industrial facilities into a real base for innovation activities. It's no secret that back in 2003, only 30% of all enterprises in China were covered by OCD.

At the same time, in China, as in Russia, the Academy of Sciences was reformed. However, in the Middle Kingdom they did not merge various academies into one, retaining their core specialization and independence. For example, CAS - Chinese Academy of Sciences - is engaged in the development of physics, mathematics, chemistry, information technology, biotechnology, medicine, etc. CAON - Chinese Academy of Social Sciences - specializes in economics, stories, international relations, sociology, law, philosophy. KIA - Chinese Academy of Engineering - works in the field of metallurgy, mechanical engineering, construction, heavy and light industry, agriculture.

In China, the reduction of scientific institutions. In CAS - from 123 to 92, and in CAON - from 152 to 112, with a simultaneous increase in funding (to 40%). The organization of any “property management agencies” and rental of premises in China does not arise in principle. Also, the state rather tightly controls the age of directors of research institutes, which can not exceed 55 years. The country is regularly updated leadership at all levels.

Thus, at present, Chinese science, which has retained the Soviet “classical” academic heritage, is successfully adapting the western experience in the country, as well as the most modern foreign innovations, which allows it to develop dynamically.

Information sources:
http://rus.ruvr.ru/2013_10_23/Kitaj-i-mirovaja-nauka-Mezhdu-Konfuciem-i-visokimi-tehnologijami-2369
http://www.nkj.ru/archive/articles/19513
http://funduma.ru/2011/12/kitay
http://comments.ua/ht/243096-kitay-priznali-nauchnim-liderom.html
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  1. Professor
    Professor 7 November 2013 09: 12
    +8
    In terms of the number of published scientific papers, China has practically caught up with the United States and is very likely to overtake them in this indicator in the near future.

    Yes, you look at the quality of these articles - redone copy paste or trivial experiments are presented as "great scientific achievements". There is such an indicator as the degree of citation of an article or scientific work. Guess which part of the list contains Chinese creations?

    In addition to the number of scientific publications, the authors of the study studied the number of references to Chinese scientific publications in the works of other authors. This indicator today gives an idea of ​​the quality of the conducted scientific work: the greater the number of scientists mentioning specific work in their articles, the greater its scientific value. Over the same time period, the number of references to Chinese research papers has grown, but not to the level to which the number of publications has grown.

    It has grown by 300%. If 5 years ago one person quoted them, now 3. laughing

    Perhaps the culprit was the guilty Britons who hooked China on the “opium needle” and were the first foreigners to impose unequal treaties on the country, but perhaps it was Confucius’s teaching, which, according to European sociologists, did not contribute to the formation of active rational thinking in the country .

    Communism is to blame. In Taiwan or Singapore, the same Chinese work wonders ...

    Despite this, China has a very high quality education.

    Rave. I constantly encounter their graduates, a disaster.
    1. Ahmed Osmanov
      Ahmed Osmanov 7 November 2013 10: 03
      0
      I completely agree with you. Chinese power is greatly exaggerated.
      1. rainufa
        rainufa 7 November 2013 17: 40
        +4
        Quote: Akhmed Osmanov
        I completely agree with you. Chinese power is greatly exaggerated.

        But one cannot underestimate Chinese power.
        1. Versed
          Versed 7 November 2013 19: 24
          +2
          China is a locomotive for sewing pants, and an active user of American / Western technology.

          But still, of course, it poses a threat to Russia, and it doesn’t really hide it.
      2. studentmati
        studentmati 7 November 2013 20: 02
        +2
        Quote: Akhmed Osmanov
        Chinese power is greatly exaggerated.


        The true power of the PRC lies not so much in concrete deeds as in development dynamics. A locomotive called the PRC has such a frantic speed that it is almost impossible to stop it.
        1. Misantrop
          Misantrop 7 November 2013 20: 03
          +1
          Quote: studentmati
          A locomotive called the PRC has such a frantic speed that it is almost impossible to stop it.
          Itself will stop as soon as the sale of their goods falls
          1. sens99.ru
            sens99.ru 8 November 2013 12: 24
            0
            You can derail this locomotive!
        2. timer
          timer 17 November 2013 18: 04
          0
          That's it!!!! The Chinese learn quickly, although they get big bumps. And this locomotive is not going to slow down! And those forum users who are laughing at the Chinese, they say they can only copy pans, are fools. I recently got acquainted with the report of our Ministry of Economic Development - hair in one place They stand up on end. In this report, it is asserted that the Russian economy will maintain its raw material orientation until at least 2030! Now imagine where China will be by that year and where Russia! Moreover, add on total theft, sloppiness and lack of professionalism.
    2. Kolya
      Kolya 7 November 2013 11: 47
      +2
      I disagree about citation: if in Western science citation has become an obsession, reaching the point of quoting each other that, for example, "The earth is round", then in this sense, Western science is not an example for the Chinese. From Israel in general, a specific view, thanks to American assistance, including education.
    3. Simple
      Simple 7 November 2013 14: 19
      +1
      Quote: Professor
      Rave. I constantly face their graduates, disaster


      Perhaps they (Chinese graduates) crammed too fast. laughing

      That's why they are sent abroad, so that they pick up the mind.

      But in general, people are different.
      1. Professor
        Professor 7 November 2013 14: 37
        +4
        Quote: Simple
        But in general, people are different.

        There are also nuggets, but the bulk of their engineers think according to the principle: "step to the left, step to the right, escape". As I was once told by an American in charge of the engineering department in China: "What do you want from them? They all learned from the same book ..."
        1. Kolya
          Kolya 8 November 2013 07: 34
          0
          Anyone who evaluates the Chinese alone, tends to underestimate their ability to work in a team. They are like cogs of a complex mechanism, individually an empty place, but in a team - power. The Japs say: we will lose to the Koreans individually, but 10 to 10 - we will definitely win. That's the Chinese. Japs being not a big country and the most important occupation !!! almost surpassed their master, Uncle Sam. That's the same way the Chinese can only show more.
  2. Nayhas
    Nayhas 7 November 2013 09: 15
    +6
    It was China that gave the world four great discoveries: paper, gunpowder, a compass, and typography. Despite this, these discoveries did not lead the Celestial Empire to an industrial “explosion” in modern and new times, as, for example, it happened in Europe (XVII - XVIII centuries) or in neighboring Japan (in the middle of the XIX - beginning of the XX centuries). Perhaps the culprit was the guilty British who hooked China on the "opium needle"

    I wonder how the author finds the relationship between events that occurred in different periods of Chinese history? Or invented paper, gunpowder, compass and typography in the 19th century?
    1. Guun
      Guun 7 November 2013 13: 44
      -2
      All from China, like the same umbrella. They had their guns for a long time, but he didn’t shoot close, and didn’t reach the western ones (it was much worse) —that's why the British and French lost the war and there was no discipline like that of the Western troops.
    2. Guun
      Guun 7 November 2013 13: 44
      0
      All from China, like the same umbrella. They had their guns for a long time, but he didn’t shoot close, and didn’t reach the western ones (it was much worse) —that's why the British and French lost the war and there was no discipline like that of the Western troops.
  3. makarov
    makarov 7 November 2013 11: 04
    0
    But China has its pluses. The period from the idea to implementation is so short that it remains to envy the absence of bureaucratic obstacles.
    1. haron
      haron 7 November 2013 18: 33
      +1
      Rather, the advantages of German and Japanese machine tool building wink
  4. Horn
    Horn 7 November 2013 11: 18
    +4
    It was China that gave the world four great discoveries: paper, gunpowder, compass and typography

    - Obviously, the author wanted to say: It was China that appropriated the honor of discovering paper, gunpowder, compass and printing ... Enough of lying about the great past of China!
    1. clidon
      clidon 7 November 2013 16: 48
      0
      And from whom did he borrow them?
      1. vostok1982
        vostok1982 7 November 2013 21: 12
        0
        I suspect that those white people who once lived to the North and Northwest of China. Not even a name is left ...
  5. 222222
    222222 7 November 2013 11: 29
    0
    The other day on a TV box:
    - In China, 30 million university students
    Education is paid. An average of 3 bucks. But. the state gives grants to the gifted and the poor
    - they showed the reading room - full to capacity - and everyone will forget ..
    And how many students over the hill?
    And this whole Draconian army will explode into science. in production and yui the most important thing. spread by managers around the world ..
  6. Valery Neonov
    Valery Neonov 7 November 2013 12: 21
    +4
    The basis of the achievements of the PRC is banal copying, namely, nothing more.
    Rave. I constantly encounter their graduates, a disaster.- probably for the first time I agree with the "Professor". hi
  7. report4
    report4 7 November 2013 13: 21
    +4
    Dealt with Chinese metallurgists. For 20 years, a tremendous breakthrough. If the rest of science and technology has developed at the same pace, but China will worthily take the place of technology leader.
    Their metallurgical engineers are more like Soviet engineers with a good fundamental base than Western (and most of them are young) - "engineers-managers".
    1. timer
      timer 17 November 2013 18: 12
      -1
      Yes, because the Chinese took the best that was in the USSR in education, first of all.
  8. atos_kin
    atos_kin 7 November 2013 14: 03
    0
    A powerful competitor is also growing very quickly. "His example is science to others!"
  9. Lexx
    Lexx 7 November 2013 14: 10
    +4
    But the West, carried away by a post-industrial society, where all harmful production will be transferred to third world countries, and developed countries will become centers of science, education and invention, warned that, after production, science and education will gradually flow into developing countries.
  10. Lexx
    Lexx 7 November 2013 14: 10
    +2
    But the West, carried away by a post-industrial society, where all harmful production will be transferred to third world countries, and developed countries will become centers of science, education and invention, warned that, after production, science and education will gradually flow into developing countries.
  11. mithridate
    mithridate 7 November 2013 14: 40
    +2
    and all because the country is ruled by PATRIOTS OF OUR COUNTRY
  12. mirror
    mirror 7 November 2013 15: 56
    +2
    And all because, dear Mithridates, it is not enough to be a patriot, you also have to be smart and far-sighted. The Chinese, as soon as they thought about changing a planned economy to a market economy, began to do their best to encourage the legal and illegal departure of Chinese youth to study in the United States. It makes sense if you look decades ahead. As a result, as in a famous anecdote, American universities became the place where Jewish professors from Russia teach Chinese students. Where else could one study the market economy and modern science if not in the "nest of imperialism and capitalism"? And after all, the wise Chinese foresaw that Chinese graduates would go into science and business in the United States, form a "Chinese fifth column" there, and then many will return and form a bridge between China and the United States for the transfer of knowledge and capital. Not to mention the emergence of a Chinese lobby in the United States. By the way, back in the early 80s, I came across American translated scientific and technical books - and so there was already at least one Chinese among the authors who was engaged in science in the United States. We are, damn it, so smart that we ourselves will reach everything, no one decree for us and we have no one to learn from. We'll shower everyone with hats. Where is our intelligence and foresight? Where is the mass of Russian students abroad, whom not only rich dad sent to study, but the state? There is only one rattling thing on this score, as well as about innovations.
    1. Professor
      Professor 7 November 2013 16: 32
      +5
      Quote: Spiegel
      Where are the mass of Russian students abroad, whom not only rich dad sent to study, but the state?

      There are actually not so few of them, but the problem is that the vast majority of them do not return after graduation request to Russia.
      1. Ka-52
        Ka-52 7 November 2013 18: 05
        +1
        Because the state, or rather the "current elite", does not need them. am When you live one day, they don’t think about the future.
  13. leon-iv
    leon-iv 7 November 2013 18: 29
    0
    How did this Hirsch damn index fill up on edge where the smile is rukulitzo.
  14. leon-iv
    leon-iv 7 November 2013 18: 30
    0
    How did this Hirsch damn index fill up on edge where the smile is rukulitzo.
  15. UVB
    UVB 7 November 2013 19: 21
    +2
    I agree with the previous ones that the great Chinese civilization is a myth. If they were so great, why did the wild nomads bring them to their knees? And all these figures about the growth in the number of scientific papers are complete nonsense. Primitive arithmetic: let the share of "smart" people be the same everywhere and equal, for example, 1%. Then in China there should be 15 million of these same talents, and in Russia only 1,4. But let someone say that the Chinese are 10 times smarter than us! We do not steal technology from them. And my personal opinion, a smart nation would come up with an alphabet and not hieroglyphs. The same can be said about Japan, the leap in development occurred primarily due to industrial espionage. That which cannot be taken away from both is the ability to use the fruits of other people's labor.
  16. Savva30
    Savva30 7 November 2013 20: 27
    +1
    and we have an exam, we have no time for science ... our task is to carefully fulfill the requirements of "effective managers" ...
  17. masterovoy
    masterovoy 7 November 2013 23: 13
    +1
    In the last year, in a group of employees of the enterprise, I had the opportunity to participate in the discussion of problematic issues of lighting the situation at the maritime theater, and Chinese scientists seemed very competent engineers.
  18. Director
    Director 7 November 2013 23: 53
    0
    The traditional centuries-old Chinese teaching methodology consisted of a long, thorough and relentless repetition of a master teacher. Without the slightest willfulness and creativity. Indeed, the Chinese are very good at copying someone else's successful experience. They are great masters of stealing other people's ideas and appropriating intellectual property. But to say that Chinese science is able to become a leader in the next decade is premature.
  19. mountain
    mountain 8 November 2013 03: 27
    +1
    I've seen all this somewhere before. And the name was, "CULTURAL REVOLUTION". At one time, China was closed from the outside world, and the system that they copied from us was ideal for controlling the population. Few people know how much effort the PRC party spends in order to maintain order in its home. And the youth of China today is not what it was in the sixties. They bring home not only knowledge but also a rebellious spirit. And which country will come quickly, China or the United States, another question.
  20. mountain
    mountain 8 November 2013 03: 27
    0
    All this I have seen somewhere before. And the name was, "CULTURAL REVOLUTION". At one time, China was closed from the outside world, and the system that they copied from us was ideal for controlling the population. Few people know how much effort the PRC party spends in order to maintain order in its home. And the youth of China today is not what it was in the sixties. They bring home not only knowledge but also a rebellious spirit. And which country will quickly come to a skiff, China or the United States, another question.
  21. Ols76
    Ols76 8 November 2013 06: 27
    0
    "China is gradually taking the lead in the world in R&D and research."

    Couldn’t be, this is news! )))
  22. Viator
    Viator 8 November 2013 07: 56
    +1
    There are problems in Chinese university education similar to Russian ones. The main one is the redundancy of higher educational institutions in the country, mainly due to the emergence in recent years of precocious “academies” and “universities” that do not have high quality student education. Because of this, the number of graduates exceeds the current demand in the country by 20-30%, and the prestige of higher education is declining


    I’ve been working in the field of Chinese higher education for five years, so I can say from personal experience: the Chinese are excellent engineers, but worthless scientists. They have mastered the craft to perfection, but art is beyond their current capabilities. The Konfucian aspiration for order and traditions, in my opinion, has gone to extremes. Students in the mornings, as if reading mantras, shake their heads measuredly over textbooks on university lawns, memorizing texts, and in the classroom they answer only those questions that either themselves contain an answer, or imply quoting a text. Moreover, whole passages are quoted, not really understanding them:
    “In the morning, Vladimir got up at 7 o’clock and went to school,” the teacher says. - Guys, so where did Vladimir go?
    - In the morning Vladimir got up at 7 o’clock and went to school ... - the diligent students answer. The first three to four rows. The rest do not understand the question or simply sleep with their eyes open.
    The situation is no better with geography, world history, and in general practically with knowledge about everything that lies outside the borders of China. Not only is it impossible to accurately transliterate toponyms due to the peculiarities of the Chinese language, and, say, instead of Kuala Lumpur, Los Angeles or Vladivostok, "Jilongpu", "Luoshangji" and "Fuladiuosituoke" are published, so many places the Chinese know only by their , Chinese names. Let's say Tokyo is "Dongjing", Seoul is "Hancheng" Africa is "Feizhou", etc. And, to top it off, some do not know, for example, that "Nu-yue" (New York) is not the capital of "Mei-go" (USA), and on the map many in my lessons cannot find where this mysterious "Sibolia" (Siberia). Note: these are third-year students of not the smallest university in the provincial capital! Although in other cities where I worked, the situation is no better. I can cite many examples, and perhaps, having laughed, someone might argue to me, they say, we have enough idiots who have received diplomas for beautiful eyes, but here is my subjective opinion - "we" have fewer of them than in China.
  23. Viator
    Viator 8 November 2013 07: 57
    +1
    China is still far from creating something truly of its own. Universities are mushrooming, simply outgrowing hypertrophied colleges with tens of thousands of students, usually founded no earlier than the 60s of the last century. When I said that about 16 students were studying at my native Karazin University (Kharkov), the Chinese specified that it was definitely a university, not a college. Painfully small ... I had to poke their noses, saying that there were more Nobel laureates working in that small "college" than in their five typical "universities" combined. Yes, graduate students write article after article, but most of them are "water". Another example: the authorship of all large engineering projects in the country belongs to foreigners, although they are being built by the Chinese themselves. Let's say all the tallest skyscrapers and the largest dams. Even on a smaller scale, the government is showing distrust of its own "quick minds Nevtons" - all large landscape projects (parks, squares, etc.) are also usually developed by foreign designers. By the way, many, even relatively large companies, belong to people who are not particularly versed in this specialty, but who simply received a business from their parents or made capital on something else. Such companies are managed by all sorts of top managers, it is clear with what efficiency and policy. In short, as mentioned in the comments, the development and strength of China is quite exaggerated, despite all their unconditional achievements. Although all this, of course, is not a reason to relax.
  24. Zomanus
    Zomanus 10 November 2013 09: 53
    +1
    The theory of large numbers works here. A lot of water, but also a lot of useful, although the percentage is small. But here, we lick articles for six months, which would then be put on the table.