Regarding the emergence of upgrading T-72B to the level of T-72B3, a lot of rumors are circulating. For this car, there is a diverse amount of reviews - from the most enthusiastic to outright abuse. And when in February 2013, the command of the Western Military District sent a report to the Minister of Defense, Army General SK. Shoigu and the head of the GABTU MO Major General A.A. Shevchenko about the results of military operation based on the results of exercises and daily activities, with the general conclusion about the refusal to purchase this modernization, this had the effect of a bombshell.
For the sake of objectivity, it is necessary to add that this report was written mainly on the basis of the results of operation in the 138 motorized rifle brigade in Kamenka, Leningrad Region (in the Southern Military District these machines began to arrive earlier), where the T-80 tankmen had their machines replaced with T-72B3. Comments, as they say, are superfluous. Tankers expressed their opinions and preferences as to which car they consider the best for everyday service and combat work. They frankly do not care about the opinion of any experts.
How did the T-72B3 modification appear?
The order of armaments is a grand political performance, where the economic benefit in the form of profit is the final act of this action.
- KB is trying to push through their new developments and receive funding for future activities.
- The industry just stupidly wants a long-term and guaranteed state defense order. They don't care for whom and what to rivet or rivet, if only they would be paid consistently.
- Army ...
Previously, it was considered an axiom that the Ministry of Defense wants to get weapons and equipment ideally approximated by the TTZ of GABTU, as well as in large quantities and cheaper. But after the arrival of the Serdyukov team (sorry, the hand does not turn to write with a capital letter), the desire of the Defense Ministry “slightly” changed the vector of these desires.
At MO, a cheerful company called Oboronservis was created with a train of numerous daughters who had the right to make a profit.
So there was a huge octopus called Otsorsing.
So there were also numerous, tangled up any mysteries, ways of modernization.
Under a widely advertised contract for the supply of T-72B, Venezuela did not blow on all the TV channels just lazy, enthusiastically talking about the ongoing super-modernization for overseas friends. But nowhere and not a dream was said anywhere that BTRZ belonging to the Ministry of Defense and ... transferred to Oboronservis with the corresponding cash flow were engaged in the simplest repairs.
What is worth only jammed история alterations of T-72B to minesweepers BMR-3 (not to be confused with BMR-3М) on Atamanovsky BTRZ, which ... did not pass state tests on the mine resistance of the bottom. But Oboronservis made a profit on this contract, and this is important.
As a result of the redistribution of cash flows between the military-industrial complex and the MoD, a serious war broke out, hidden from the eyes of an ordinary person. But over the numerous people who wanted to chop off a piece of the GOZ with a Damocles sword hung the presidential rearmament plan. He interfered with this financial battle, since it contained the% and year of supply to the troops of these%.
It was in this cradle that the T-72B3 project was born ... A sort of “Our response to Chamberlain” to prove, so to speak, to the party and the government about “stormy and vigorous activity in the field of rearmament”.
This modernization suited everyone, both the military industrial complex and the MoD.
52 million rubles allocated to one combat unit. Of which 30 million mastered the plant, making major repairs of all units with virtually no replacement for the latest components. 22 million spent on the purchase of new equipment, selected MO and installed in the tank additionally, in addition to the basic equipment.
MO had to agree to spend money on a thermal imaging sight, otherwise it would be impossible to justify. This is what the team of the new Minister of Defense was all about.
Nikolay Makarov and Vladimir Popovkin on the part of the General Staff correctly substantiated this decision: “The chosen equipment is ideal in terms of value for money” (that is, the military began to say the word “price” !!! and not “defenses”).
Everyone is happy. The plan is being carried out. Additional money from MO remained. State tests of the car took place in 2011 g. The tank began to arrive in the troops with 2012 g.
But this is a preface. Just very dirty, but ... necessary preface.
Finish it and move on to yourself tank.
... So here you are -
modern tank ...
modern tank ...
Himself in love with his "bug" - T-72B. And any modernization of this machine is perceived by me with great and lively interest. Initially, it is not tuned only for one enthusiasm or only for one criticism.
Let's look at this car from the point of view of the oil tanker, and not an expert, which I really am not. Therefore, I immediately apologize for the style of communication.
Always believed that the T-72B - a great machine that combines all the basic qualities of the tank. And about its reliability and simplicity, it is possible to make legends. The merciless exploitation to which these machines were subjected in past local conflicts after 1994 of the year revealed a survival rate that tanks of other countries can simply dream of. And simplicity (compared to T-80 and T-64 SLA) was completely compensated by the competent and coordinated work of the crew. With the right tactical use of these machines were a real stake for the enemy.
Did the “diesel” tankers dream of modernizing their cars? Dreamed of. Moreover, everyone understood that there would be no fairy tales, really weighing the possibility of the country and the urgent need for change. Thoughts, voiced at the beginning of 90-x (1991 g.) Found their confirmation in the further "work".
Let's try to find the difference in the change of combat vehicles over the past 22 of the year by comparing the T-72B (T-72BM) 1987-89 of the year of modernization and, accordingly, the T-72B3 2011 of the year.
It was T-72B, an 184 object, and puffed up on a tank biathlon. It is this modernization that is widespread in the army.
It is difficult to isolate any one upgrade for comparison, so we will consider the 184 Object 1985, 1987 with the gun 2A46М, the sighting complex 1А40 (The main target - TPD-K1, the additional - 1K13-49), the head of the match, the promator, the promator, the promator, the promator, the propriant B-2 and Dynamic Protection "Contact-42" or 2.
01 Photo: T-72B
02 Photo: T-72B3
Let's try to go through the entire T-72B3 tank, stopping at the advertised new modernization nodes .:
1. Changing the tank control system, new observation and aiming devices for the tank crew.
2. New in the radio.
3. Modernization of weapons in the complex.
4. Changing fire fighting equipment.
5. Alteration of the protection complex.
6. Caterpillar with the new RMSH.
At the same time, we will compare with the honored veteran T-72B and assume other options for modernization, based on the existing database of devices. Go:
1. Changes to the MSA
Installed PNM (gunner multichannel sight) "Sosna-U". This device is the development of the Belarusian designers of the enterprise "Peleng". Releases "VOMZ", Vologda.
Day (optical) channel.
Thermal imaging channel (TVN-camera 2-th generation, 8-12 μm).
Laser channel control rocket.
Tank-type target detection range.
Happy - up to 5000 m.
At night - up to 3500 m.
Independent 2 planar field of view stabilization.
Input in the stabilizer of armament angles of aiming and lateral lead.
The use of KUV on the move at night.
The presence of automatic target tracking (ASC).
Indication of the type of ammunition, operating mode and measured range.
It is supplied with equipment for pairing and entering corrections (AC and VP).
Photo 03: "Pine-U" on TVM-2012.
The scope itself is quite positively accepted by the troops and is not something new and revolutionary. The thermal imaging channel is based on Tomcon-CSF's Catherine-FC 2 generation camera. Components from France ... continue to flow.
Photo 04: Scheme OMS T-72B3.
Photo 05: View of the field of view "Pine-U".
Modernization of gunner's devices made really budget:
they took out the combined PPN 1K-13-49 (previously installed TPN-3-49), which is a night sight and part of the XUUM 9K120 "Svir", and ... stuck in its place "Pine".
Photo 06: Installation site PNM "Pine-U" in the tank.
- Increased the difference between the bore line and the aiming line compared to the main sight, which affects the accuracy of hitting the target and complicates the alignment weapons.
- The ergonomics of the gunner’s work, the landing of which provides for comfortable work (body position, positioning of the systems under the arms) with the main sight mounting socket, is violated. Now, in order to use “Pine”, it is necessary to stretch to the left, bending the spine (personal source of information).
- Lack of protection on the video monitor device gunner, which is easy to break the left boot when landing.
07 Photo: T-72B3 Gunner Thermal Imager Monitor.
- The window of the external sight head is covered with a lid on 4 bolts.
This item is generally puzzling. Optics need to be protected, it is clear to any tank driver. Those. when using “Pines”, it is necessary to get out of the tank, manually unscrew these bolts and remove this protection, and only after that it is possible to work with it. But, on the basis of practice, you do not always know WHEN fighting can begin, and constantly keeping the optics open can have very undesirable consequences for its quality.
Photo 08: The protective cover of the sight "Pine-U".
09 Photo: Pine-U Optics.
Install expensive sight and do not put the remote opening cover ... What is it like? Well, if it was the hardest docking node of a spacecraft, but here ... And, actually, this bicycle was invented a long time ago. Thus, the optics of the 1K-13-49 removed from there was protected. This armored cover automatically opened to the left (in the direction of travel) when the device was turned on and also closed at the end of work. Nothing complicated and expensive.
10 Photo: 1K-13-49 T-72B tank armor.
In the OMS, the main sight of the TPN-K1 complex of the 1А40 complex was left (in the FULL kit at its regular place) ... And even equipped with a laser radiation protection.
Photo 11: TPD-K1 tank T-72B.
Those. the gunner now has TWO daily main sights. In case of damage in combat conditions of one, you can use the other.
Photo: 12. TPD-К1 of the T-72B3 tank.
Moreover, any tanker reservist without training will be able to fire using a veteran sight. By the way, this is sometimes used by tank shooting directors on tank directors ... without using Pine at all ... out of harm's way so as not to damage an expensive device. Like this.
Photo 13: The appearance of the gunner's sights: TPD-K1 and "Pine-U".
Immediately behind the hatch, the gunner finally regularly (and not experiencedly) prescribed what should be installed a long time ago: a wind sensor stand with an air intake grille and an ambient temperature sensor. Now there is no need to constantly manually introduce these amendments depending on the constantly changing weather. By the way, there is an assumption that not quite ... ahem ... good shooting on a tank biathlon could be because of this.
14 Photo: Weather Sensor.
Finally, a large photo of the gunner's thermal imager control unit for those who are confident in the absence of imported components. By the way, the author of the photographs of the devices asked not to link to it in this article, although they are in the internet. I take this opportunity to express my great appreciation for the true “tank” curiosity and good pictures.
15 photo: Thermal imager control unit.
Conclusion: great device, but ... with the "Chinese" installation.
In principle, the picky Russian crew can give up on these "inconveniences", with one thing - to make the cover with an automatic opening.
Full of darkness ...
I remember the first time I saw in the year that way in 1991 the latest for those times BMP-3. He climbed into the place of the commander and ... a complete disappointment - the oldest horned TKN-3 was winking at him from his place in a secret machine. And after that, the whole 22 of the year has passed, which is then surprising that he is again in his place in the NEWEST modification of armored vehicles.
If the EOP 2 generation was inserted into it and the field of view was increased in the night mode, this does not mean that it should not be put on the head of the person who decided to put this device in the 2011 year as the main (!!!) COMMANDER of a modern tank.
Photo 16: TKN-3 T-72B.
Feel the difference, which is not:
Photo 17: TKN-3MK T-72B3 in all its glory.
I will explain the rules for using this unit. Grab your hands on the "horns", press the headset to the headrest and look into the eyepieces. It's okay for now. To see something around (and the commander should see 360 degrees around the tank at the same time, he has such a job), straining your arms, shoulders, back and whole body turn the commander's turret where you need it. And so constantly, day after day. In principle, this is also normal. The fun begins when the tank moves. If you don’t make a stabilizer out of your body for this device, then what the hell you see in it. And this is wrong, since you are the commander of the tank. So you have to see EVERYTHING. And so constantly, day after day. And here it is - forks.
As a dessert. If you gape when firing a regular projectile from a tank gun, then eye damage may result. Rumble so that will not find it. A few minutes of loss of orientation in space provided. We must be able to press it correctly, or generally deviate.
He has utility. When you press your thumb into the end of the "horn" the tower will automatically turn to where your TKN-3 is directed. This is the target designation of the gunner, in which the "commander" light comes on.
This is all that a tank commander with this complex can do.
It is also amusing that the gunner at night will see up to 3500 m, and the commander will either see the same duplicated image of the gunner or ... 500 m by 360 degrees in TKN-3МК. What target designation can he give to the gunner? How to fight? What commands to give the crew? Why it was impossible to stick at least TKN AI of the Novosibirsk “PO Oil Refinery”? It has a pulse mode of observation and illumination of the target by a semiconductor laser, which allows to measure the distance to the target. In the passive mode - 600 m, in the active - 1000 m. Already at least something. Although the tank continues to glow like a Christmas tree in the enemy's infrared devices.
Photo 18: TKN AI.
I’m not even saying that they put the “newest” development: the PNK-4С-01 complex with the TKN-4С-01 sight. These modifications have long been put on the T-80 and the same T-90. The device has a stabilization of vertical guidance (HV), the ability to fire in the mode of duplication of all weapons of the tank. Target detection range in the night mode to 1500 m. What prevented to put this far from new, but a good IR device?
19 Photo: TKN-4C-01
And to dream of a thermal imaging TKN-4-02, PNK "Agat-MDT" or already the panoramic sight of the commander (PKP-T) of the same "Peleng" already do not have to ... Even the photo will not insert, so as not to start depressing. Perhaps tankers need it for themselves. Yes. Actually for yourself - to SURVIVE.
After all, the main work of the tank commander is to execute the order of the platoon commander. He tells the mechanic where and how to move. He searches and finds targets for the gunner. How can he do it? At night - no way. In the afternoon - to get out of the hatch and look around ... So, in a modern way, they made modernization in this version, all the same, the XXI century is in the yard ...
The system "Double", which allows the commander to fire from the main armament of the tank, is a remote control module "Sosna-U". Those. this is add. gunner sight option.
Photo 20: Monitor the thermal channel "Pine-U" tank commander.
According to the results of operation in the army, this monitor is closed with a metal shield. It is broken when embarking or disembarking or loading ammunition. Quite thoughtfully.
Photo 21: Metal protective screen monitor.
The control of the thermal imaging channel is carried out from the remote control from "Sosny-U".
Photo 22: Commander's remote control mode "Double".
Photo 23: PU "Double", mounted on the workplace commander.
Conclusion: no change, except for the Sopny-U dopoptions in the form of a “Double” launcher.
The workplace of the driver:
24 Photo: View from the driver's workplace on the gearshift and right friction clutch lever.
Since the time of the Tsar of Peas, the mechanic had a daytime TNPO-168В and a night TVNE-4Б.
Photo 25: TVNE-4B driver's night surveillance device.
Plus two TNPA-65 installed in the hatch cover.
And could and put active-pulse TKK-1B. Already better devices 80-s. Why not put on T-72B3?
Photo 26: The device mechanic-driver TVK-1B.
I would like to hope for a completely new TVN-5. It introduces an electron-optical converter with microchannel amplification in the passive-active mode instead of two parallel branches (active and passive) into the periscope, thanks to which the vision range in the passive mode increased to 180, and not 60-100, as in the previous one (they say that the batch was delivered with T-72B3). TVN-5 is equipped with a binocular loupe that improves visibility and reduces eye fatigue. All the "mehans" know how difficult it is to drive a car with a night gear when distance is distorted.
27 Photo: TVN-5 Night Vision.
The latest development is TVN-10, it is a three-channel device: optical, thermal imaging and low-level television. The driver on the gas discharge display panel can receive a combined image of the surrounding terrain. And this would really be a revolution in the domestic driving of combat vehicles, up to a change in body position. And that improves the overview of the area, regardless of weather conditions (night, fog), and can not speak.
Photo 28: TVN-10 device installed on a regular place.
Conclusion: really nothing new.
2. Changes in the communication system.
The tank has a VHF radio station P-168-25U-2 “Aqueduct”.
This is what was needed. Radio station with two independent receive and transmit paths. Provides open, masked or classified (with the help of external PAS systems) radio communication. The composition of the radio station immediately included 2 transceiver.
29 Photo: P-168-25UE-2 "Aqueduct".
Modes of operation and functionality:
- simplex one / dual frequency;
- technical masking;
- scanning technique;
- reception with noise suppression;
- remote control from a PC and from an external control panel at the C2 interface;
- reception and transmission of digital information from terminal equipment at speeds from 1, 2 to 16 kbit / s via C1-FL junctions or from an external computer via RS-232C interface;
- reception and transmission of analog information at speeds of 1, 2 to 2, 4 kbit / s;
- automated input of radio data (frequencies, key and address) from the P-168UVRD-O or from the PC via the С2 interface;
- tonal, address and circular calls;
- adaptive communication;
- automatic retransmission to the C1-PM and C1-FL junctions;
- emergency erasure of radio data;
- software reorganization of radio frequencies (frequency hopping) on 8; 16; 32; 64; 128 or 256 frequencies with speed 100 jumps per second;
- interfacing with equipment P-168AVSK-B, T-230-1A, T-231-1A, T-236-M, T-237 at the C1-FL interface;
- interfacing with the equipment T-235-1U, T-236-1А, T-236-М, T-237 on the С1-FL interface.
Photo 29-a: Established place "Aqueduct" in the tank.
Finally got something more modern and coded communication.
The release of this model was mastered by the Ryazan Radio Plant in 2005 year. To all the above, it is worth adding that the radio stations of this series have a modernization reserve and can now be equipped with additional devices, such as a recording console for dialing and optical input of radio data, as well as a remote control console.
Unfortunately, this station takes place often ... not to work in military service conditions. Capaciously, but intelligibly, the phrase says about her: “good, radish, but still damp.”
There are complaints from tankers and new tangents with individual volume control. Too fragile and unreliable. And this is not a caprice of the crews. These are mass reviews. And the tangent is the thing that is constantly lying anywhere, under your feet, until her tankman finds and “on the button” of the combo spurs.
It was possible to hammer in the previous tangent or nails the hatch on it (it happened and such) to slam, and even henna.
Photo 30: Tangent switching new model BV6D.
Hope remains to correct these children's diseases of communication devices, as this is one of the most painful and pressing issues of our army.
What most don't want is a return to the P-173 model (or even the P-123) installed on the T-72B. These stations provide a decent connection, but any child can listen to the talks. A single battalion commander managed to block the communications system of the entire battalion.
Photo 31: Radio station Р-173, installed on Т-72Б.
Conclusion: good communication equipment, one wish - improving the quality and changing properties as a result of troop exploitation.
3. Change in armament.
A. Main caliber
- A gun:
On the UVZ website, it is still written in the section “gun of the upgraded T-72”: 2А46М or 2А46М-5. Let's hope that further on T-72B3 they will put at least 2А46М-5. This gun is a modification of the well-known D-81TM (2А46М). Compared with the base gun improved rigidity and accuracy of design. With its modernization, the outer profile of the pipe was optimized, the difference in wall thickness of the muzzle of the pipe at length 1 m from the muzzle cut from 0,8 to 0,4 mm was reduced. The fastening of trunnion clips in the tower by a reverse wedge is introduced. The back support of the sliding parts is located in the clip part of the cradle. The neck of the bassinet is extended by 160 mm. In the cradle neck, the rigidity of which is increased, there are two additional backlash devices. Both guides cradles are made according to the type of prism.
These measures have reduced the average technical dispersion for all types of shells on 15% against table values. The total dispersion when firing off the move dropped 1,7 times.
Comparative technical characteristics of guns 2А46М and 2А46М-5
Characterization 2А46М 2А46М-5
Pipe length 6000 6000
Raznesennost at length 1 m from the muzzle cut, mm 0,8 0,4
Pipe stiffness, kg / cm 374 420
Barrel supports The breech and the cradle Two supports in the cradle
Backlash backlash devices No there is
Maximum play in the pins 0,2 0
Reverse clip fastening wedge No there is
Neck departure from axle axles, mm 275 435
Mass of gun, kg 2400 2500
Photo 32: The gun 2А46М-5 and its distinctive features.
To automatically account for the bend of the bore on the muzzle of the trunk tube, the reflector of the bend metering device (CID) is mounted.
Digital signal processing, adopted in the device, provides measurement of the required parameters of the trunk in a wide range of interfering and operational effects. The obtained data are issued as corrections to the ballistic computer, which provides improved shooting accuracy.
Photo 33: Mounting experimental UUI trunk.
In appearance, changes are minimally visible, weights that balance the balance of the swinging parts of the gun, whose total weight increased by 100 kg, are striking:
Photo 34: View of the gun from the breech.
Photo 35: 2А46М-5 in the turret of the T-90 tank. Well visible marching bar.
Photo36: Location of backlash systems.
- Change AZ and new ammunition:
Strengthening of firepower is envisaged due to the introduction of new, so-called "long" BPS in ammunition. Instead of a shot ZVBM17 with BPS ZBM42 "Mango" shots of increased power ZVBM22 with BPS ZBM59 "Lead-1" and ZVBM2E with BPS ZBMB0 "Lead-2." The use of these ammunition increases armor penetration while increasing the distance of actual firing. To ensure the use of new BPS automatic loader has undergone some refinement. Changes were made to the cassette lifting mechanism, the rotating conveyor, the conveyor drive and its crankcase, the receiving tray of the automatic loader were improved. Although this is also not new. These changes are made with T-72BA.
Photo 37: modernized automatic loader.
Photo 38: Ammunition protection scheme.
"Lead" and "Lead-2" have the maximum possible length allowed by the AZ construction - 640mmm. For the first time in domestic practice, the Svinets projectile received a sub-caliber tail, providing higher flight characteristics.
39 Photo: Lead-1,2 Shots.
Unfortunately, the newest product of Plant No. 9 - model 2А82 was not installed on the tank. This is a high-power smoothbore gun with auto-fastened and partially chrome-plated barrel. Under this tool was modified and contour overlaying AZ. However, it is not much different from the standard one.
Photo 40: Waving contour AZ AZ 2А46М-5 and 2А82.
Continued in the 2 part.