Until now, it is surprising that the Republic of Cuba, in the immediate vicinity of the United States, has become a country that has taken the path of building socialism in the 50 years of the last century.
History Cuba is very interesting. And it has been going on since 1492, when the foot of the famous European - Columbus set foot on the island. Since then, the indigenous people - Taino Indians - had to fight for their independence with the colonialists: first with the European, and then the United States declared their right to the island.
From 1952 to 1959, there was a tough Batista dictatorship in Cuba. Cuban revolutionaries have repeatedly tried to destroy the dictatorship that has already outlived itself. The Batista regime is fed up with left and right forces, both rich and poor. The desire to get rid of the dictatorial regime was reinforced by the open connection of the Cuban authorities with the American mafia. The worst economic and social situation in the country, the lack of democracy and the ability to take into account the interests of the discontented led to an explosion. The revolution in Cuba has become inevitable. General outrage led to the success of the revolution, led by F. Castro.
We can confidently say that the revolution in Cuba was carried out not so much by a bunch of revolutionaries, but with the help of the people and those who were in power (except for Batista himself, of course). The United States tried to maintain its influence on the island. The so-called “operation in the Gulf of Pigs” is known as the crushing defeat of US mercenaries inflicted by Cuban rebel forces more than half a century ago in Cochinos Bay. The battle lasted only 72 hours. The Cubans utterly defeated the so-called "2506 Brigade", which consisted of Cuban immigrants trained by the US special forces. The "2506 Brigade" included 4 infantry battalions, tank unit, airborne troops, heavy artillery division and special forces - only 1500 people. As a result of the battle, almost all the interventionists were captured or destroyed.
Cubans defended their right to live the way they want. But they had to constantly be ready to defend their independence. Cubans all this time live in constant readiness to repel a military invasion of the "rebellious" island by the United States.
Today, after a rather long period, it is possible to note the achievements of the country after a radical change of regime. It is believed that Cubans have the longest life expectancy among the countries of the Western Hemisphere. Cuba has high-quality free healthcare and advanced education. If earlier Cuba was a supplier of sugar, now it exports brains: for example, Cuban doctors provide highly qualified assistance in different continents of the world. It is difficult to say whether government regulation of the economy can be recorded as an asset to the Cuban regime, but transformations are also under way in this industry: small private enterprises are allowed in Cuba - hairdressers, workshops and production cooperatives. Now Cubans get passports without any problems: many leave the country, but there are those who return to the sunny island. Despite great changes and strengthening contacts with the outside world, the Cuban regime not only survived, but also strengthened.
A rather reasonable question arises: why the United States of America, dictating its will to many countries of the world, easily carrying out military intervention in the affairs of sovereign states, has not yet subjugated Cuba? The answer lies on the surface - Americans are well aware of how much it will cost them. All these years, the Cuban armed forces, which grew out of the insurgent detachments of the Cuban revolution, are the most prepared and well-armed army in the world. And although in numbers it is inferior to many armed forces of other countries, but the morale of military personnel and excellent training of officers makes the Cuban army the most efficient.
The armed forces of Cuba are recruited on the basis of conscription, the service life is 1 a year. Both men and women serve in the army: there are even tank companies and helicopter regiments in which only women serve.
Liberty Island has long been turned into an impregnable citadel. Many holidaymakers on the wonderful sandy beaches do not even assume that there are well-camouflaged pillboxes and military installations just a few meters away from their deck chairs. And in the karst caves, of which the Cubans are so proud, the bases for the storage of military equipment and the prepared firing points are equipped. The Cuban military has implemented an effective way to preserve military equipment. 70% of existing weapons are located at the storage bases and are ready for immediate use, and with associated equipment and equipment. For example, tanks, self-propelled guns, armored personnel carriers, self-propelled guns and infantry fighting vehicles are stored porotno, along with the necessary stock of batteries and ammunition. The stored equipment created the necessary climatic conditions - the optimum humidity and temperature. For this purpose, modern expensive equipment was purchased.
Back in the 80 of the last century, Commander-in-Chief Fidel Castro officially voiced the Cuban military doctrine with the meaningful name "National War". The implementation of the doctrine has led to the fact that Cuba has become a powerful fortified area and base capable of ensuring a general guerrilla war in the event of an external attack. Not only the country's armed forces, but also civilians who are united in the territorial divisions of the people's militia are involved in the fulfillment of the tasks assigned to defend the island. The harmony of the people's forces and the regular army is so great that together they can effectively resist any aggressor. Cubans claim that every citizen of a country, whether military or civilian, knows where and when he should arrive in the event of military action or threat of attack. In Cuba, about 1,4 thousand defense zones and lines are formed. The aggressor is unlikely to be able to cope with such an organized confrontation.
In order to maintain a high level of readiness to repel any attack, in Basa, the Bastion military exercises are held once in several years, in which military personnel and civilians participate. The number of civilians participating in the exercise significantly exceeds the number of the Cuban army. Russia (and not only it) should envy such an organization and the level of patriotism of every citizen of Cuba.
Virtually every Russian knows about the Alpha and Vympel special units, but Cuba also has highly professional military units, although little is known about them. We are talking about special forces of Cuba - Tropas Especiales "Avispas Negras". This unit is also called the “Black Wasps”. It was formed in order to ensure the security of the top leadership of the country. Initially, it consisted of experienced fighters who had served in Latin American countries and who had experience in partisan and rebel battles during the period of the annihilation of the Batista dictatorship. With the permission of Fidel Castro, the Black Wasps Special Forces took part in supporting revolutionary movements abroad.
So, in 1975, Cuban special forces were deployed to Angola to help the People’s Liberation Movement for the Liberation of Angola. This African state was a very tasty morsel for the USA and South Africa - the country possessed rich minerals: diamonds, oil, phosphates, gold, iron ore, bauxite and uranium, so they made every effort to prevent the pro-Marxist movement from coming to power. Today, it is safe to say that the mission of Cuban military experts contributed to the choice of the socialist development path by Angola.
In addition, Cuban special forces fought in Ethiopia and Mozambique, in the countries of Central America. One of the Cuban officers who fought in Ethiopia said that “Russian advisers for Ethiopians are just like Martians. First, they are "faranji" (white), and secondly, they live almost under communism. Another thing - we, the Cubans: among us there are many mulattoes, there are negros. In addition, most recently we lived in the same dirt and hopelessness, just like Ethiopians. Therefore, we understand each other easily. ” And today, Cuban military advisers are fighting in many countries around the world.
The Cuban Special Forces "Black Wasps" specializes in combat operations in jungle conditions. Experts recognize that today “Black Wasps” are the best special forces that can operate effectively in the tropics, and the level of training of each fighter in complexity has no analogues in the world.
For the training of special forces of this level requires a well-equipped training center. And such a Center was opened in 1980 in the city of Los Palacios. The Cubans gave it the name "School" - Escuela Nacional de Tropas Especiales Baragua. On the territory of the Center, which occupies a huge territory, artificial reservoirs, marshes, the layout of the city, a network of underground communications and much more are built. At the same time, about 2,5 thousands of cadets can undergo retraining in this Center. And not only the “Black Wasps”, but also paratroopers, marines, and soldiers from other countries. The instructors are not only Cubans: for example, officers of the Chinese army teach as instructors at this Center.
The main disciplines at the Center are tactics for conducting combat operations in the jungle, learning how to survive in difficult conditions and covertly penetrating enemy territory, methods of conducting sabotage, learning martial arts, sniper art, diving and parachute training, and mastering the skills of information and psychological wars. . By the way, it was the Cuban officer Raul Riso who developed a special style of martial arts on the basis of the "karate-operative", which was used in the training of specialists of the KGB of the USSR and the GRU of the General Staff of the USSR MOD, fighters of the Vympel and Alpha special forces.
The tactics of the "Black Wasps" is based on the action of singles or small groups of reconnaissance-saboteurs, who are in a state for a long time offline in action on the territory of the enemy. Fighters "Black Wasps" masterfully own all kinds weapons many countries of the world: whether AKMS, AKMSN, Vintorez, RPG-7B, SVD, AS Val or Hungarian ADM-65 or Czech CZ 75, or weapons of Cuban production. Cuba can be proud of its special forces.
This is how Cuban Special Forces "Black Wasps" trainings were described by fighters of the Soviet Alpha unit who were trained in the Cuban military training center. The camp was located in a picturesque lowland, surrounded by hills covered with forests. The teaching was conducted by the aces of their field. Especially alfovtsy remembered training on the so-called "Che Guevara path." The trail is a route that passes through seven hills, the length of the trail is about 8 km. Training traps, obstacles of various difficulty, stretch marks and other unexpected surprises for the special forces were set up on the trail. Uniform - shorts and without shoes. To increase the load, each fighter carries with him a blank weighing about 8 kg, imitating a Kalashnikov assault rifle, and a cartridge pouch with training mines was attached to the belt. Alfovtsy well remember that from the first training they returned “dead”. In the future, the center’s teachers taught cadets to pass minefields, and it was necessary to clear all types of mines “blindly” and quickly overcome barbed wire barriers, remove sentries and penetrate airfields, warehouses, fuel terminals, etc.
The daily passage of the Che Guevara path, working out various methods of movement, intensive physical training is a regular training for a Cuban commando. Moving in a bent position after 15 minutes causes pain in all muscles, and cadets must walk for hours. In addition, this walk was worked out in the group: in front of him, he feels with his feet the ground in front of him in order to find stretch marks and mines. The group goes to the next. As the human eye responds to rapid movement, the group for greater secrecy moves slowly and smoothly, to be able to immediately stand still if the lighting rocket takes off. Special Forces are taught to fully merge with the environment.
It takes tremendous will and, of course, time to master all the disciplines at the Cuban Special Forces training center.
What are the only night movement crawling on 12 hours in a row. The task of the group in this case is an imperceptible penetration of the protected object. The fighters move slowly, overcoming obstacles of different levels, including reed noise mats, dry leaves, slate fragments, barbed wire fences (the wire is first bite, break open with its hands - in this case it does not make a sound, then it is bred in different directions with different hooks and provide passage for exit). In complete darkness, the leader of the group, when finding the mines, checks them for recoverability, neutralizes traps, removes stretch marks or designates their location. At this time, the group is still lying and waiting for his team. The fighters are smeared with mud or grass masking composition, the weapon is also processed so that no glare is visible.
In the process of learning, Cuban special forces soldiers, in addition to group operations, participate in complex exercises at various sites. For example, they learn to put a magnetic mine on a tank that turned out to be empty, because when you bring a magnet to it, you hear a sound comparable to a small explosion, and as a result the task will be considered failed.
In the training task for the destruction of the battalion stationed in the barracks, seven Cuban special forces soldiers quietly approach the object and throw tol bombs, previously brought in belt bags (large), to the windows of the barracks. At the same time, the watch towers are also destroyed. Those few enemy fighters who survived after the first strike of special forces, as a rule, can no longer provide decent resistance.
Fuel terminals, airplanes at airfields, ammunition depots explode, and the special forces group has already left the facility, disguising their trips. Such training forms the power and energy in each fighter.
The training center mastered all existing weapons. Cuban instructors teach how to shoot for real: during the day, at night, in motion, at the sound, at a moving target, from the hip, at the flash and much more. The fighters learn a unique skill to shoot from a mortar without a base plate (from the moment of the first launch to the first break the cadets had time to make up to 12 shots) - the fire strike was deafening, and the calculation left the shooting point in time.
The fighters also undergo training in the conduct of combat operations in urban environments — mastering caches, methods and locations, methods of movement around the city, detection and avoidance of surveillance.
It is believed that the Cuban special forces - one of the best in the organization of ambushes and kidnapping.
Cubans, teaching the tactics of the operation in the most detailed way, make all participants without exception think. They believe that a commander or a fighter will be able to take the only right decision only if he knows many such decisions, and for this, training is based on working out any surprises. Introduction to the tasks can be the most incredible. The main purpose of the training is that there should be no unexpected questions and situations during special operations. All possible situations are thought out as much as possible - only then any operation is “doomed” to success.
The Cuban army is in constant alert. Meanwhile, the country lives, works, rejoices, raises children - its future. The world is experiencing an economic crisis, and Cuba is implementing social programs, strengthening the health care and education system. Cuban authorities are investing in “human capital,” which means the country has a future.