Military Review

American experimental hypersonic aircraft. Part of 1

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The development of air and missile defense forces designers to look for new ways to overcome these systems. Various types of weapons are being developed, among which are hypersonic aircraft (GLA). The greatest work to date has been carried out by American military specialists. Hypersonic aircraft are designed to hit stationary and mobile targets, including heavily protected or buried objects, for example, underground gearboxes. In the US, there are several different programs for developing GLA.


American experimental hypersonic aircraft. Part of 1


One of the directions of the development of GLA is the development of hypersonic rockets.

The main advantages of the projects of hypersonic aircraft with axisymmetric body, given the prospects for the creation of a combat missile at their base, is the possibility of using rocket technology. This significantly reduces the cost of products and allows compactly place products in the internal volumes of carriers, and use the available starting systems. The axisymmetric hull makes it possible to launch from the internal compartments of airplanes and external pylons, from containers on submarines and ships, using vertical launch systems.

One of the hypersonic missile development companies is Boeing. Since 1997, Boeing, together with Aerojet, has developed a draft ARRMD hypersonic rocket, under contract with DARPA. According to the tactical and technical requirements, the launch of the rocket was to be launched outside the air defense zone, the range to 1000 km, the estimated cruising speed M = 6, the launch weight 1000 kg and the weight of the warhead 110 kg. Provided for the use of inertial guidance system and satellite correction. The rocket began to swoop steeply upon reaching the target, so the speed at the moment of impact was 1200 m / s - the high kinetic energy of the rocket enhances the striking effect. In 2001, the DARPA program was suspended because the power plant was not ready. However, the results of research and development work on ARRMD in 2002 formed the basis of the ONF program of the US Navy and DARPA HyFly. The project involves NASA, the NAW Center for Naval Forces and the APL Laboratory of Applied Physics at Hopkins University.



Boeing HyFly is a program for developing and evaluating hypersonic technologies that can later be used in mass production of relatively inexpensive hypersonic missiles designed to destroy mobile and stationary targets, including buried and heavily protected objects. The company "Boeing" has been allocated for R & D about 116 million dollars. The simplicity of the layout, design and production technology inherited from ARRMD, allow developers to assert that the experimental model will be quickly turned into a combat missile of a new generation, equipped with penetrating warhead and universal base.

Since all missiles are disposable, technical requirements for it are weakened: degradation of the material is allowed, there is no structure cooling system, only ceramic-based composites are used. Consideration should also be given to the relatively low cost of a rocket and power plant. The design consists of 20 parts. The concept features two air intakes and as many combustion chambers.

As part of the program, the DCR engine was developed and tested. At the first stage of testing the engine was tested on the stands and in wind tunnels. They ended successfully. However, the flight tests did not succeed, in all three launches the engine did not reach the specified characteristics or simply did not start. If the efficiency and reliability of the DCR engine in flight tests were confirmed, this would significantly bring closer the implementation of air-to-ground hypersonic missile projects. The results of the HyFly program are used in the HyStrike project — a ship-to-ground and air-to-earth hypersonic missile for the US Navy.



Another such program is RATTLRS ("Revolutionary Approach to Time-critical Long-Range Strike"), carried out by Lockheed Martin under the leadership of ONR, with the participation of the Air Force and NASA specialists. The main objectives of the program: creation of a turbojet engine capable of accelerating an aircraft to a speed of more than M = 3 without the use of auxiliary devices, and the creation of a TVSS engine for a reusable hypersonic aircraft. The RATTLRS rocket, equipped with a new type of power plant, is designed to fly at a speed of M> 4, for at least 5 minutes, and then up to 15 minutes. The flight range will be 1000 km. A combat aircraft, surpassing a cruise missile in speed by approximately three times, can reach a target in 5-10 minutes, following at an altitude of 21 thousand meters in cruise mode. The dive speed on the target was supposed to be M = 4, and the depth of penetration into the ground - 9-15 m. Also, a hypersonic aircraft would be able to disperse submunitions at supersonic or subsonic speeds.

Today, rockets of this class use a two-stage scheme. The first stage allows you to develop the speed that is necessary to turn on the second stage. The transition to a single-stage scheme will reduce the size of the hypersonic missile. But the operating temperatures of the combustion chamber and turbine increase significantly; new targeting systems and avionics are needed. The TVSS for RATTLRS was based on the Rolls-Royce / Allison YJ102R prototype engine developed by the Liberty Walk division of Rolls Royce. The specific thrust is six times the Pratt & Whitney J58. This is an accelerator, not just a cruise engine.



According to the manufacturer, the new power plant is distinguished by high-quality software for the regulation system and modern aerodynamics. The design used the latest material LamiUoy, developed by Rolls Royce. The structure of the navigation system RATTLRS will include the INS with the correction of the trajectory according to the CRNS NAVSTAR information. The missile will be equipped with a penetrating warhead or a warhead consisting of homing combat elements. Lockheed Martin and Rolls Royce were awarded the 120 millionth contract to create a demo model of a universal-based hypersonic cruise missile RATTLRS (weight about 900 kg). The launch vehicle must be compatible with F / A-18E / F, F / A-22 and F-35.
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  1. lotar
    lotar 8 November 2013 08: 32
    +2
    Almost any technology has a dual purpose, one civilian, another military. I would like to believe that hypersonic technologies will be used primarily for peaceful purposes, such as launching cargo into space. We have been sticking out on the spot for a long time using old types of rocket technologies, and the main one is interesting the parameter is the proportion of payload relative to the total mass and, as everyone knows in modern missiles, reaches a maximum of 4,2-4,5%. And with the use of hypersonic technologies, this proportion can increase repeatedly. I hope this is not so only my utopian views, as well as the real state of affairs, and these technologies will be used only for peaceful purposes.
    1. Jurkovs
      Jurkovs 8 November 2013 10: 36
      +3
      The speed of any artificial Earth satellite is not less than 8 km.per second. This means that any third stage of the rocket launching satellites already has hypersonic speed. Any warhead on a downward trajectory has hypersonic speed. It is about achieving this speed in the troposphere and stratosphere. And giving hypersonic speed to the first stage of the launch vehicle is nonsense.
      1. lotar
        lotar 8 November 2013 14: 38
        +3
        I’m not talking about launch vehicles themselves, but rather about further modernization of shuttles or blizzards, if we think so. When a ship of a similar plan could go into orbit directly from the runway, and hypersonic technologies will only contribute to this. Surely for further more cost-effective cargo delivery, complex technologies will be used, such as pulsed rocket engines, and maybe plasma generators will be pulled up to this point, which would provide less air resistance.
        1. Rus2012
          Rus2012 8 November 2013 17: 18
          +1
          Quote: lotar
          When a ship of a similar plan could go into orbit on its own right from the runway, and hypersonic technologies will only contribute to this.

          In order for Buran or a shuttle to enter orbit, they need boosters like the Energia or RTT launch vehicles (for shuttles). Moreover, the further they accelerate, the greater the discarded mass (1 st. 2 st. 3 st.)
          All kinds of matmodels show that the use of engines (or their operating modes) in a single spacecraft system according to the scheme: turbojet engine + ramjet engine + propulsion engine engine + liquid propellant rocket engine can slightly reduce weight and size characteristics, but it greatly complicates the system.
          For the time being nothing simple than no one has come up with the P-7 LRE.
          There were attempts.
          For example ICBM "Gnome" 1st stage - solid fuel + ramjet, then RTT. Calculations showed that with a mass of 29 tons and a dimension of 17 meters, a range of 11 thousand km with a payload of half a ton would be obtained.
          BUT!
          Nadiradze proposed the same on PTT. The result is Temp-2s, 45tons. Next-PionEra-Poplar ... Many see this as his cunning (45 tons instead of the promised 29). However, the same could happen with the Dwarf. Calculations are one thing, practice is another!
          There are options for "air launch", when the stage of launching is differently divided into the aerodynamic part (the carrier is a winged aircraft up to 10-12 thousand) - then the liquid-propellant engine. Sometimes fed with outboard air.
          But, above - 40km - there is almost NO oxygen! :)
          There were projects "Zenger" and "Hotol".
          But none of this has yet happened. Projects are closed.
          GPVRD, in the opinion of many, is a pursuit of "ether" and interesting things for representatives of the people of the promised land - you can research and develop as long as you like, until the second coming ... laughing
          On the other hand, someone might get something worthwhile. Moreover, researchers who were not warned that this is impossible, but they took it and realized a crazy project without knowing it ... laughing
        2. timer
          timer 17 November 2013 17: 38
          0
          Yes, a wonderful idea is a spaceship. It takes off, enters the Earth’s orbit, and lands at the airport. Super will be, who will come up with this and implement it. Will the new Korolev appear?
      2. AVV
        AVV 8 November 2013 14: 44
        +1
        And still the states complain about the lack of funds, when such programs are financed, and then it will be seen whether it is cut or not !!!
        1. Ingvar 72
          Ingvar 72 8 November 2013 14: 53
          0
          Quote: AVV
          And still the states complain about a lack of funds when such programs fund,

          It will not be enough, they will print more pieces of paper. While the dollar is the world currency, the whole world pays for their toys.
          1. Rus2012
            Rus2012 8 November 2013 18: 13
            +1
            Quote: Ingvar 72
            While the dollar is the world currency, the whole world pays for their toys.

            was ... already more than 50% of foreign exchange transactions not on the dollar ... And every day their share falls.
      3. Rus2012
        Rus2012 8 November 2013 17: 32
        +1
        Quote: Jurkovs
        . Any warhead on a downward trajectory has hypersonic speed. It is about achieving this speed in the troposphere and stratosphere. And giving hypersonic speed to the first stage of the launch vehicle is nonsense.

        See at the root, colleague! wink
        I will say more ...
        The returning orbiter Buran, about half an hour rummaging in hypersound, to a range of about 8000km from a height of 100km to 20;)))
        1. studentmati
          studentmati 8 November 2013 22: 35
          0
          Quote: Rus2012
          The returning orbiter Buran, about half an hour rummaging in hypersound, to a range of about 8000km from a height of 100km to 20;)))


          Clear business! But the question is about hypersonic payload delivery? Where and why?
    2. Arberes
      Arberes 8 November 2013 13: 16
      +2
      Quote: lotar
      I hope this is not only my utopian views, but also the real state of affairs, and these technologies will be used only for peaceful purposes.

      Well, who will refuse such a super-weapon? It is developed primarily for the military, and for peaceful purposes only later, sometime.

      Quote: lotar
      and these technologies will only be used for peaceful purposes.

      Is it more correct to say it is not for peaceful purposes, but most likely for peaceful purposes?
    3. studentmati
      studentmati 8 November 2013 22: 16
      +1
      Quote: lotar
      I would like to believe that hypersonic technologies will be used primarily for peaceful purposes, such as the launch of cargo into space


      Hypersound today is by no means for peaceful purposes. Moreover, the withdrawal of cargo into outer space does not require such a rush. Maybe I'm wrong?
  2. Altair
    Altair 8 November 2013 09: 25
    -4
    Poplar is in danger ...
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 8 November 2013 09: 28
      +4
      Quote: Altair
      Poplar is in danger ...

      Dying of laughter?
      1. Altair
        Altair 8 November 2013 12: 21
        0
        From a headache ...
        1. Arberes
          Arberes 8 November 2013 13: 24
          +5
          Quote: Spade
          Dying of laughter?


          Quote: Altair
          From a headache ...

          Will die of a headache-caused by an acute attack of laughter !?
          For mobile complexes saboteurs are worse than red missiles!
          1. studentmati
            studentmati 8 November 2013 22: 31
            0
            Quote: Arberes
            For mobile complexes saboteurs are worse than red missiles!


            Who knows? And if the combination of saboteurs + cruise missiles + Russian self-confidence, i.e. carelessness, censorshipfully speaking?
        2. Lopatov
          Lopatov 8 November 2013 13: 24
          +1
          Presumptuous. It doesn't matter what the rocket is, subsonic or hypersonic, it will hit an empty spot. The Poplars will already fly away.

          Reciprocal, my friend. No one is going to wait for a blow, the launch is made after a massive blow is detected, and not when everything starts to explode.

          So out of laughter.
          1. Altair
            Altair 8 November 2013 13: 42
            0
            Quote: Spade
            Presumptuous. It doesn't matter what the rocket is, subsonic, or hypersonic, she will hit the empty spot. "Poplars" will already fly away.

            If launched from submarines and the rocket will be using stealth technology?
            Quote: Spade
            Reciprocalmy friend. No one is going to wait for a blow, the launch is made after a massive blow is detected, and not when everything starts to explode.

            In the meantime, the Pentagon plans to dramatically increase the power of the American missile defense ...
            Further on the link: http://www.rnd.cnews.ru/army/news/line/index_science.shtml?2013/07/11/535057
            1. Lopatov
              Lopatov 8 November 2013 15: 23
              +3
              Quote: Altair
              If launched from submarines and the rocket will be using stealth technology?

              And that will not change anything. At least a dozen, but spotted.


              Quote: Altair
              In the meantime, the Pentagon plans to dramatically increase the power of the American missile defense ...

              And we are building up missile defense capabilities. Cheap asymmetric move.
            2. Grifan
              Grifan 8 November 2013 15: 25
              0
              If launched from submarines and the rocket will be using stealth technology?


              How is it that they launch invisible missiles from invisible submarines, which will produce invisible explosions? wassat
          2. studentmati
            studentmati 8 November 2013 22: 55
            +1
            Quote: Spade
            Reciprocal, my friend. No one is going to wait for a blow, the launch is made after a massive blow is detected, and not when everything starts to explode.


            Underestimating the enemy is the cause of defeat!
    2. Onyx
      Onyx 8 November 2013 23: 20
      0
      Quote: Altair
      Poplar is in danger ...

      Bullshit and nonsense
      1. studentmati
        studentmati 8 November 2013 23: 32
        -2
        Quote: Onyx
        Bullshit and nonsense


        I definitely agree!
  3. rolik
    rolik 8 November 2013 10: 20
    +5
    A little on this topic. On the way is a new modification - "Bramos 2", which will be hypersonic and reach a speed of 7 M. No other country in the world has such a weapon.
    Bramos 2 will be launched from a variety of platforms: sea, land and air. The new rocket will be ready for flight testing in 2017. “I think it will take us about 5 years to develop the first fully functional prototype,” said Sivathan Pillai, CEO of BrahMos Aerospace. He also noted that laboratory tests of the rocket were carried out at a speed of 6,5 M, i.e. in fact, a prototype of a hypersonic missile or its engine already exists.
    According to U.S. intelligence, Russia has successfully tested a hydrogen-powered scramjet in 1998. The tests took place in Kazakhstan, and then the speed reached Mach 6,4. As I understand it, it was a cold project. And do not forget about the Koala.
    So that mattress 4 mach is not an indicator.
    1. Ascetic
      Ascetic 8 November 2013 14: 55
      +3
      Quote: rolik
      According to U.S. intelligence, Russia has successfully tested a hydrogen-powered scramjet in 1998. The tests took place in Kazakhstan, and then the speed reached Mach 6,4. As I understand it, it was a cold project. And do not forget about the Koala.
      So that mattress 4 mach is not an indicator.


      First, Gorbachev curtailed work on hypersound with a personal instruction. Officially, all work on a hypersonic missile was discontinued by order of Boris Yeltsin in the 1992 year. It was at this time that the secrets of our defense industry floated behind the cordon in huge quantities. He organized the transfer of secrets Bakatin (Baba Katya as he was called on the Lubyanka). And only in 2009, work was resumed on the TRV. We immediately lagged behind for 10-15 years. It is interesting if last year Rogozin said bluntly that Russia is significantly behind the United States in this area. Then now
      Russia does not lag behind the United States in matters of creating hypersonic weapons.

      As for the American rocket. then there is the task to the rocket was capable of accelerating to speeds of the order of 15M it is this value that is the declared limit of the ability to intercept targets for the most modern Russian air defense system S-400 Triumph.
      1. Rus2012
        Rus2012 8 November 2013 17: 29
        +2
        Quote: Ascetic
        As for the American rocket. that’s where the task is for the missile to be able to accelerate to speeds of the order of 15M, this value is the stated limit of the ability to intercept targets for the most modern Russian air defense system S-400 Triumph.

        Dear colleague, you know that in any RTT it is capable of intercepting the RGVRD. Even now, all the intercepts of BB ICBMs with speeds below 7km / s are intercepted by missile defense systems on TTs.
        The issue is timely detection. But, even here, to notice the RGPVRD "floating" with an excited plasma-inverse wake is not very good. hard...
      2. Altair
        Altair 8 November 2013 18: 26
        0
        Quote: Ascetic
        As for the American rocket. then there is a task for the rocket to be able to accelerate to speeds of the order of 15M it is this value that is the declared limit of the ability to intercept targets for the most modern Russian air defense system S-400 Triumph.

        Or to hamper.
        EW capabilities, F-35 radar
        (watch 2:42 - 3:08)

        And some of Israel
        1. Lopatov
          Lopatov 8 November 2013 19: 46
          +1
          Quote: Altair
          Or to hamper.

          The massive use of electronic warfare is also an act of aggression and will cause a retaliatory strike.
          1. Altair
            Altair 8 November 2013 20: 24
            -2
            Quote: Spade
            Massive use of electronic warfare also an act of aggression and will strike back.

            laughing laughing laughing laughing laughing
            laughing laughing laughing laughing laughing
            laughing laughing laughing laughing laughing
            1. Lopatov
              Lopatov 8 November 2013 20: 33
              0
              And what do you think, are you in a fairy tale?
      3. Rus2012
        Rus2012 8 November 2013 18: 30
        +1
        Quote: Ascetic
        Officially, all work on a hypersonic missile was discontinued by order of Boris Yeltsin in the 1992 year.

        Well, something like this happened ...
        As the topic of GLF was closed, its funding from the military ceased. Still, some money was received through other funding channels. I don’t remember the name of the topics ...
        Then the French and Yankees joined. Only I don’t remember who before ... Due to this, several more launches of "Cold" were made ... The last launch seemed to be somewhere around 96m or 98 ...
        1. jr0
          jr0 30 December 2013 16: 54
          0
          French people. And it is still not clear which way the more relevant information has gone.
      4. studentmati
        studentmati 8 November 2013 23: 01
        0
        Quote: Ascetic
        the rocket was capable of accelerating to speeds of the order of 15M


        Are the current materials capable of withstanding such "swings"?
      5. jr0
        jr0 30 December 2013 16: 38
        0
        There was always less work in the USSR, always lagging behind in terms of the complexity of structures. If you compare, the innovations of the ramjet engine appeared earlier in France, and after the war - in the USA. In the United States, not one or a dozen projects have been "officially completed," but development continues. By the way, some samples became available to the USSR, like the D-21.

        About 1992. The Cold program developed until 1999, but it was baked. The reasons can be guessed at. Of course, you are spreading slander about Bakatin. And Rogozin talks a lot, sometimes it’s business, and then immediately a lot of nonsense.

        And the point is not the invulnerability of the rocket, but the speed of delivery and the smallness of the carrier due to the use of oxygen. Invulnerable missiles and satellites are now gone.
    2. for
      for 12 November 2013 18: 49
      0
      “I think we need about 5 years to develop the first fully functional prototype,” said BrahMos Aerospace CEO Sivathanu Pillai.

      A very optimistic statement, although ... "who will you lead with ... laughing "
  4. scientist
    scientist 8 November 2013 21: 28
    +1
    Quote: Rus2012
    But, even here, to notice the RGPVRD "floating" with an excited plasma inversion wake is not very good. hard...

    Noticing the trail is not a problem, but the RCS of the "track", which moves at almost the same speed as the rocket, will significantly exceed the RCS of the rocket itself, and this is problematic not only for guidance, but also for accurate determination of coordinates. Therefore, special signal processing algorithms are required.
    But in any case, hypersonic technology is one of the promising areas and it is impossible to fall behind. Although the United States made several hundred. $ million is a penny intended more for theoretical research. This means that we have not lost everything.
  5. And Us Rat
    And Us Rat 9 November 2013 05: 29
    +1
    Quote: Jurkovs
    The speed of any artificial Earth satellite is not less than 8 km.per second. This means that any third stage of the rocket launching satellites already has hypersonic speed. Any warhead on a downward trajectory has hypersonic speed. It is about achieving this speed in the troposphere and stratosphere. And giving hypersonic speed to the first stage of the launch vehicle is nonsense.


    Yeah, that’s why many design bureaus in the world are trying to develop a one-stage and fully reusable system for putting into orbit, before the Wright brothers - many people also called the nonsense a flight of a device heavier than air.