Military Review

Our path lay across the moon ...


“... In ancient times, people peered into the sky in order to see the images of their heroes among the constellations. Since then, much has changed: people of flesh and blood have become our heroes. They will be followed by others and will certainly find their way home. Their quest will not be in vain. However, it was these people who were the first, and they will remain the first in our hearts. From now on, anyone who looks to Venus would remember that the tiny corner of this alien world belongs to humanity forever. ”

- the speech of President B. Obama, dedicated to the anniversary of the 40 anniversary of sending a manned mission to Venus,
m. Canaveral, October 31 2013 of the year

At this point, you can only shrug hands and honestly admit that there has never been any manned flight to Venus. And the very "speech of President Obama" is just an excerpt from R. Nixon's prepared speech in case of the death of astronauts sent to conquer the moon (1969). However, clumsy dramatization has a very specific justification. This is exactly what NASA saw as the future plans for space exploration of 1960's:

- 1973 year, October 31 - launch of the Saturn-V launch vehicle with a manned mission to Venus;

- 1974 year, 3 March - the span of the ship near the Morning Star;

- 1974 year, December 1 - return of the descent module with the crew to Earth.

Now it seems science fiction, but then, half a century ago, scientists and engineers were full of the most ambitious plans and expectations. They had in their hands the most powerful and perfect technique for space exploration, created as part of the Apollo lunar program and automatic missions to study the solar system.

The launch vehicle Saturn-V is the most powerful rocket man ever made, whose launch mass exceeded 2900 tons. And the mass of the payload put into low Earth orbit could reach 141 t!

Estimate the height of the rocket. 110 meters - with a 35-storey house!

Heavy 3-spacecraft Apollo spacecraft (mass of command compartment - 5500 ... 5800 kg; mass of service module - up to 25 tons, of which 17 tons accounted for fuel). It was this ship that was supposed to be used to go beyond the limits of a low earth orbit and flight to the nearest celestial body, the Moon.

The upper stage S-IVB (third stage of the Saturn-V RN) with a multiple-start engine used to launch the Apollo spacecraft into a reference orbit around the Earth, and then into the flight path to the Moon. The 119,9 ton accelerating block contained 83 tons of liquid oxygen and 229 000 liters (16 tons) of liquid hydrogen — 475 seconds of solid fire. Traction - a million newtons!

Long-distance space communication systems that provide reliable reception and transmission of data from spacecraft at distances of hundreds of millions of kilometers. The development of space docking technology is the key to the creation of orbital stations and the assembly of heavy manned spacecraft for flight to the inner and outer planets of the solar system. The emergence of new technologies in microelectronics, materials science, chemistry, medicine, robotics, instrument engineering and other related areas meant the inevitable imminent breakthrough in the field of space exploration.

Not far off was the landing of a man on the moon, but why not use the available technology to carry out more daring expeditions? For example - manned flyby of Venus!

If we succeed, for the first time in the entire epoch of the existence of our civilization, we would be lucky to see that distant, mysterious world in the vicinity of the Morning Star. Walk 4000 km above the Venus cloud cover and dissolve in blinding sunlight on the other side of the planet.

The bundle of the Apollo spacecraft - S-IVB in the vicinity of Venus

Already on the way back astronauts will have to meet Mercury - they will see the planet from a distance of 0,3 astronomical unit: 2 is closer than observers from Earth.

1 year and 1 month in open space. The path length of half a billion kilometers.

Implementation first in stories The interplanetary expedition was planned with the use of exclusively existing technologies and samples of rocket and space technology created under the Apollo program. Of course, such a complex and lengthy mission would require a number of non-standard solutions when choosing a ship layout.

For example, the S-IVB stage, after burning out the fuel, had to be ventilated and then used as a habitable compartment (wet workshop). The idea of ​​turning fuel tanks into living spaces for astronauts looked very attractive, especially considering that “fuel” meant hydrogen, oxygen, as well as their “poisonous” mixture H2O.

The Apollo main engine was supposed to be replaced by two liquid propellant rocket engines from the landing stage of the lunar module. With a similar burden, this gave two important advantages. First, engine duplication increased the reliability of the entire system. Secondly, shorter nozzles facilitated the design of the tunnel adapter, which would later be used by astronauts to transition between the Apollo command module and the living quarters inside the S-IVB.

The third important difference between the "Venus ship" and the usual S-IVB bundle - the Apollo is connected with a small "window" for canceling the launch and returning the command and service module to Earth. In the event of a malfunction in the upper stage, the ship’s crew had a few minutes to turn on the braking engine (the Apollo main cruise engine) and lie back on course.

Our path lay across the moon ...

The layout of the Apollo spacecraft in conjunction with the S-IVB accelerating unit. On the left - the base departure stage with a packed "lunar module". On the right is a view of the "Venus ship" at various stages of flight.

As a result, the separation and re-docking of the system had to be carried out BEFORE the start of dispersal: the Apollo was separated from the S-IVB, was tumbling over the head, and afterwards it was docked with the upper stage by the command module. At the same time, the Apollo propulsion engine was oriented outward, in the direction of flight. An unpleasant feature of this scheme was the non-standard effect of overload on the body of astronauts. When the engine of the accelerating unit S-IVB was turned on, the astronauts flew literally with “eyes on the forehead” - an overload, instead of pressing, on the contrary, “pulling” them out of the seats.

Understanding how difficult and dangerous such an expedition was, it was proposed to prepare for the flight to Venus in several stages:

- test flight around the Earth of the Apollo spacecraft with a docked weight and size mockup S-IVB;

- one-year manned flight of the ligament "Appolon" - S-IVB in geostationary orbit (at a height of 35 786 km above the Earth's surface).

And only then - start to Venus.

Skylab Orbital Station

As time went on, the number of technical problems was growing, as well as the time needed to solve them. The "lunar program" thoroughly devastated the NASA budget. Six landings on the surface of the nearest celestial body: priority has been achieved - the US economy could not draw more. The cosmic euphoria of 1960's has come to its logical conclusion. Congress increasingly cut the budget for the study of the National Aerospace Department, but no one even wanted to hear about any grand manned flights to Venus and Mars: automatic interplanetary stations coped well with the study of space.

As a result, in 1973, the Skylab station was put into Earth orbit instead of the Apollo bundle - S-IVB. A fantastic design, many years ahead of its time - suffice it to say that its weight (77 tons) and the volume of habitable compartments (352 cubic meters) were 4 times higher than those of its peers - the Soviet orbital stations of the Salyut / Almaz series .

The main secret of the Sky Laboratory (SkyLab): it was created on the basis of the third stage S-IVB of the Saturn-V launch vehicle. However, unlike the “Venusian ship,” the entrails of Skylab were never used as a fuel tank. Skylab was immediately launched into orbit with a full complement of scientific equipment and life support systems. Onboard there was a supply of 2000 pounds of food and 6000 pounds of water. The table is set, it's time to receive guests!

And then it began ... The Americans were faced with such a flow of technical problems that the operation of the station turned out to be almost impossible. The power supply system failed, the heat balance was disturbed: the temperature inside the station rose to + 50 ° Celsius. To correct the situation on Skylab, an expedition of three astronauts was urgently sent. During the 28 days spent on board the emergency station, they uncovered a jammed solar panel, mounted a heat shield “screen” on the outer surface and then, using Apollo spacecraft engines, oriented Skylab under such a view that the surface of the hull illuminated by the Sun had minimum area.

Skylab. The heat shield mounted on the braces is clearly visible.

The station was somehow brought to a working state, the on-board observatory started working in the X-ray and ultraviolet range. With the help of Skylb equipment, “holes” in the solar corona were discovered, dozens of biological, technical and astrophysical experiments were conducted. In addition to the “repair brigade”, the station was visited by two more expeditions - the duration of 59 and 84 days. In the future, the capricious station was mothballed.

In July, 1979, through 5 years after the last visit by people, Skylab entered the dense atmosphere and collapsed over the Indian Ocean. Part of the wreckage fell on the territory of Australia. So ended the story of the last representative of the era of "Saturn-V".

Soviet TMK

It is curious that a similar project worked in our country: since the beginning of the 1960-ies in the OKB-1, two working groups led by G.Yu. Maximov and K.P. Feoktistov developed the project of a heavy interplanetary spacecraft (TMK) for sending a manned expedition to Venus and Mars (the study of celestial bodies from the flight path without disembarking on their surface). Unlike the Yankees, who initially sought to unify the Appolo Application Program systems, the Soviet Union developed a completely new ship with a complex structure, a nuclear power plant and electrojet (plasma) engines. The estimated mass of the departure stage of the ship in Earth orbit should have been 75 tons. The only thing that connected the TMK project with the domestic “lunar program” was the super-heavy launch vehicle H-1. A key element of all programs, on which our continued success in space depended.

The launch of TMK-1 to Mars was scheduled for 8 July 1971 of the year - in the days of the Great Opposition, when the Red Planet moves closer to the minimum distance from Earth. The return of the expedition was scheduled for July 10 1974.

Both variants of the Soviet TMK had a complex algorithm for launching into orbit — a more “light” version of the ship proposed by Maximov’s working group, involved bringing the TMK unmanned module to a low near-earth orbit followed by boarding a crew of three astronauts brought into space on a simple and reliable " Union. " Feokistov’s variant provided an even more sophisticated scheme with several launches of the H-1 with the subsequent assembly of the spacecraft in space.

In the process of working on TMK, a colossal complex of studies was carried out to create life-support systems for the closed cycle and oxygen regeneration, and the issues of crew radiation protection from solar flares and galactic radiation were discussed. A lot of attention was paid to the psychological problems of a person's stay in an enclosed space. Super heavy RN, use of nuclear power plants in space, the latest (at that time) plasma engines, interplanetary communications, docking-uncoupling algorithms for multi-ton parts of a ship in near-earth orbit - TMK appeared before its creators in the form of an extremely complex technical system, practically unrealizable with the help of technology Xnumx's.

The concept project of a heavy interplanetary spacecraft was frozen after a series of unsuccessful launches of the "lunar" H-1. In the future, it was decided to abandon the development of TMK in favor of orbital stations and other, more realistic projects.

And happiness was so close ...

Despite the availability of all the necessary technologies and all the seeming simplicity of flights to the nearest celestial bodies, the manned circling of Venus and Mars was beyond the power of the glorious conquerors of the space of the 1960-s period.

In theory, everything was relatively good: our science and industry could recreate almost any element of a heavy interplanetary ship, and even launch them separately into space. However, in practice, the Soviet specialists in the rocket and space industry, like their American counterparts, were faced with such a monstrous number of unsolvable problems that the TMK project was buried "under the neck" for many years.

The main issue in the creation of interplanetary ships, as now, was the RELIABILITY of such a system. And there were problems with it ...

Even today, with the modern level of development of microelectronics, electric jet engines, etc. Hi-tech, sending a manned expedition to the Red Planet looks, at a minimum, risky, difficult, and most importantly, an excessively expensive mission for such a project in the reality. Even with the rejection of the attempt to land on the surface of the Red Planet, the man’s long-term stay in the close spaces of the spacecraft, coupled with the need to revive super-heavy launch vehicles, makes modern experts to make an unequivocal conclusion: with the current level of technology, manned missions to the nearest “terrestrial” planets are almost impossible.

Distance! It's all about the enormous distances and time spent on overcoming them.

A real breakthrough will occur only when engines with high and no less high specific impulses are invented, which will ensure the acceleration of the ship to a speed of hundreds of km / s in a short period of time. High flight speed will automatically remove all problems with complex life support systems and long-term stay of the expedition in the vastness of space.

Command and Service Module of Apollo Spacecraft

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  1. ben gun
    ben gun 7 November 2013 09: 15
    "Happiness was so close" ... There is still hope for new nuclear electric jet engines, which are now being designed in the Russian Federation and I hope they will start testing soon.
    Thanks for the article Oleg.
    1. Letterksi
      Letterksi 7 November 2013 11: 06
      It remains only to find out with which Western TNK (TransNational Corporation) money is being developed. And who will own the fruits of this work. Anyone who pays the right to intellectual property and it does not matter in which country the work was carried out. Russia, most likely, has little to do with this, and we are all the more so. Because the customers of the work are most likely strangers. This is a consequence of life in the global transnational world, the WTO and open unilateral Russian borders. Unfortunately
  2. makarov
    makarov 7 November 2013 11: 12
    The most important thing is that all the operating systems have been preserved, and provided that it is expedient and necessary, everything can be removed from the safes and set to work. This is not in vain.
    1. postman
      postman 7 November 2013 20: 07
      Quote: makarov
      Most importantly, all the workings have been preserved,

      You are mistaken: nothing is preserved from what is not produced.
      Quote: makarov
      and get to work.

      But even if it were preserved: another production (technological) base is already ...
  3. Yun Klob
    Yun Klob 7 November 2013 11: 21
    It is high time for spacecraft to be assembled and refueled in orbit and from there dispersed to an interplanetary planet. When will they take up the mind?
    1. Igor39
      Igor39 7 November 2013 12: 29
      When Ray Bradbury was asked why his stories did not come true, and people still do not master Mars, the writer replied:

      "... people -. They did a lot of stupid things: they came up with costumes for dogs, the position of an advertising manager and things like the IPhone, having received nothing in return but a sour aftertaste. But if we developed science, mastered the Moon, Mars, Venus ... Who knows what the world would be like then? Mankind has been given the opportunity to surf the cosmos, but it wants to engage in consumption: drink beer and watch TV shows. ”
      1. Santa Fe
        7 November 2013 18: 45
        Ray Bradbury was mistaken
        Quote: Igor39
        things like iphone

        This is something that did not please ?? !!!
        Breakthrough technology - PC in the palm of your hand, touch screen technology, incredible communication and information exchange capabilities

        Or do you want, as in Efremov's The Andromeda Nebula:
        -Erg Norr sat down at the levers of the calculating machine

        iPhone and progress in microelectronics - an important step towards the stars

        Quote: Igor39
        They did a lot of stupid things: they came up with costumes for dogs

        Man creates many seemingly useless things
        But it is in these "crafts" that our mission lies - to transform the world around us and equip everything around for ourselves. From small to great.
        Quote: Igor39
        position of advertising manager

        Sorry, but this is a consequence of progress.
        Previously, 90 peasants fed 10 intellectuals and other "idlers"
        At present, labor productivity has grown so much that three Chinese feed 97 people. What to do with the remaining idle? And who will distribute the huge amount of goods and things produced?

        Quote: Igor39
        and people still do not master Mars

        Because Mars has an insidious atmosphere - too thin for parachutes to use and still dense enough to approach the surface at cosmic speed. The entire descent has to "hang" on the jet engines - a huge excessive consumption of fuel

        Mars is one of the most difficult to land celestial bodies
        details -
        1. Grifan
          Grifan 7 November 2013 20: 15
          Breakthrough technology - PC in the palm of your hand, touch screen technology, incredible communication and information exchange capabilities

          And what is the breakthrough, in the fact that they were combined into one device that would still happen to the very deafening PR of Uncle Jobs herself? what
          Or do you want, as in Efremov's The Andromeda Nebula:
          -Erg Norr sat down at the levers of the calculating machine

          And what is better for you, reality or agility? bully
        2. postman
          postman 7 November 2013 21: 36
          Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
          This is something that did not please ?? !!!

          For which he received a fatty minus from his comrades, which my skinny plus will not correct.
          Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
          But it is precisely in these "crafts" that our mission lies - to transform the world around us and equip everything around for ourselves

          and who "intended" us? in general, then a person is superfluous on this planet (well, in the universe then), probably a person is someone's mistake? Let me explain:
          - the person does not fit into the food chain (s) (does not fit), he is superfluous
          - a person shits a lot, what shit is very difficult for recycling
          -Life and entropy, in this bunch the person is superfluous
          - and so on

          aaaa damn, I still want to write / say a lot, especially about the "complexity" of the flight to Mars .... But the pipe calls: a festive dinner, the last day, etc.
          And of course, BOLD +, I thought no one would remember
          about the Surne Venus project ...
          After all, according to the "authoritative" statements: there was no Saturn 9, there was no F5, there were no American antagonists on the moon too.
          Thanks Kaptsov
  4. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 7 November 2013 12: 48
    Great stuff!
  5. 0255
    0255 7 November 2013 13: 22
    Once upon a time, Americans assumed that Venus is covered in an ocean of oil, just like the Earth is covered in water. Therefore, they probably wanted to send people there as soon as possible.
    Interestingly, did the Americans not plan to transfer their army to Venus in case Venus would be inhabited and there would be oil? laughing An oil-rich planet would automatically become undemocratic ... Maybe they wanted to declare it a zone of US interests, like the Persian Gulf?
    But it turned out that on Venus earthquakes and volcanic eruptions constantly occur, as on Earth billions of years ago.
  6. UVB
    UVB 7 November 2013 19: 54
    Nowadays, the American Voyagers often appear in the media, which have been flying since 1977 and are still transmitting data from the outskirts of the solar system, with the emphasis on the reliability of American technology. I do not argue that Voyagers deserve admiration. But why are the Soviet apparatus of the Venera program undeservedly forgotten? The descent vehicles reached the surface of the planet, transmitted the first and only (!) Panoramas to the ground, took soil samples and generally carried out a lot of research. And all this at a temperature of 465 degrees, a pressure of 95 atmospheres and in an atmosphere supersaturated with sulfuric acid vapors. It could hardly have been easier than throwing the device into deep space.
    1. Santa Fe
      7 November 2013 20: 28
      Quote: UVB
      And all this at a temperature of 465 degrees, pressure 95 atmospheres and in an atmosphere saturated with vapors of sulfuric acid. It was unlikely to be easier than throwing the device into deep space.

      Easier. By itself, a 5-month flight to Venus is incomparable with a long-term flight to the outskirts of the Sun. system. 36 years in outer space is a completely different level of RELIABILITY

      The Venera lander is a sealed steel sphere, similar to a naval bathyscaphe. After 50 minutes, it warmed up and all devices were out of order.

      Trieste bathyscaphe cockpit reached the bottom of the Challenger Abyss (~ 11 meters = 1100 ATMOSPHERES) And nothing worked. Inside were 2 people. all are healthy
      1. saturn.mmm
        saturn.mmm 7 November 2013 22: 10
        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
        The bathyscaphe's cabin "Trieste" reached the bottom of the Challenger Abyss (~ 11 meters = 000 ATMOSPHERES). And nothing worked. There were 1100 people inside. everyone is safe and sound

        Interestingly, heat and compress, is there a difference in this? Something that the great Yankees still cannot do with hypersonic missiles. airplanes, some pictures.
        By the way, what about the UAV that the great Yankees landed on an aircraft carrier? What about that program?
        1. Misantrop
          Misantrop 7 November 2013 22: 16
          Quote: saturn.mmm
          By the way, what about the UAV that the great Yankees landed on an aircraft carrier? What about that program?
          Isn't that the carrier after that they sold it for scrap for 1 cent? lol
          1. Santa Fe
            7 November 2013 22: 30
            Quote: saturn.mmm
            By the way, what about the UAV that the great Yankees landed on an aircraft carrier? What about that program?

            X-47B? It seems like they continue to test

            These machines are more interesting to me:
            1. saturn.mmm
              saturn.mmm 7 November 2013 23: 16
              Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
              X-47B? It seems like they continue to test

              The tests can and do continue, but there are rumors that the program is closed and a new tender has been announced in which the following participate:

              Northrop Grumman, representing the BLA, which will be created on the basis of the X-47B BLA;
              Boeing, offering the UAV fleet on the basis of its already flown UAV demonstrator Phantom Ray (Ghost Ramp);
              Lockheed Martin, whose specialists create the Ci Ghost BLA (Sea Ghost), which is probably being developed on the basis of the SQ-170 Sentinel (Sentrazh), a top-secret reconnaissance UAV, adopted by the US Air Force ;
              General Atomiks Aeronautical Systems, offering the BL C "The Evenger" ("The Marine Avenger").
        2. Santa Fe
          7 November 2013 22: 25
          Quote: saturn.mmm
          heat and squeeze, is there a difference in this?

          95 and 1100 atmospheres - is there a difference?

          ps / gondola Trieste (1960) consisted of two steel hemispheres with a thickness of 127 mm, GLUED between themselves
          The estimated depth of destruction was estimated at 20 meters !!!

          regarding the effect of heating on the probe equipment, the Venus sphere warmed up after 50 minutes. and the probe is out of order. Trieste did not have such problems and he safely floated to the surface after 8 hours
          1. saturn.mmm
            saturn.mmm 7 November 2013 22: 37
            Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
            95 and 1100 atmospheres - is there a difference?

            Regarding temperature, I recall only Charles’s gas law.
            And so there is a difference of 1005 units.
            What is the pressure in Earth orbit?
            Launched by the Atlantis shuttle. Reached Venus on August 10, 1990 and entered polar low orbit with an altitude of 300 km. Communication was lost on October 12, 1994.
            This is all the achievement of the great Yankees on Venus.
      2. UVB
        UVB 7 November 2013 23: 29
        Nothing is easier. You forgot about temperature and aggressive environment. With this, lead is in a liquid state. And the descent of the spacecraft was specific, fast, so as not to overheat in the hot atmosphere, and landing is generally the most difficult thing in space flight, especially when the gravity is almost equal to that of the Earth. And what is 465 degrees? it is 2 times hotter than in the oven. And they worked for more than an hour, and the last, if memory serves, 110 minutes. By the way, it is easier to launch a ship to the outer planets than to the inner ones, it's like on a children's carousel, try to approach the center. I am not belittling the merits of the creators of Voyager, but it is not clear to say that the Venus program was simpler. And the comparison with "Trieste" is generally inappropriate. A thick piece of iron on a thick cable was stupidly lowered into the hole, what's wrong with that? If desired, any Zimbabwe can repeat it.
        1. Santa Fe
          8 November 2013 00: 08
          Quote: UVB
          and landing is generally the most difficult in space flight

          hardest to land on Mars.
          Quote: UVB
          And they worked for more than an hour, and the last, if memory serves, 110 minutes.

          conventional thermal insulation. No miracles
          Quote: UVB
          it's 2 times hotter than in the oven

          Tell about it to turbine turbine blades designers
          They work in this mode for hundreds of hours.
          Quote: UVB
          By the way, it’s easier to launch a ship to outer planets than to internal

          This applies only to Mercury with its 57 km / s orbital velocity
          By the way, the Messenger probe has been working there for the second year. In conditions, when for each square. meter of space accounts for 10 kW of heat - without the possibility of cooling in the form of heat transfer or convection. Those who built the Messenger were geniuses.

          For a flight to any of the outer planets, a speed of 1,5 times greater is required than when flying to Venus. Why-guess yourself.
          (spoiler: and don't forget about gravity maneuvers!)
          Quote: UVB
          but to say that the Venus program was easier is not clear

          Both Voyagers are equipped with six pairs of thrusters (hydrasive corrective propulsors). 3 of them are basic, 3 are spare. Voyager 2 had previously switched to spare pairs through two channels, and now they are followed by a third. This will save 12 watts by turning off the main line fuel line heater. The engines of the main set worked 318000 times. Voyager 1 switched to a spare set in 2004 after 353000 operations.

          Now you understand?

          Voyager is a unique retro device. Little man-made miracle.
          (despite the fact that the catalyst is constantly heated for 36 years to 300 gr. !!!)

          + the problem of long-distance space communications - 18 billion km !!! 100 times farther than the orbit of Venus
          1. UVB
            UVB 8 November 2013 07: 40
            What are you proving to me, did I write somewhere that the Voyager program is simple? On the contrary, it is admirable. But to belittle domestic achievements, which have not been surpassed by anyone, is not clear. There is an opinion that you heard about "Venus" only today out of your ears. I recommend filling this gap. Or change the flag.
            1. Santa Fe
              8 November 2013 12: 54
              Quote: UVB
              Did I write somewhere that the Voyagers program is simple?

              Yes. You equated her with "Venus"
              Quote: UVB
              I do not diminish the merits of the creators of Voyager, but to say that the Venus program was simpler is not clear.

              Voyager and Venus are on a completely different level. Venus is much simpler and, unlike Voyager, does not carry any technical wonders

              Make a metal sphere that can withstand 95 atm. - There are no technical difficulties. For comparison, the triathlete bather (1960) was designed for 2000 atm.

              To protect against heat - conventional thermal insulation, designed for 50 minutes.

              Nowadays it is NOT difficult to build an apparatus for short-term operation in an aggressive environment.

              Another thing is the phenomenal reliability of Voyager hydrazine engines - 350 thousand operations in 36 years, continuous heating of the catalyst thread to 300 g. WITH

              The communication range of 18 billion km is as if driving a car at a speed of 100 km / h for 20 years, then look back and look at the light from the refrigerator at the beginning of the journey (000 W - this is the power of the Voyager transmitter)

              Or the cooling system of the Messenger probe - HOW the apparatus is cooled in airless space in orbit of Mercury ??? Where the power of solar radiation is 10 kW per 1 square. meter
        2. Archibald
          Archibald 8 November 2013 19: 05
          Trieste is autonomous, there was no cable.
  7. slovak007
    slovak007 7 November 2013 20: 23
    To prepare flights to other planets of the solar system, it is necessary to use the moon with a stationary base on it.
  8. slovak007
    slovak007 7 November 2013 20: 23
    To prepare flights to other planets of the solar system, it is necessary to use the moon with a stationary base on it.
  9. ivanovbg
    ivanovbg 7 November 2013 20: 28
    If people had not built 20 thousand nuclear warheads with carriers, and 20 interplanetary vehicles, people would have lived on Mars and Venus for a long time.
  10. Grifan
    Grifan 7 November 2013 20: 47
    By the way, people, and who is aware of the misunderstandings in the design of the American landing module?
    There, for the jet stream of the takeoff engine of the returned "booth" from the landing platform, it seems like there should be at least some garbage for gas removal, but there is nothing like that in the structure, a blank wall request
    1. Hudo
      Hudo 8 November 2013 21: 05
      Quote: Grifan
      By the way, people, and who is aware of the misunderstandings in the design of the American landing module?

      Look better this one, also a "real" flight. Unlike the Hollywoodauts, who did not have enough intelligence to draw "stars" on black fabric so as not to get caught up in the wrong position of space objects, this question is in full order.
      1. Hudo
        Hudo 8 November 2013 21: 59
        Quote: Hudo
        Look better this one, also a "real" flight

        [media = http: // http: // v = A6wNuCVRgDY & feature = player_detailpa
  11. Alexey M
    Alexey M 7 November 2013 21: 22
    Cosmos will be ours!