Currently, it is questioned that Alexander Peresvet and Rodion Oslyabya were monks. Some argue that at the time of the Battle of Kulikovo they were not even Christians. Such a statement is contained in the article “Byl about the“ monk ”of Peresvet or how the church“ stuck it ”to the Russian feat. Is there any antidote to such attacks? Are there any scientific works confirming the position of the Church?
Hieromonk Job (Gumerov) answers:
We have before us a small note, at the end of which is the signature "Ozar the Raven". The real name of the author is Lev Rudolfovich Prozorov. The question of whether Alexander Peresvet and Andrei Oslyabya were monks of the Trinity-Sergius monastery is just an excuse. The author’s goal is to convince the reader that the Church and the “churchmen” not only did not fight with foreign conquerors, but even helped them.
It is known that any slander comes from a demonic source. During the terrible invasion that swept the country in 1237 – 1240's, the Church, together with the princes and warriors, defended their land. Missing in 1240 year, during the storming of Kiev, Metropolitan Joseph. Many bishops, priests and monks died. A huge number of temples were destroyed or desecrated. When the struggle was over, the princes and the Church faced a difficult choice: either to recognize the conquest as a real fact, or to doom people to physical destruction, calling for further struggle.
A blessed prince Alexander Yaroslavich (Nevsky), who in 1242, accompanied his father, Grand Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich to the Horde, led a far-sighted and wise policy then. Upon the death of his father (1246), in 1247, he again went with his brother Andrey to the Horde. On this trip, he used two years and returned with a label on the reign in Kiev and Novgorod. Then, after another trip to the Horde, he received a Khan label for reigning in Vladimir. In total, the pious Prince Alexander Nevsky traveled to the Horde four times. Will Lev Rudolfovich have enough audacity to throw a stone at the great defender of the Russian land?
For 188 years (from 1242 to 1430), the Russian princes 70 once came to the Horde (VV Pokhlebkin. Tatars and Russia. 360 years of relations between Russia and the Tatar states in 1238-1598 years of M., 2000). The label confirming the grand-ducal power, received from Khan in 1361 year, and the Grand Duke Dimitriy Ivanovich (Donskoy). However, the author blames “clergymen” for the labels: “The labels that were awarded to the metropolitans of the Khans Mengu-Temir, Uzbek, Janibek and their descendants speak for themselves”. The author of the article is trying to build an accusation on the fact that the Church was completely exempt from all taxes. However, this is not at all connected with the “servility” of the metropolitans before the khans, but was based on the Great Yasa of Genghis Khan. “She was a Mongol imperial law formulated by Genghis Khan; and the Mongols themselves viewed it in that light. For them, it was the generalized wisdom of the founder of the empire ”(G.V. Vernadsky). Apparently, Lev Rudolfovich does not know about her. “He (Genghis Khan) ordered to respect all religions and not to show any preference for any of them (Makrizi, sect. II). This part of Yasy became the basis of the Mongolian policy of religious tolerance ”(G.V. Vernadsky. Mongols and Russia. Tver-Moscow, 1997). I will cite another opinion of the researcher. “In accordance with the Yasa code of laws, which was attributed to Chinggiskhan, his descendants were obliged to exempt clergymen from all taxes and duties” (Ivan Belozerov. Russian metropolitans and khans of the Golden Horde: a system of relations. - Vestnik MGU, ser.8, History, 2003, #3).
The author of the article under review is particularly trying to prove that the generally accepted opinion that Alexander Peresvet and Andrei Oslyabya were monks, a myth. Since the author has set a goal to overthrow the 600-year-old historical tradition, enshrined in the works of prominent historians of the XIX-XX centuries (N. M. Karamzin, S. M. Solovyov, S. F. Platonov, etc.), it is natural to expect serious research, knowledge of scientific literature , source analysis and accurate links.
There is nothing like this. Everything is relative. SM Soloviev, who compiled 29-a hard work, who devoted a lot of time to studying sources, writes: “Before the performance from Moscow, the Grand Duke went to the Trinity Monastery, recently founded by St. the hermit Sergius, who was already mentioned in the story of the Nizhny Novgorod events; Sergius blessed Dimitri on the war, promising victory, although combined with strong bloodshed, and set off with him two monks, Peresvet and Oslyabya, of whom the former was formerly a boyar in Bryansk, and both differed in the world with their courage. Leaving in Moscow with the wife and children of the governor Fyodor Andreyevich, Dimitri went to Kolomna, where a huge army, which had never been seen in Russia before, was a 150000 man! ”(History of Russia from ancient times. T.3, ch.7). Note that the largest researcher was not a “churchman”, but rather belonged to the Westernizers.
What does the author of a two-page note oppose to this view?
1. “Chronicles about him [i.e. Peresvet] is generally silent, ”the author argues.
Not true. In the Nikon's chronicle code, we read: “And having asked for him the great Prince Peresvet and Oslebya, their courage for the sake of the regiment is able to ryadit, the verb of the face:“ Father, give me two warriors from his regiment of Chernetskaya, two brothers: Peresvet and Oslebya ”. These are the essence of all the warriors of greatness and the bogatyrs of the stronghold and sense of power to the warlike cause and side by side. St. Sergius, on the other hand, led them to get ready for a military matter soon; they are from all soul the obedience of creation to St. Sergius, in no case did he disregard his command. Dade them weapon in perishable incorruptible place, the cross of Christ is sewn on schemahs, and this, in place of sholomov, put their heads on them and beat Christ according to Christ to His enemies ”(Complete Collection of Russian Chronicles, v. XI, S.-Pb., 1897, p. 53). The Nikon Chronicle is one of the most important sources on the history of Russia. “The main value of Nikon’s chronicle lies in the wealth of information on Russian history: its compilers, striving for the greatest possible completeness, combined extracts from several chronicles. There are unique reports in L. N. and only in it there is news ”(Doctor of Philology, Professor O. V. Tvorogov. - Dictionary of scribes and bookishness of ancient Russia, L., 1998, Part 1).
2. “In the very early versions of Zadonshchina, Peresvet is not called a black-headed man at all.”
Again the distortion. Zadonshchina has no early and late editions, but there are lists that ascend independently through two passages to the autographic text of the 80-s of the XIV century that did not reach us. There are only six lists: Undolsky - U (XVII century), Zhdanovsky - F (XXXUMXII century., Excerpt); Historical first - I-5 (end of the XVI century, without a beginning) ,. Historical second - I-1 (beginning of the XVI century., Excerpt); Cyril-Belozersky - KB (2-ies); Synodal - From (XVII century). Again, we turn to the estimates of specialists. As he wrote the doctor of philological sciences, who devoted many years to the study of this work, LA Dmitriev: “Each individual list of“ Zadonshchina ”has such a number of distortions and defects that publishing a work on any one of the lists will not give a sufficiently complete and clear idea of the text of the work. Therefore, it is already customary to give a reconstruction of the text of “Zadonshchina” on the basis of a comparative analysis of all the lists of the monument ”(Library of Literature of Ancient Russia. St. Petersburg, Science, 1470, t. 1999). The basis of existing scientific publications "Zadonschiny" put a list Undolskogo.
So, what does the text, which the researchers consider the most authoritative of all the lists of “Zadonshchina”?: “Peresvet-chernets, Bryansk boyar, to the place of court [ie battle] led. And Peresvet-Chernets said to Grand Duke Dmitriy Ivanovich: “We should be killed rather than be taken prisoner by the foul Tatars!” Peresvet jumps on his greyhill gleaming, and many lie down at the Great Don ashore. At such a time, an old person should remember his youth, and daring people should test their courage. And Oslyabya Chernets says to his brother, the elder Peresvet: “Brother Peresvet, I see grave wounds on your body, brother already, to fly your head to grass, and to my son Yakov to lie on green grass grass on Kulikovo field, on the river Nepryadve, for the Christian faith, and for the land of Russia, and for the offense of the Grand Duke Dmitry Ivanovich "” (Literary Monuments of Ancient Russia. XIV - the middle of the XV century. Trans. L.A. Dmitriev. M., 1981. S. 96 - 111).
The author of the article got so carried away that Alexander Peresvet declared a pagan (in another paragraph a half-language) citing the words of one of the lists: “You'd better catch yourself on your swords rather than feed us with a nasty mouth.” At the same time, the author is silent that “Zadonshchina” is a poetic imitation of the “Word about the regiment of Igor”. The above words are not spoken by Alexander Peresvet, but by the scribe who made up the Cyril-Belozersky list, who for the first time gave the name Zadonshchina. What words stood in the autographic text that has not reached us, we do not know. In different lists in different ways:
- And-1: A ray would be a jagged maw, and not full of expresses from unclean ones.
- U: Lutches would be sweaty for us, than to be full of being from unclean ones.
Lev Rudolfovich did not pay attention to the fact that the words quoted by him, in which he saw readiness for "suicide", are on the list compiled by the monk Yefrosyn, who puts a positive meaning in them.
3. The main monument of the Kulikovo cycle is the Legend of the Mamai Massacre. "The great prince said:" Give me, father, two soldiers from your brotherhood - Peresvet Alexander and his brother Andrei Oslyab, so you yourself will help us. " The elder monk ordered those both to quickly get ready to go with the Grand Duke, for they were warriors well known in battles, they met not one attack. They immediately obeyed the venerable elder and did not refuse his command. And he gave them, instead of arms of the perishable, imperishable — the cross of Christ, sewn on schemahs, and commanded them to put it on themselves instead of helmets of gilded. ”
There is an extensive scientific bibliography dedicated to this monument. The author of the note does not consider it, but only with a few emotional phrases tries to destroy the significance of the monument: “At the same time,“ The Tale of the Mamai Massacre ”appeared, redrawing almost the entire history of the Kulikovo Battle“ on the topic of the day ”.
From this categorical statement we turn to the words of a scientist who devoted half a century to the study of the monuments of the Kulikovo cycle - Doctor L. D. Dmitriev (1921-1993): “We are unable to directly build the“ Legend ”to a lengthy chronicle story or a lengthy chronicle story to “Legend”, we must admit that both works used some common source or several common sources, which were most fully reflected in “The Tale”. And we have reason to assert that in most of the details and details of the “Tale” of a historical nature, which do not have correspondences in a lengthy chronicle story, we have not late speculation, but a reflection of facts not recorded by other sources "(History of the monuments of the Kulikovo cycle. -" Tales and stories about the Kulikov battle, M., Science, 1982, p. 346-47 ”).
4. “He is silent about him and about his brother Oslabya and the life of Sergius of Radonezh.”
The author does not know the elementary research principle: the absence of any fact in a given document is not an argument against the authenticity of this fact, but only a reason for research and explanation. The life of St. Sergius was written by Epiphanius the Wise in 1418, and in the 40 years of the same century was revised by Pachomius Lagofet. The text consists of several dozen pages.
He did not contain even a hundredth part of what the great saint accomplished. I will give only three examples. In the Life compiled by Epiphanius the Wise, nothing is said about the peacemaking affairs of St. Sergius, which influenced the process of the unification of the Russian principalities under the authority of the Moscow Grand Duke Dimitri Ioannovich. So in 1365, he visited Nizhny Novgorod and inclined Prince Boris Konstantinovich to obey Grand Duke Dimitrii Ivanovich, demanding the return of Nizhny Novgorod to him. St. Sergius reconciled with the Grand Duke of Moscow and Ryazan Prince Oleg. The latter has repeatedly violated the treaties, entering into relations with the enemies of the Russian land. Dimitri Ivanovich, following the commandments of Christ, several times offered Oleg peace, but he rejected all the proposals of the Grand Duke. Then he turned to St. Sergius with a request to incline Oleg to reconciliation. In 1385, the humble hegumen went on foot to Ryazan and talked a long time with Oleg. The prince of Ryazan was pricked in his soul: he was ashamed of his holy husband and made peace with the grand prince. It is not said that St. Sergius was a successor of the children of Grand Duke Dimitry Ivanovich. Even the spiritual prince is bound by the monk's signature. The order of possession of the grand duke's throne was forever established in it: the eldest son was to inherit the power of the grand prince.
5. Lev Rudolfovich writes: "In the synodics - the commemoration list - the Trinity Monastery is the name of Alexander Peresvet (as, incidentally, his brother - Rodion Oslyabi)."
Has the author never heard that the saints do not appear in synodics, but in paterikas? From the 14th century, the Paterik of the Trinity-Sergius monastery began to form, which includes more than seventy-five saints of God. The genealogical tree of the Radonezh saints includes the following names: Rev. Sergius, hegumen of Radonezh ... Rev. Mitrofan-hegumen, elder (+ up to 1392; memory 4 / 17 of June); Rev. Vasiliy Sukhiy (+ up to 1392; January memory 1 / 14) .. Rev. warrior schema-monks Alexander Peresvet (+ September 8 1380; September memory 7 / 20); Rev. warrior Schemamonk Andrei Oslyabya (14 in; memory of September 7 / 20), etc.
Alexander Peresvet and Andrei Oslyabya were glorified early. We meet their names already in the manuscript of the end of the XVI - beginning of the XVII century: The book, a verb description of the Russian saints (M. 1887; repr. M. 1995).
6. "Both heroes are buried in the Staro-Simonovsky Monastery on the territory of Moscow - the thing is also absolutely incredible if they were the monks of another monastery."
The author either does not know, or is silent, that Simonov Monastery was the brainchild of St. Sergius. It was founded with the blessing of the Venerable. Sergius his nephew and disciple of St.. Theodore, the future first archbishop of Rostov. St. Sergius, during his visit to Moscow, stayed at this monastery and took part in the work of the brethren. It is necessary to take into account the fact that the abbot of the Simonov monastery, St. Theodore was the confessor of the Grand Duke Dimitri Donskoy. As for the burial, there is no such law that would require the burial of the deceased monk in the same monastery where he labored. The Monk Varsonofy (Plikhankov) died not only the inhabitant, but also the hegumen of the Old Golutvinsky monastery, but he was buried in the Optina Desert. Nun Dosifeya (Tarakanova) 25 spent years working in the Moscow St. John Monastery, and buried her in the Moscow Novo-Spassky Monastery.
7. “Peresvet's family did not stop - in the XVI century, his distant descendant appeared in Russia, the Lithuanian descendant Ivan Peresvetov”.
The author is referring to a publicist of the 16th century who, before appearing in Moscow (around 1538 - 39), served the Polish king Sigismund, and during the war of the Czech king Ferdinand I and the seven-governor governor Jan Zapolya, moved to the side of the latter when he was actively supported Turkish sultan Suleiman I. This Ivan Semenovich Peresvetov and presented himself as a descendant of Alexander Peresvet, to rise in Muscovy. However, there is no documentary evidence of this.
8. At the end, I will cite a sample of the author’s research “culture”: “But soon Russia finally put the Horde in place on the Ugra, and the clergy - right there,“ and they didn’t wear their husband’s boots ”- rushed in to attach themselves to the victory over the Horde.
We live in post-atheistic time. The decades of militant atheism left painful wounds in the souls of tens of millions of people. Now rarely meet supporters of odious atheism. However, the old beliefs were tenacious. They have been transformed into various types of levier. An example is the modern sham paganism to which the author of the article being reviewed belongs.
Reading this text, you are strengthened in the belief that incompetence is in fashion in our time. The logic and arguments in the eyes of many have long lost their significance. Only one sensational and scandalous enough that the article was very popular.