Military Review

The enemy will not pass

33
The enemy will not pass



Nothing characterizes a nation like its ability to unite in difficult times. I am Belarusian and very proud of the past of my people! The population of Belarus showed its best during the German occupation. People showed incredible heroism, ingenuity and courage. Being at the forefront of the defense, Belarus was simply crushed by Wehrmacht troops. The use of scorched-earth tactics aggravated the situation, since both sides of the conflict destroyed any objects in the territory left, whether they be factories, residential houses, bridges, unmowed fields, food depots and fuels and lubricants, road and railways. Since the Great Patriotic War had two “waves” - back and forth, this tactic caused enormous damage to the historical and architectural heritage and the economy of Belarus.

But all this just fades compared with human losses ...

So, if before the war in Belarus, in its current borders, lived 9,2 million people, then at the end of 1944, 6,3 million people lived. According to the ChGK to investigate the atrocities of the German fascist invaders, 2 219 316 people of civilians and prisoners of war were killed in total in the BSSR. However, it later emerged that the information on casualties in a number of areas was significantly underestimated, as well as the fact that the data for some of the camps for prisoners of war were inaccurate. This figure also does not include missing or captured and killed there, the soldiers of the Red Army from among the Belarusian residents. The civilians that were taken to Germany and killed there were not taken into account. Currently, some researchers believe that, taking into account indirect losses during the years of the Great Patriotic War, from 2,5 to 3 and more than a million people in Belarus died, i.e. no less than one in three.


KHATYN


On the basis of the brutal extermination of the Belarusian people, the population began to conduct partisan activities that have become nationwide. By the end of 1941, there were 230 guerrilla units in Belarus, in which about 12 000 people fought. By the end of the war, the number of partisan units was 1255, of which 997 were part of the 213 brigades and regiments, and the 258 units acted independently. The total number of Belarusian people's avengers exceeded 374 thousand people.




PARTISANS


The obstacle to the delivery of German reinforcements to the front was one of the priorities of the Belarusian partisans. On the territory of Belarus there were many railways: Brest-Minsk-Smolensk, Brest-Pinsk-Gomel, Brest-Kovel, Bialystok-Vilnius-Pskov, Vilnius-Minsk-Gomel, Nevel-Orsha-Gomel and Sedlec-Volkovysk-Nevel with a total length of 5700 kilometers During the years of the Great Patriotic War, Belarusian partisans blew up more than 300 thousand rails and derailed 11 128 German echelons with manpower and combat equipment.




"RAIL WAR"


As the war progressed, partisan activities became more and more widespread. Thus, as of 1 December 1942 of the year, according to the data provided by the CSPD (Central Partisan Movement Headquarters), since the beginning of the war, partisans of Belarus derailed 1040 German railway echelons, destroyed 17 top officials of the fascist army, 3010 officers and 91 596 soldiers and the cops.

Already in the period from November 1942 to December 1943, the number of partisans grew 2,7 times and amounted to about 153 thousand people. Partisan zones began to be organized. Zonal partisan formations were organized that solved major combat missions in cooperation with the Red Army.

By the end of 1943, the Belarusian partisans controlled 108 thousand km², or 58,4% of the occupied territory of the republic, including about 37,8 thousand km² completely cleared from the German troops.



In 1944, the Belarusian partisans were faced with a new task - to prevent the retreating enemy from turning the territory they left into the desert. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of Belarus, the headquarters of the partisan movement and the underground obkomy developed special measures to save the population. Only in the forests of the southern suburban area of ​​Minsk, under the protection of partisans, more than 5 thousands of families found refuge, and the network of forest camps for civilians, whose protection was carried by more than 80 thousand partisans, is expanding throughout the republic.

In April, against the 17-thousandth unit of the Ushachko-Lepel zone, commanded by V.E. Lobanok, the fascist German command threw 60 thousand soldiers and officers to 25. 4 days guerrillas repelled the attacks of the enemy, on the night of 15 in May the connection broke through the blockade of the enemy, removing 3 thousand civilians. An important role in the failure of the punitive operation was played by the aid of the 215 of the Byelorussian Front. In March-April, 1500 tons of ammunition were delivered to the partisans, XNUMX wounded were taken out.

Thus, from June 1941 to July 1944, partisans of Belarus disabled about 500 thousand soldiers of the occupying forces, officials of the occupation administration, armed colonists and accomplices (125 thousand of them were irretrievable losses), undermined and derailed 11 128 enemy echelons and 34 armored trains, defeated 29 railway stations and 948 enemy headquarters and garrisons, blew up, burned and destroyed 819 railway and 4 other bridges, destroyed more than 710 thousand rails, destroyed over 300 km of telephone and telegraph link, brought down and burned at 7 airfields airplanes shot down 300 tanks and armored vehicles, destroyed 438 guns of various calibers, blew up and destroyed 18 vehicles, destroyed 700 military depots. For the same period, the partisans of Belarus took the following trophies: guns - 939, mortars - 85, machine guns - 278 1, rifles and machine guns - 874 20. The total irretrievable losses of the Belarusian partisans in 917-1941, according to incomplete data, amounted to 1944 thousand people .




PARTICIPANTS. Grandfather and Granddaughter. Xnumx


For participation in the anti-fascist struggle in the underground and partisan detachments on the territory of the BSSR, more than 120 thousand people were awarded with Soviet government awards, 87 people received the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.

This experience of guerrilla warfare, which exists in Belarus, rightly called “Partisan Republic” during the years of the Great Patriotic War, was not and does not exist at all. And as we know, from stories it is necessary to learn lessons, otherwise you will have to pay a large price for mistakes.

Recent events have amply demonstrated to us examples of the so-called war without rules, when the primary targets for destruction are not even the armed forces themselves, their personnel, equipment and armaments, but the state infrastructure, human resources ensuring its uninterrupted functioning.

The aggressor wages a war primarily with the population as a resource ensuring the functioning of the country's defense. In such a war, non-participation in the country's defense forces does not guarantee immunity both for the citizen and for the members of his family.

Based on the experience of conducting combat operations during the Great Patriotic War and modern military conflicts, to promptly and timely repel aggression from outside, it was decided to establish territorial defense forces in the territory of the Republic of Belarus.

This idea is not new. Countries such as Austria, Belgium, Great Britain, Germany, Denmark, Italy, Lithuania, Latvia, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, France, Sweden, Finland and many others, along with regular armies, have territorial troops in service. In these states, it is the territorial troops that are entrusted with the task of covering up the mobilization deployment of the armed forces, guarding strategic facilities and elements of the military and civilian infrastructure, and actually conducting territorial defense.

The territorial defense system of Belarus began to be created at the beginning of the 2000s. During the operational-tactical exercises "Berezina-2002" for the first time practical actions of the territorial troops in the Borisov district were worked out.





Territorial defense troops are formed on the principle of "Where you live, you fight there."

Territorial troops are recruited by senior military personnel. Based on the territorial principle, they perform tasks in the places of residence. On the equipment of the territorial troops, as a rule, are small weapon and other weapons, the possession of which does not require special training. It is important that no universal arming of the population occurs, while only the number of persons liable for military service, which is necessary to solve current problems, is mobilized. Provision of territorial troops is carried out by the Armed Forces, however, vehicles and some other material resources come from the local economic base.

The important tasks of the territorial troops are also the elimination of the consequences of emergency incidents, the conduct of armed struggle in the territory temporarily seized by the enemy.





The deployment of territorial troops takes place only during a threatened period, as is the deployment of all the Armed Forces. Territorial defense troops perform combat missions in the same area where they reside permanently; their support is assigned to local authorities. The overall leadership of the territorial defense is exercised by the President of the Republic of Belarus - Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The General Staff organizes territorial defense and coordinates the activities of state bodies and other organizations, as well as the Armed Forces, other troops and military formations in the fulfillment of the tasks of territorial defense in peacetime and in wartime.

In the Republic of Belarus, seven zones of territorial defense have been created, geographically corresponding to the regions and the city of Minsk. In 2011, a new independent military authority was created - the territorial defense directorate, which is directly subordinate to the Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces.

The 11 chapter of the Territorial Forces Combat Regulations outlines the issues of warfare in the territory temporarily occupied by the enemy. The statute defines that the essence of the armed struggle in the temporarily occupied territory is to create for the enemy an intolerable situation as a result of the destruction of manpower, military equipment and materiel, disruption of command and control, disruption of activities carried out according to the plans of the occupation authorities.

Armed forces have been created in Belarus that are capable of solving the tasks of defending the state against aggressive encroachments from the outside in a qualitative and professional manner. Everyone knows the thesis that armies win battles, but wars are won only by nations. And our story is a visual confirmation.

Therefore, every man, every citizen, everyone who loves his MOTHERLAND, should be able to protect himself, his family, and hence the state, of which he is a citizen.

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  1. smersh70
    smersh70 7 November 2013 09: 40
    -14 qualifying.
    .. despite the fact that the inhabitants of Belarus have so many fights made a significant contribution to the victory ..... it was Minsk that was given the last title of a hero city .. it seems in 1984. They say the obstacle was a passing relationship between Masherov and Brezhnev ... and betrayal of the Minsk underground regional committee and city party committee .....
    which is important .. on the map in the region of Bialystok there just weren’t partisan detachments .. apparently the dancing was hostile to the fight against the Germans, or else the NKVD’s activities in the prewar years were still remembered .....
    1. omsbon
      omsbon 7 November 2013 10: 10
      19
      This is a great art - to be able to pour a spoonful of shit into a common cauldron!
      Yes, Masherov did not speak a language as masterly as Aliyev!
      1. smersh70
        smersh70 7 November 2013 12: 23
        -1
        Quote: omsbon
        like Aliyev, he didn’t speak the language!

        and where does Aliyev, he also guerrilla in the Belarusian forests ..... laughing
        Quote: omsbon
        Yes, Masherov is so masterly

        so they would have given it to Brezhnev, during Khrushov, because Brezhnev came to power in 64 ... and before that, where the leaders of the country looked .........
        1. dmb
          dmb 7 November 2013 21: 33
          +1
          I believe that the scandal in the discussion you provoked rather out of ignorance, rather than intent. Ranks of hero cities were assigned to those whose defense showed particular persistence. The assignment of these titles to Minsk and Kiev was a political issue. This does not belittle the heroism shown by the inhabitants of these cities and republics during the war.
    2. Sakhalininsk
      Sakhalininsk 7 November 2013 13: 45
      +9
      Quote: smersh70
      .. despite the fact that the inhabitants of Belarus have so many fights made a significant contribution to the victory ..... it was Minsk that was given the last title of a hero city .. it seems in 1984. They say the obstacle was a passing relationship between Masherov and Brezhnev ... and betrayal of the Minsk underground regional committee and city party committee .....


      Is the date of conferring the title of a hero city important? The contribution of the Belarusian people to the victory by the fascists and their minions is important.
      1. smersh70
        smersh70 7 November 2013 14: 51
        +4
        Quote: Sakhalininets
        The contribution of the Belarusian people is important

        so who denies this ..... but still needs an assessment of this contribution !! so that generations remember and set an example for the coming generation ....
  2. igordok
    igordok 7 November 2013 09: 44
    17
    Partisan children. And that says a lot.





  3. Kovrovsky
    Kovrovsky 7 November 2013 09: 49
    +4
    I liked the penultimate photo: such a colorful man with AKSU!
    1. catapractic
      catapractic 8 November 2013 01: 06
      +1
      partisans in the 3rd generation laughing
  4. hohryakov066
    hohryakov066 7 November 2013 10: 16
    10
    Well done Syabry! I believe that experience should be adopted by Russia. Very timely idea. It would be like in Switzerland to tie everything up to the electoral system. Once again I am convinced that President Lukashenko is very concerned about the security and prosperity of his country, not in words but in deeds!
    1. vanya
      vanya 7 November 2013 10: 44
      -2
      on paper and for television, in such an ass as now economically Belarus has not been since the end of World War II, but then everyone knew that it would recover, and now there is not even any hope for it.
      1. catapractic
        catapractic 8 November 2013 01: 08
        0
        judging by your flag you know better, but I liked the material
  5. Vladimir73
    Vladimir73 7 November 2013 10: 33
    +7
    Belarusians well done! World peace but gunpowder kept dry. Do not forget the lessons of the past. Thanks to the author of the article - not everything has rotted in the post-Soviet space! good
  6. Vladimir73
    Vladimir73 7 November 2013 10: 34
    +2
    Belarusians well done! World peace but gunpowder kept dry. Do not forget the lessons of the past. Thanks to the author of the article - not everything has rotted in the post-Soviet space! good
  7. Starfish
    Starfish 7 November 2013 10: 44
    +5
    Belarusians remember the lessons of that war, organize territorial troops. and in our district military registration and enlistment offices they cut down completely 4 people in 2 rural areas. what mobilization is there.
    1. smersh70
      smersh70 7 November 2013 12: 26
      -4
      Quote: Starfish
      organize territorial troops.

      Yes, Lukashenko doesn’t have enough money to keep 300 thousand people under arms, for example .. and thought of relying on the so-called partisans, as they were called in the SA .....
      1. Andrew-88
        8 November 2013 14: 26
        +1
        Nobody will keep 300 thousand people under arms. These will be periodic gatherings and exercises for the "partisans". No supernatural costs are required.
  8. shurup
    shurup 7 November 2013 11: 04
    +5
    The Hitlerites also did a good job. For each partisan, there are about ten killed Belarusians. Moreover, with the hands of both local and Ukrainian and Baltic policemen.
    The author did not give their numbers, but I understand why the Belarusian police will not be renamed the police, as on the territory of the RSFSR that was temporarily occupied in the occupation.
  9. Igor39
    Igor39 7 November 2013 12: 11
    11
    My grandmother told me how she survived the occupation with three children, my mother was 1 year old, my grandfather went to the partisans and a mustache. I will not describe everything and so they know what happened, but, to put it mildly, I am not "tolerant" towards the Germans, Poles and Balts , let s.u.k. and know that we all remember, the hour of reckoning will come.
  10. Marek Rozny
    Marek Rozny 7 November 2013 12: 44
    +7
    Since Soviet childhood, it always seemed to me that Belarusians are born in a cap with earflaps, with a beard and with a gun. And that in schools, instead of the usual lessons, they study mine-blasting and the schedule of railway trains of foreign countries.
    Hello Belarusians! ;)
  11. nnz226
    nnz226 7 November 2013 12: 55
    +8
    Territorial Defense Troops - that's right! The "Enlightened West" considers the guerrillas to be bandits and does not apply the prisoner of war convention to them. And the soldier of the territorial defense troops, who (God forbid!) Will also be partisans, will no longer look like a bandit in the eyes of Gay Europeans. Although ... For these "civilizers" the conventions are valuable when they apply to them, but in relation to others ... Anyway, the enemy who invaded our land (common RUSSIAN) must fertilize it!
    1. catapractic
      catapractic 8 November 2013 01: 09
      +2
      territories for any non-combatants
  12. mithridate
    mithridate 7 November 2013 15: 15
    0
    it would be nice to introduce such a system in Ukraine
    1. smersh70
      smersh70 7 November 2013 17: 05
      +3
      Quote: Mithridates
      it would be nice to introduce such a system in Ukraine

      so if you enter, then the next day the Westerners with the Oriental will already begin hostilities under the guise of training .... wassat laughing and deputies will be commanders like Kovpak ... but there is experience .. Kovpak, after all, was also a deputy .. smile
  13. Andrew-88
    7 November 2013 15: 24
    +5
    The number of troops of the Territorial Defense is appointed by the President of the Republic of Belarus. The estimated number will be, in the case of an external threat, about 120 thousand people. Thus, the entire territory of the republic will turn into one solid line of defense with a depth of 600 km. And I guarantee you that we will create an unbearable environment for the enemy !!!
    1. sq
      sq 7 November 2013 21: 17
      +6
      it is correct that older ages are used for territorial troops. 40-45-year-old man is not so easy to climb. It is much easier for him to fight near the house, he already has something to lose. And for his house (which he is here), for his family, neighbors, relatives, friends (who are nearby), he will tear out any aggressor’s eggs and make them gobble up raw. Something like this.
      if I'm wrong correct.
      1. alexey garbuz
        alexey garbuz 7 November 2013 23: 08
        +2
        Everything is right! If even a short barrel were allowed! Do not defend themselves with grandfather! )))
  14. drop
    drop 7 November 2013 16: 03
    11
    Low bow to you residents of Belarus. You are our pride, although we now live in different states. My parents are from near Vitebsk. My relatives were in the partisans and in the Red Army. My mother managed to take me out at the beginning of July to Leningrad, and then to Siberia. My father died on the Leningrad front in December 1941. Working in Soviet times, I supervised the creation of factories in Grodno (Grodno plant of car radio tape recorders), organized the development of the state recognition equipment "Password" there, put into operation the Vitebsk television plant, and supervised the development of a number of enterprises in Minsk. The best years of life and work for the benefit of the country and the Belarusian people are associated with Belarus. Be happy people of Belarus and my relatives there.
    1. Fedya
      Fedya 8 November 2013 22: 42
      0
      Thanks for the factory Radio! But they haven’t been doing it there for 20 years already, but they are making castles, by the way very non-fucking!
      1. drop
        drop 10 November 2013 09: 15
        0
        I read your gratitude for the plant created under my leadership, Thank you. In Belarus, as the head of the Main Directorate of the Defense Ministry, I had to solve many economic, organizational and scientific problems. With the leadership of the Grodno Regional Party Committee and the Regional Executive Committee, we always discussed how we could help collective and state farms. For example, in one of the state farms, I was able to organize the production of cheese on installations that were made in the Urals and supplied to this state farm at the expense of the ministry. My friend A.A. Reut was the deputy chairman of the Government in Belarus, I asked him to agree in the Supreme Council of the republic the issue of transferring the village "Bershty" to this plant in the form of a subsidiary farm, which is 10 km from the plant. When the decree on the transfer was issued, with the money of the Ministry, within a year, the production of containers for the needs of many enterprises in the region was deployed there, beautiful cottages for residents (about 50 houses), a school and a pioneer camp for children of the plant's specialists were built. Everyone who left this village to work in the city returned back. It was pleasant to look at the village after 3 years. It was a clean, well-maintained village with friendly and hardworking residents. Then perestroika began and everything changed. But this is how we worked then for the benefit of the people and the country.
  15. kaktus
    kaktus 7 November 2013 16: 44
    +8
    Mom’s elder brother, a tankman, died during the liberation of Belarus on 26.5.1944. He was buried in the village of Dubrovo, Beshenkovichi district, Vitebsk region. Guard Sergeant Tikhonov Vladimir Alekseevich, he was 19 years old ...
    Their cousin worked in the mission of Belarus to the UN. We are one people, brothers and sisters. love
  16. psyholirik
    psyholirik 7 November 2013 17: 34
    +1
    Eternal memory to the Defenders of the Native land
  17. psyholirik
    psyholirik 7 November 2013 17: 35
    +1
    Eternal memory to the Defenders of the Native land
  18. Ro-man
    Ro-man 7 November 2013 17: 54
    +4
    I join the last comments. In addition to Russian, there is Belarusian blood in me, I am proud of it.
  19. DOMINO
    DOMINO 7 November 2013 18: 54
    +5
    We must pay tribute, Belarusians are very harsh, "sullen" men. Who, if not them, who have long lived at the forefront, could with honor carry the heavy burden of partisan warfare, withstand and organize themselves under the conditions of the occupation. It was not for nothing that Nemchura hated partisans, sailors (marines) and communist political instructors more than anyone else; she always paid them "special attention" during interrogations, with certain consequences. They were simply killed by the thought that they had to comb forests and swamps, many would prefer any fronts instead. It was not customary to cover in the media for well-known reasons, but in the war they knew that the partisans often did not stand on ceremony with the captured Germans either - they also propped up the doors to the shed and gave a light. So the punitive fascists, who knew about this, also did not smile at being at the partisans' home ...
  20. Andreitas
    Andreitas 7 November 2013 22: 21
    +3
    Needed where was born.
  21. Kubanets
    Kubanets 7 November 2013 22: 39
    +7
    I admire the will of the Belarusian brothers both in the fiery years of the war and now. On the Great October Day, My Grandfather, in the ranks of the 108th rank of divas, liberated Novo-Bykhov (awarded the medal "For Military Merit) Bobruisk Baranovichi (medal" For Courage ")
  22. svp67
    svp67 8 November 2013 00: 56
    +4
    since the beginning of the war, partisans of Belarus derailed 1040 German train echelons


    1. Andrew-88
      8 November 2013 10: 12
      +2
      1040 of the German train echelons is as of December 1 of 1942 of the year.
      In total, from June 1941 to July 1944, partisans of Belarus blew up and derailed 11 128 enemy trains and 34 armored trains!
  23. svp67
    svp67 8 November 2013 01: 00
    10
    And as we know, lessons must be learned from history, otherwise mistakes will have to pay a heavy price.

    And for this, from a very young age, it is necessary to raise children in the spirit of patriotism
  24. Nomad
    Nomad 8 November 2013 10: 48
    +3
    A stunning photo of a grandfather with a grandson! In my next house lived a member of the partisan movement in Belarus, a Kazakh by nationality, a Belarusian wife, was a nurse during the war. Also type in Google "Ded Talash", an amazing biography. Grandfather under 100 years old was partisan! He died in 1946. As if he had done his duty and deliberately left.