Military Review

Chemical weapon. Elimination or improvement?


Recent events in Syria have drawn attention to the problem of the proliferation, control, and destruction of chemical weapons.

According to official data of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), established under the auspices of the UN, the total number of declared stocks was 71373 t, and the loaded ammunition and containers - 8671564.

Chemical weapon. Elimination or improvement?

Six states have officially declared they have chemical weapons: Albania, India, Libya, Russia, the United States and an unnamed state party, which, according to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), is South Korea.

13 of the participating States announced the availability of chemical weapons production facilities (CWPFs): Bosnia and Herzegovina, China, France, India, Iran, Libya, Russia, Serbia, United Kingdom, United States, France, Japan and one other participating State.

The largest stocks of chemical weapons were accumulated in Russia - 40 thousand tons of toxic substances (that is, more than half of the global reserves). Of these, 32 200 tons were organophosphorus toxic substances (FOW) (sarin, soman, vi-gases), and the remainder (skin-blister toxic substances) included such substances as yperite, lewisite, and mixtures thereof. The FOW was completely stored in ammunition and device housings. From blister agents: mustard gas was completely stored in containers; 2% lewisite - in ammunition and 98% - in tanks; Iprit lewisite mixes 40% - in ammunition and 60% - in tanks.

The second place in terms of reserves was occupied by the USA - 28 572 tons of poisonous substances: mustard gas and mixtures based on it, i-X, sarin. More than 60% stocks were stored in tanks (solid containers), and the remaining 40% - in ammunition.

As of November 30, 2011, under the UN Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, 50 619 metric tons or 71,10% of the world's declared reserves have been destroyed.

On 1 March 2012, Russia destroyed more than 24 thousands of 157 tons of toxic agents or 60, 4% of chemical weapons stocks.
As of 18, January 2012, the US has destroyed 27 468 tons of chemicals.

Due to the fact that Russia and the United States do not fit the deadlines in the destruction schedule, the deadlines were extended to December 31 of the 2015 year.

The parties to the Convention that entered into force on 29 on April 1997 are 188 States. Eight countries remain outside the international legal framework of the Convention, two of which - Israel and Myanmar - signed the Convention but did not ratify, six - Angola, the DPRK, Egypt, Somalia, Syria, South Sudan did not sign. Of the states that have not acceded to the convention, the largest reserves of chemical warfare agents have been accumulated in the DPRK.

13 September 2013, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, under pressure from the international community, signed an act of refusing chemical weapons, their full utilization and subsequent ratification by Syria of the Convention on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons in full. According to the latest data, there are about 1,3 thousand tons of combat agents in the Syrian territory, as well as more than 1,2 thousand unloaded carriers, in particular missiles and shells.

It would seem that chemical weapons will be eliminated in the near future, and the threat to humanity will be less. But is it?

Many experts, because of the relative simplicity of production, availability and cheapness of raw materials and components, call chemical warfare agents a “nuclear bomb for the poor.”

For modern combat agents, such qualities are characterized as: high toxicity, which allows in small doses to cause heavy and deadly mass destruction of manpower, large penetrating ability to leaking structures, military equipment, etc., the difficulty of timely detection of the use of chemical weapons and recognition type of toxic substance, duration of exposure. All this makes chemical weapons particularly attractive for use by terrorist groups and odious dictatorial regimes.

To a large extent, all this relates to fluorophosphoric esters, which were originally obtained in Germany, at the end of the 30-s, in the course of research on the creation of new inkstcididov. Research in this area has led to the creation by German chemists of the most advanced group of toxic and physicochemical properties of highly toxic nerve agents: tabun, sarin and soman.

The lethal dose of the herd during inhalation is 8 times less than that of phosgene. Sarin and soman were even more toxic. In terms of their combination of toxic and physicochemical properties, they were significantly superior to previously known toxic substances and are suitable, without any restrictions on weather conditions, and are simple in equipment and use. With severe lesions, the latent period of these toxic substances is practically absent. The death of the affected comes from paralysis of the respiratory center and heart muscles.

By starting production of nerve poisons in 1943, Germany had accumulated large reserves of these substances by the end of the war, gaining a distinct advantage in the field of chemical weapons.

Fortunately for the Allied forces, the use of nerve gas against them did not take place. The reasons why Germany doomed to defeat in the war has not yet been disclosed have not attempted to turn the tide of the war in their favor with the help of the latest highly effective chemical weapons of those times. One way or another, the leadership of the Third Reich had nothing to lose; it is doubtful that moral and ethical considerations would be an obstacle to this.

In the case of the use of nerve agents, the Allies would have been confronted with the problems of personnel protection against it during the last years of the war. The funds of that time were designed for protection from mustard and lewisite vapors and did not have protective properties against tabun, sarin and soman. At that time, the necessary gas analyzers and degassing facilities were missing.

The use of substances that form the basis of the chemical arsenal of the USSR, the USA and Great Britain would not provide an adequate response.

The USA and the USSR seized the chemical arsenals of Germany. Technological equipment and documentation have taken all measures to organize their own production of nerve agents. The success of the German chemists who discovered herd, sarin and soman caused a sharp increase in the scale of work in this area.

In the military chemical laboratories of the USSR, the USA and Great Britain hundreds of structural analogues of phosphorylthiocholine originally obtained in Germany were synthesized and studied. Research in this area led to the creation in the US of a warfare agent that received the VX code.

In April, 1961, in New Port, Indiana, began operating a VX plant and ammunition equipment. With a slight lag 2-3, the production of a similar substance began in the USSR at factories in Volgograd and Cheboksary.

The substance VX is more toxic than sarin about 10 times. But the main difference between VX and sarin is its high toxicity when it comes into contact with the skin. What provided him with high combat effectiveness. The differences in the toxicological characteristics of sarin, soman and VX determine differences in combat use.

Sarin, being quite volatile, is easily converted into a vaporous state when the ammunition equipped with it explodes, having an insignificant lethal concentration (75 mg / m3). Doses of this level are easily created in 30-60 seconds. on the target area with the massive use of artillery or aviation ammunition.

This time is comparable with the time required for dressing personnel with gas masks when receiving the command "gases". With this method of application, sarin quickly dissipates and does not create a persistent contamination of the terrain. Being, therefore, suitable for use in the immediate line of contact of troops.

Soman and VX, being high-boiling liquids, given the high toxicity, can be used in the form of fine aerosols, affecting through the respiratory system.

However, the greatest damaging effect is achieved when in contact with the skin. High boiling point and low volatility, and high toxicity allows you to create a lesion zone in 10 times more than when using sarin.

Protection against coarse aerosol or droplets of a substance is much more complicated than against vapor. In this case, besides a gas mask, the use of a protective suit, gloves and stockings is required.

The toxic substances soman and VX, when used in coarse and aerosol-drop form, cause dangerous and long-term infection of protective suits, uniforms, personal weapons, combat and transport vehicles, engineering structures and terrain. These substances can literally be absorbed into the paint-and-lacquer protective coatings of weapons and equipment, which makes it difficult to protect against them. Substances soman and VX can be effective against a well-defended adversary due to their high chilling effect.

An example would be the test of protection against agents before adopting a new model of armored vehicles in the 70-s. Experimental animals were placed in a combat vehicle at the test site, as part of field tests of the system of protection against weapons of mass destruction, and then treated with soman aerosol. Technique tests withstood, and the animals were not injured. After testing and degassing, the devices showed the presence of a dangerous residual concentration of a poisonous substance on the surface of the armor. After repeated degassing and measurements that did not show the presence of agents, the combat vehicle was sent to the factory for examination of the condition of the engine and components. Soon the specialists who carried out the work on it, felt the deterioration of their state of health. Control measurements showed the presence of soman, who was ingrained in the paintwork, and later released in the closed volume of the workshop, created a dangerous concentration. Therefore, intensified degassing was carried out, during which the object was exposed to heated alkaline solutions and was blown into the jet of hot gases of the TMS-65 machine for hours.

The paintwork and tarpaulin products burnt out, but highly sensitive display methods continued to detect traces of soman vapors near the surface of the object.

High concentrations of agents make it impossible for a long stay of military units in the area of ​​chemical contamination. And carrying out degassing of persistent agents requires the withdrawal of units from the battlefield. Modern chemical weapons pose a significant threat, their sudden use, especially against troops that do not have adequate defenses, can have a high striking effect. But its use against the civilian population can be compared with the number of victims with nuclear weapons.

Further improvement of chemical weapons went towards the creation of binary toxic substances. The individual components of which did not have a toxic effect.

The peak of the development of chemical warfare agents came at the end of 60's and the beginning of 70's.

Despite significant funds spent on research in this area, new combat poisons have not been put into service. Despite a slight increase in toxicity and improvement of the physicochemical properties of newly synthesized substances, the costs of organizing their mass production did not justify themselves.

Thus, we can talk about stagnation in the development of this type of weapon.

Chemical weapons created for the “big war”, requiring specially prepared storage facilities and specialists, causing a negative attitude in society, became burdensome for the military. All this, as well as the end of the "cold war" led to the adoption of the UN Convention: "On the prohibition of the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons."

However, toxic substances as sabotage and terrorist weapons are of particular interest to various terrorist groups and extremist organizations.

From the point of view of terrorists, the use of agents makes it possible to achieve the greatest public response. Agents have the greatest potential compared to other types of weapons of mass destruction due to their availability and relative ease of production. A small group of chemists (sometimes even to one qualified specialist) is quite capable of synthesizing simple-to-order BOV in quantities that are necessary for a terrorist act.

Some agents have high toxicity, and their number, required to achieve a lethal outcome, is very small (the use of agents can be hundreds of times more efficient than conventional explosives), agents are extremely effective for inducing panic and fear. Losses in a crowd indoors can be measured in thousands.

The terrorists did not put their signatures under the Convention, and their ability to use agents in terrorist acts is not to be doubted after the tragedy in the Tokyo metro.

In the morning of March 20, 1995 members of the Aum Shinrikyo sect opened plastic containers with sarin in the metro, which resulted in the death of 12 subway passengers.

Another 5,500-6,000 people received poisoning of varying severity. This was not the first, but the most "effective" gas attack of sectarians. In 1994, in the city of Matsumoto, Nagano Prefecture, seven people died from sarin poisoning.

The events in Syria associated with the use of sarin raise numerous questions.

It is clear that the opposing government forces did not make any sense to use chemical weapons, especially with the help of hand-made rockets.

However, UN experts ascertained in Syria the fact of the use of sarin, apparently handicrafts. Apparently, there was a provocation of militants whose goal was to provoke a reaction from the “world community” and, as a result, airstrikes on Syria.

This time, thanks to the position of Russia, the provocation failed. But the question arises, where will this homemade sarin be applied next time?

The repeated interest of terrorist organizations to organic poison of plant origin ricin contained in castor beans has been recorded. The poison is highly toxic and can be easily obtained.

All of the above indicates that the probability of using agents in an act of terrorism is extremely high. Unfortunately, we can only wait for this new stage in the terrorist war.

Despite the majority of countries signing the UN Convention: “On the prohibition of the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons, and the elimination of their stocks, research work in this area has never ceased.

Outside of international agreements, irritants - agents (tears or irritants), provoked irritant reactions when exposed to the mucous membrane or skin, and effects on the respiratory tract. As well as defoliants - substances that destroy vegetation.

Both types of these substances were used by the US military during the Vietnam War.

The areas treated with defoliants containing supertoxic dioxin have become practically unsuitable for life, the consequences of its use in the time interval turned out to be even more than using nuclear weapons.

When using superactive irritants and achieving a certain concentration of them in the air, a toxic effect comparable to non-conventional agents can be achieved.

The agents which are temporarily incapacitated are “emetics causing uncontrollable vomiting.” They, as well as irrianta can be used to "riot".

A great interest in poisons is shown by various special services. In a number of open sources there was information that the CIA funded the research program of various natural toxins of organic origin. The task was to create poisons of various actions, the use of which was not recorded by traditional methods and imitated natural causes in the event of death.

It can be clearly stated that in closed Russian laboratories, work is also being done in this area. The level of professionalism of our toxicologists has always been the highest. And the substances created by them continue to remain in the arsenal of certain structures.

So 20 March 2002 was fatally poisoned by one of the most irreconcilable and odious leaders of Chechen militants, Jordanian Khattab. Among the mail destined to him was a letter from his brother, processed by a potent chemical agent.

In the evening Khattab read the letter, after a while he felt unwell, and the next morning he died of heart muscle paralysis. Apparently, a nerve poison was applied. As the saying goes: "dog - dog death."

Soon, toxic agents were used by Russian special services during a special operation related to the October 26 2002 terrorist act on Dubrovka in Moscow, also referred to as “Nord-Ost”.

In the course of the storming of the building with hostages held by Chechen rebels, a narcotic analgesic was used. The main justification for the need to use gas in the course of a special operation to free hostages of gas is that terrorists have weapons and explosive devices, in the event of which all hostages could have died. The gas released into the building did not affect everyone for a number of reasons: some of the hostages remained conscious, and some terrorists continued to shoot back for 20 minutes, but the explosion did not happen and all the terrorists were neutralized as a result.

Of the 916 people taken hostage, according to official figures, 130 people died as a result of exposure to agents. The exact composition used by the security forces during the storming of the gas remains unknown. Specialists from the laboratory of scientific and technological foundations of security in Salisbury (UK) believe that the aerosol consisted of two analgesics - carfentanil and remifentanil. According to the official statement of the FSB, “special prescription based on fentanyl derivatives” was applied at Dubrovka. Officially, the main cause of death of a large number of hostages is called “exacerbation of chronic diseases.”

It is worth noting here that, according to the disabling action, the most active of narcotic analgesics in terms of their level of action achieve the effect of neuro-paralytic agents. They are quite capable, if necessary, to replace non-conventional agents.

When suddenly applied, when the enemy is taken by surprise, the effect of narcotic analgesics can be overwhelming. Even in small doses, the action of the substance is knocked out - the living force that was attacked after a few minutes loses its ability to resist. In case of overdose, death occurs, which apparently happened to the dead in the "Nord-Ost".

It should be understood that, despite the efforts of the world community in the elimination and prohibition of chemical warfare agents as a means of warfare, in the future there will be attempts to use them for terrorist purposes. Also, work in government laboratories with the aim of creating the most lethal formulations will never stop. Moreover, it can always be justified in the event of publicity by the “fight against terrorism”.
Excluded from the arsenals of armies in most states, chemical warfare agents continue to be developed and improved as a means of "riot control" and "countering terrorism".

The stockpiles, in accordance with international agreements, the stocks of the most effective nerve agents in the past may well be replaced, if desired, by other, non-banned substances.

Having proven and tested formulations, any technologically developed state is capable of organizing mass production of such substances in a short time.

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  1. Bongo
    1 November 2013 09: 34
    With Syria and especially with the DPRK everything is clear. But the question arises, why countries such as Egypt and Israel have not joined the convention, are they really going to use chemical weapons against each other?
    1. Siberian
      Siberian 1 November 2013 09: 44
      They are special. They are not allowed (immunity immunity), and in general they are democratic countrieshi
      1. badger1974
        badger1974 1 November 2013 17: 17
        Yes, no, just expand the topic of Syria so much, prepare the OM (depending on which classification and concentration) for the student of inorganic chemistry (this is the 8th grade), create two fingers around .. ob, just like an explosion pack
        1. Bongo
          2 November 2013 02: 26
          Volodya, I could share this experience with you, but not on this page ... laughing
    2. badger1974
      badger1974 1 November 2013 17: 12
      this is not necessary, the convention applies to countries that have military warfare agents, that is, pre-prepared warheads of warfare weapons, everything else is not subject to the conditions of the convention, neither the development nor the production of chemically hazardous substances in small concentrations, that is, the production of nuclear warfare weapons is available, but who does not create, although the Proton launch vehicle without heptyl and amyl does not take off, just like the Shuttle overclocking modules (and now the Delta), they are silent about the French, and the cortophan from the beetle is sprayed with what the USA destroyed cultural plants in Vietnam, these are the convention
  2. twister
    twister 1 November 2013 10: 52
    They are just addicts !!! lol
  3. MAG
    MAG 1 November 2013 12: 53
    The author has collected everything in one heap. There is a prohibition of OM, but it applies only to those species that are included in the list of their prohibition, as well as their derivatives and modifications. Development is underway, I have no doubt. About the hotab, no one knows how he died and what except the liquidators they will remain silent for a very long time and the version about the letter was thrown specifically to avert suspicion from the person close to this shit who helped to fill him up. In the Nord-Ost special gas was used and not poisonous.
    1. badger1974
      badger1974 1 November 2013 17: 21
      Brother, people go to the northeast or with validol, or just to go, they died, and in the Raging Horse (burnt tavern) people are young and quick, they died from hydrocyanic acid, which is released from burning Euro-plastic , he took out a couple of times the dose;
      1. MAG
        MAG 1 November 2013 18: 59
        The lost "brother" was found))) like in Indian cinema))) Look at the list of those killed in Nord-Ost and then write.
        1. badger1974
          badger1974 1 November 2013 19: 35
          and what is the list of the dead ?, a narcologist and a studio

          Do you know why you won’t give?
          1. MAG
            MAG 2 November 2013 11: 13
            The list that 80% of the dead were not and 50 about which validol YOU wrote. A list with such a volume in the comment does not go through.
            1. badger1974
              badger1974 4 November 2013 21: 24
              about such that to go to such performances you need a penny mother, and whoever eats them, the one who steals and then is afraid (they are embarrassed at the extreme as in "12 chairs). life is 50 years in Russia, we may have a little bit better, but almost every 5th in Russia work, and the urban population is exposed to the negativity of megacities many times more, because there were no people from the provinces there?
              1. MAG
                MAG 5 November 2013 17: 03
                That is, in your opinion, those who went to the Nord-Ost bribe thieves and the fact that they died there they need? and also the fact that they are not young and quick, and therefore they are not sorry? from you carries fascism
                1. badger1974
                  badger1974 14 November 2013 11: 29
                  yes, I’m a pragmatist, under the conditions that prevailed at that time on Dubrovka, there was no other way out, if those who died from an overdose didn’t die, everyone would die, and where did you find Nazism or fascism? And as I understand it, in Beslan you have to use the same method it was necessary to act, and in Budenovsk, too, and in general it is necessary to develop such a practice against such terrorist acts, but I’m interested in your opinion, in such a situation your proposal is an assault (Beslan, Munich 1972), backward (Budenovsk), or something else We do not know
                  1. Bongo
                    14 November 2013 14: 11
                    It is difficult to say that it would be better ... one way or another, those who were supposed to live, including children, died. There is still a moment that the leadership still denies the death of people precisely from the effects of gas; they don’t want to pay money as compensation.
                    Personally, I think that in the arsenal of the special services these funds will be improved and applied.
    2. Bongo
      2 November 2013 01: 25
      In all modern textbooks on chemical weapons narcotic analgesics are classified as toxic substances. Or you'll argue?
      1. badger1974
        badger1974 4 November 2013 21: 35
        DELK - psychotropic OM, it has a psycho-excited effect with loss of self-esteem, it is one of the analgesics, just like LSD itself
        1. Bongo
          5 November 2013 03: 13
          LSD is not an analgesic, belongs to the group of psychotomimetics
  4. scientist
    scientist 1 November 2013 13: 59
    In addition to chemical, there is also a bacteriological weapon, which can be ten times more dangerous than a chemical one and the source of infection is much more difficult to establish. If in the World a scum with fascist habits is started its own exclusivity, then it will surely find a way to spoil. Therefore, it is necessary to fight not with weapons, but with those who hold it in their hands, with the ideologists and financiers of this lawlessness.
    1. badger1974
      badger1974 1 November 2013 17: 30
      I would add, a genetic modification is worse than any mustard gas, so in the course of the convention, it is already outdated and needs to be reviewed, if not updated again
    2. Bongo
      2 November 2013 02: 38
      Quote scholar:
      In addition to chemical weapons, there are also bacteriological weapons, which can be ten times more dangerous than chemical weapons.
      -This is a commonplace philistine myth. What danger can bacteriological weapons represent on the battlefield? If in the position of the leading artillery battery and instead of sarin shells will cluster munitions filled with insects carrying plague begin to fall, or in the offensive zone of the tank regiment instead of spraying the anthrax? How does this suppress battery fire and whip off tank operations? On the battlefield bacteriological weapons are absolutely useless. It can pose a threat as a sabotage and terrorist, for the unvaccinated population, for example in the case of spraying anthrax spores. But even in this case, the cost of decontamination will be several times less compared to the chemical one. In addition, the manufacture and application of bacteriological is several times more complicated than chemical.
      1. alean245
        alean245 2 November 2013 07: 24
        -This is a common philistine myth. What danger can bacteriological weapons pose on the battlefield? If at the firing position of an artillery battery and instead of shells with sarin cluster cluster munitions equipped with plague-carrying insects start to fall, or in the attack zone of a tank regiment instead of VX spray anthrax spores? How does this suppress the fire of the battery and bother the actions of tanks? Bacteriological weapons are completely useless on the battlefield.

        I agree. But no one will use biological weapons like that.
        It can pose a threat as a sabotage and terrorist one for an unvaccinated population, for example, in the case of dispersal of anthrax spores. But even in this case, the cost of disinfecting will be several times less than chemical. Moreover, the manufacture and use of bacteriological is many times more complicated than chemical.

        Just the same, the costs of disinfecting can be many times greater than chemical. In the case of chemical weapons, it will be sufficient to localize the source of toxic substances. In the case of biological weapons, it is still necessary to identify and isolate all those who were at risk of infection in a timely manner. And if you take into account the possibilities of modern transport links, then an outbreak of some kind of infection that began in, say, Africa, in a day can lead to the appearance of many foci of infection throughout the planet.
        1. Bongo
          2 November 2013 14: 08
          Are these infections concurrent with high verulence and mortality? That you are not otherwise Clancy had been reading.
          1. alean245
            alean245 2 November 2013 17: 47
            Are these infections concurrent with high verulence and mortality? That you are not otherwise Clancy had been reading.

            The plague, for example, has a high probability of death (even with timely treatment) and high virulence. And its pulmonary form is also transmitted from person to person by airborne droplets. And it is far from a fact that in any biological laboratory there are no pathogens more dangerous.
            1. Bongo
              3 November 2013 02: 51
              And when was the last time in the modern history of a large-scale plague epidemic? What is the point of talking about what might be in the laboratories, since there is no reliable information? Only one fantasy.
              At the same time, the toxic and physicochemical properties of chemical agents are known. Microorganisms are forms of life. They can be destroyed by disinfectant solutions and exposure to high temperature. Under low temperature conditions, biological agents are inactive, a significant portion of pathogens generally die in the cold. For OB, there are no such restrictions. With the help of the same soman or VX, the terrain can be made uninhabitable for a long time.
              1. badger1974
                badger1974 4 November 2013 13: 35
                all this is true, but at the moment, due to the fact that genetic engineering is taking leaps and bounds, to build a pathogen in microorganisms, this is not so fiction, rather reality, and you can increase incubation and resistance without problems, and even more so, you can design such so that for a certain race or nation it will have a replication reaction many times more intense than for another, that is, the moment of selectivity, this cannot be achieved in OM
                1. Bongo
                  4 November 2013 13: 39
                  Perhaps this is the business of the future, but on the battlefield such weapons are again not applicable.
                  1. badger1974
                    badger1974 4 November 2013 21: 02
                    I do not think that this is a matter of the future, as the company was conducted by the coalition forces in 91 and the second Iraqi one (I did not see any difference in the "peace treaty"), the tasks of the ground forces included the current ma clean-up after aviation, then bakta could be safely used , in a particularly subversive way, there is more than enough time, and I believe that there are enough vain guys from the scientific world, and when provided with a hard coin, in my opinion the boundaries of patriotism and the like are completely erased, so somewhere in the high-mountainous Shambhala this is easily possible, because from there gerych just tons of rods
          2. badger1974
            badger1974 4 November 2013 13: 16
            for example, butulin, which produces poison affects the nervous system, biological activity is cleaner than any OM, just spray over the battery, and after 2 hours the capacity will decrease, after 10 hours the composition will be completely disabled, as it is possible to identify what current MA laboratory, analysis of feces and urine, - agree, the procedure is long
            1. Bongo
              4 November 2013 13: 36
              I agree. But here, Volodya, you just invaded the adjacent area of ​​which is mentioned in the article. Botulinum bacteria themselves Closuidium botulinum harmless enough for them to begin to produce a toxin need certain conditions. Although work on the artificial synthesis of this toxin was conducted. Surely this poison is in the arsenal of the special services.
              1. badger1974
                badger1974 4 November 2013 21: 13
                it’s just that I’ve heard of a case from life, and it’s quite possible that the bacteria that cause gangrene can be expanded to breathtaking proportions, especially on the battlefield, then there will be no warring disabled people at all, so the convention must be reviewed, genetic engineering breaks like a wolf into a flock without Shepherd, OV is not in fashion now
  5. Governor
    Governor 5 November 2013 05: 29
    I would rather die from a bullet than writhing in the throes of sarin and similar OM.
    It is only a pity that future wars carry something much more terrible than some kind of bullet ...
    1. Bongo
      5 November 2013 05: 32
      Yes, a bullet compared to many OB-act of humanism.
  6. Dees
    Dees April 18 2015 21: 40
    Definitely improve.
  7. Murad05
    Murad05 12 January 2016 12: 02
    Of course, it is necessary to improve this type of weapon of mass destruction, since I do not see a particularly large difference between death from a bullet or from chemical warfare agents ...