Military Review

The origin and development of the death penalty in ancient Russia


“The death penalty is irreversible. And since the criminal justice system is not immune from mistakes, it will inevitably be applied to the innocent. ”

October 30 1653 year, that is exactly 360 years ago, in the Russian state issued a personal royal decree on the abolition of the death penalty for robbers and taty (thieves). This document by Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich modified some provisions of the Code of Law of 1550 and the Council Code of 1649. It resulted in the fact that, for all thieves and thieves who were caught and awaiting execution, they were replaced with capital punishment by cutting off a finger, cutting it with a whip and sending it to Siberia. All this looks like an important step towards the complete abolition of the most cruel, inhuman and degrading punishment. However, was this really the case? Let's try to understand the birth and development of the death penalty in Russia.

An old Russian proverb says: "The sword does not flop the blameless head." Historians have two versions about the appearance of the death penalty in ancient Russia. Supporters of the first theory argue that it originated as a continuation of the ancient custom of blood feud. To punish the guilty, to take revenge and restore justice, was considered a matter of necessity not only for the victim, but for all his relatives. And Russkaya Pravda, in general, legislatively asserts the right of blood vengeance: “Kill the husband of the husband, then revenge the brother, brother, or sons of the father ...”. In the absence of relatives, the state intervened in the revenge case - a fine was levied on the killer. If the offender did not have money and property to compensate for the damage, then he was given to the victim in servitude "until atonement", that is, until personal labor did not work out the full amount of damage caused. Finally, the blood feud was canceled at the princely 20 congress on May 1072 of the year (Vyshgorod congress) by the sons of Yaroslav the Wise.

The second group of researchers of the past speaks of the rise of the death penalty due to Byzantine influence. The annals describe well the aspirations of the Byzantine bishops to annex Russia to the provisions of the Kormchy book, which speaks of the need to destroy those who engage in robbery. The same bishops argued to Prince Vladimir the Holy: "You are from God put to execute the evil." For a time, the death penalty for robbery was actually practiced in Russia, but soon Vladimir Krasnoe Soneshko abolished it, moving to a well-known and proven over the years system of monetary fines. Yaroslav I and his successors also rejected the death penalty, leaving no such sanction in the Russian Truth. And the Grand Duke Vladimir Vsevolodovich Monomakh and at all in the famous "Instructions" bequeathed to the children: "Neither kill the guilty, nor the right, and do not command such a killing. Even if someone was guilty of death, do not destroy the Christian soul. "

However, the absence of a penalty in the lists of punishments of the Russian Truth does not mean its absence in real life. There is evidence of the use of the death penalty for treason, crimes against the faith and rebellion. For example, in the 1227 year in Novgorod, four wise men were burned, accused of witchcraft. And in 1230 year, during the famine in the same Novgorod, the boyars ordered to burn people engaged in cannibalism. In addition, the provisions of Russian Pravda allowed the murder of a thief at the crime scene (albeit with some restrictions) and a serf who raised his hand to a free man.

Today the death penalty in Russia can neither be imposed nor executed. Adopted in 1993, the Constitution of the Russian Federation established the use of the death penalty as an exceptional punishment for especially grave crimes. However, in 1996, Russia entered the Council of Europe, which obliges us to sign the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights. And on May 16 of 1996, the President of Russia issued a decree on the phased reduction of the death penalty, and on April 16 of the Russian Federation signed Protocol 1997 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms in Peacetime. And although the sixth protocol was not ratified by our country (the only member of the Council of Europe), the death penalty from this point in Russia is forbidden to apply. This follows from the Vienna Convention, which decides that the signatory state should behave in accordance with the treaty before ratification. The last time the death penalty was applied in the 6 year.

In 1398, the Dvina charter, saw the first official sanctioning the death penalty under Russian law. The death penalty - hanging - threatened only thieves caught for the third time. However, once penetrating the punitive measures of secular law, the death penalty began to develop rapidly. In just sixty-nine years (in the Pskov Literacy of the 1467 year) at the border of the Odelny and Moscow stages of development of domestic legal life, the death penalty already plays a prominent role in the hierarchy of the punishments presented. In particular, in the Pskov Judicial Charter, five crimes are identified for which you have to pay for life: blasphemous theft from the church, horse stealing (so often leading to bloody self-prosecution), passing secret information to the enemy, arson and theft for the third time. In the document itself, the death penalty is described by the only possible atonement for the evil will manifested by the criminal, a way to protect the whole society from the villain.

According to the data of the All-Russian poll in July 2001 of the year, the death penalty for particularly grave crimes was advocated by 72% of respondents (9% against, the rest abstained). In 2005, the year for the abolition of the moratorium was already 84% of Russians, and 96% of them supported the death penalty against terrorists.

Among the supporters of the introduction of the death penalty in Russia - the Communist Party of the Russian Federation with the rationale: "The moratorium contradicts the interests of the country" and the LDPR party: "If you hang in the center of the city, and the corpse will hang for several days, then the number of crimes will definitely decrease."

Among the opponents are Vladimir Putin and Dmitry Medvedev: “The toughening of punishment will not lead to the eradication of crime”, as well as the Russian Orthodox Church: “Human life does not end with bodily death, abolishing the death penalty provides more opportunities for repentance of the stumbled and for pastoral work with him. Mercy for the fallen is always preferable to revenge. ” In the party "United Russia", as well as among the staff of the system of execution of punishments there is no consensus on this issue.

The economic side also opposes the death penalty, since this type of punishment is not economically viable (although there are proposals to use the organs of the convicted person). Persons who have committed crimes may perform their labor duties for a long time, thus compensating for the material damage.

The lawsuit of 1497 of the year continued the tendency to expand the use of the death penalty. To the already existing crimes punishable by death, added slander, robbery, various types of murder. Thieves began to go to the gallows after the second theft. Public and torture-related executions became frequent phenomena during the reign of Ivan Vasilyevich the Terrible, which was noted in this field by the release of the Code of Laws of 1550.

It is curious that in the annals of the rights of the early Moscow period, the initial view of the crime of violating private interests is gradually replaced by the notion of evil (“dashing” or “dashing business”) directed against the whole state. Thus, the punishment for crimes becomes a state, royal affair, and mob law is declared prohibited and raised to an independent crime. The need for the death penalty in Subobniki is justified by the fact that the evil will of the participants in criminal acts is so “spoiled and entrenched” that only the physical destruction of its owner can protect society from danger. Also, these legislative collections did not allow for the possibility of reconciliation of the victim with the criminal and the abolition of the penalty in order to compensate for material damage.

During the period of criminal proceedings for criminal actions, the initiative of which the state took on itself, a new form of investigation appeared. In the investigation, the presence of a private prosecutor was not an important detail, since the government itself appeared in the role of prosecutor. And when investigating offenses with might and main, two powerful tools were used: a general search and torture.

We will try to restore all types of the death penalty that have taken place in the practice of Muscovy throughout the seventeenth century.

1. Beheading. It was considered a standard form of execution and was used if there were no other instructions or the words “without mercy”.
2. Hanging. One of the most ancient types of execution, which came to us from Byzantium. He was appointed for robbery and tatba, as well as for the betrayal of military people. In the second half of the seventeenth century, hanging by a rib on an iron hook appeared, which became one of the most cruel executions.
3. Drowning. Used in cases of mass execution. For patricide and matricide in the era of the Law, drowning was performed with a rooster, a cat, a dog and a snake.

4. Quarter or chop off all the limbs and the head at the very end. It was considered one of the most shameful executions and appointed for state crimes. In the fifteenth century, impostors were thus executed.

5. Pouring molten metal into the throat. It was done exclusively on counterfeiters, and in 1672, it was replaced by cutting off the left hands and both legs.

6. Burial alive in the ground. This penalty was appointed for manicide. And the convict with his hands tied buried on his shoulders and left in anticipation of death from hunger or thirst. There were guards nearby, and passersby were allowed to bring only money to the guilty, which then went to buy a coffin.

7. Landing on stake. Like the quartering, it was applied mainly to the rioters. The execution was very agonizing - under the weight of the punishment stake, slowly pierced the inside and exited between the shoulder blades or from the chest. To increase the torment, the tip of the stake was fitted with a crossbar.

8. Wheeling. It was a crushing of all large bones lying on the ground condemned by an iron wheel. After that, the wheel was mounted on a pole in a horizontal position, and the mutilated body of the executed person was placed or tied to it from above and left to die from dehydration and shock. This penalty was especially used during the reign of Peter I.

9. Burning alive. A specific type of death penalty for arson and crimes against the faith. The criminals were burned on an ordinary fire, sometimes they planted them in an iron cage. The first cases of the use of such a penalty were noted in the thirteenth century. At the end of the seventeenth century, burning was used as a punishment for perseverance in the "old faith." As a tightening of punishment, convicts were fumigated with caustic formulations or burned over low heat.

Not satisfied with the horrors of these types of death penalty, in practice they tried to make it even more frightening. The time and place of the execution were announced in advance, furnished accordingly, arranged a solemn procession to the place. "The wounded affairs of the master" independently tried to diversify the disgusting course of executions. The bodies of criminals or parts of their bodies were put up for a certain period of time for everyone to see in various public places.

One hundred years, from the appearance of the Law Code of 1550-year to the birth of the Council Code of 1649, were filled with the tireless struggle of the Moscow kingdom with real or imaginary anti-state elements. At the time of the prosperity of the idea of ​​a harsh, absolute statehood, the “dashing man”, the criminal, seemed to be a dangerous force with which state power had to fight. And the Muscovite state fought with “dashing people”, fought tirelessly and without mercy. The inevitable result of this state of affairs was a general increase in the scale of the punitive system, and the death penalty came to the fore. For example, after a terrible fire in the capital in 1634, they began to use it even as a punishment for ordinary smokers.

The vigorous confrontation with the “dashing people” reached its climax in the Cathedral Code of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. The awesome element of punishment imbues all this legislative monument. The code seems to see in every member of society a “dashing person” and hurry to intimidate him with threats in order to keep him from crime. Punitive sanctions of the Code are constantly accompanied by the words: "and others will accept fear" or "so that it may not look different to others." It also indicates that the punishment of a criminal should be carried out like the one he himself perpetrated. That is, murder is committed - the Code orders to punish “with the same death”, arson — a criminal is burned, forgery of coins — get melted metal in the throat, mutilate someone — you will undergo the same injury.

The number of crimes for which the Code of Aleksei Mikhailovich was threatened with death leaves all Sudebniki far behind - it gives sanction to execution in fifty-four (and according to some experts in sixty) cases. If we add to this a number of cruel punishments with a whip (a terrible tool, from which death very often followed) and a whole set of self-injurious injuries (due to underdeveloped medicine, also ending in death), the actual limits of the death penalty can be extended even further. Establishing the death penalty for various criminal acts, the Code very inaccurately determines the type of execution itself. “Execute without mercy,” “execute with death,” are the favorite formulations in this historical document. In addition, the order of its commission is not described at all, leaving it to the choice of local authorities.

In the following years, separate articles were issued that modify, supplement and develop the definitions concerning the death penalty, as set out in the 1649 Code of the Year. It cannot be said that the new laws were distinguished by some consistency. Some of them contradicted both the Code and each other; new sanctions were imposed on the death penalty, while existing ones were abolished, then restored and re-abolished. However, in general, new decrees (especially adopted in 1653-1655-s) still somewhat softened the former severity and cruelty defined by the Code of the Code. As if the law itself frightened the new code, rushing to adopt a number of amendments to limit the death penalty in respect of certain crimes.

One of such mitigating orders was the Decree of October 30 of 1653. The death penalty was left in force only for repeat offenders. And the Decree of 16 of August 1655 of the year ordered to “give a belly” to all the thieves, who voluntarily repented and surrendered to the authorities. It is very similar to the fact that Moscow legislation signed in powerlessness in the fight against “dashing” and tried to find a compromise with them. The death penalty is also mitigated. For example, the Decree of 25 of May 1654 of the year prescribes replacing the agonizing burning of arsonists with simple hanging.

However, this direction of the Russian criminal law did not last long. Soon everything was back to normal. We are interested in the provision on the abolition of the death penalty for robbers and thieves 8 August 1659-th year ceased to operate. On this very day, at the request of landlords and landowners, a decree appeared to restore the hanging of the robbers detained in lower-town cities. And on May 11 of 1663, each convicted thief and thief, instead of death, was ordered to cut off his left arm and both legs. As a deterrent, severed members nailed to trees along the roads. Obviously, this given measure, in essence, is the death penalty, only even more painful as compared with hanging. Only the law adopted by 24 on January 1666 of the year prescribed the execution of thieves and robbers by hanging again.

According to the internal content of the Code of the Year 1649, the death penalty was imposed for the following acts:
1. Crimes against the faith, including: blasphemy, seduction from Orthodoxy, blasphemous theft, murder in the church, as well as violation of the liturgy.
2. State crimes. These included: the malicious act against the king, murder in his presence, treason.
3. Crimes against designated authorities. The figures here are: the murder of a bailiff from Moscow, an open uprising, the murder of a judge, damage to a state act or its fraudulent drafting, unauthorized travel abroad.
4. Crimes against state regalia, income and property of the treasury. These include: the damage of these and the manufacture of counterfeit coins, short sale of tobacco.
5. Crimes against decency and public beautification. Here we have in mind habbing citizens to confusion and malicious attacks on "fictional affairs."
6. Crimes against the honor and lives of individuals. It is noted: the murder of the child by the mother, the killing of the parents by the children, the homicide, all kinds of skilled killing, the abuse of the honor of women associated with violence.
7. Crimes against property: arson, secondary robbery, the third unqualified tatba.

Thus, in the second half of the seventeenth century, the threat of death penalty became the favorite means of encouraging citizens to obey the king. The phrases: “to execute those by death”, “to be them in the death penalty” - at that time become common prohibitive language. And although in most cases this threat was not carried out, its very constant appearance in various decrees clearly demonstrates how well the principle of deterrence has taken root in us, as the best way to force citizens to obey royal laws.

However, there was a negative consequence of the widespread abuse of death sentences. Already by the beginning of the Petrovsky period, public executions became the most common phenomenon in the Moscow State. The society has become so accustomed to it, it has taken a closer look at the daily shows that people have ceased to be horrified by the “merciless” punishments. Executions did not hit anyone, did not touch anyone. To stare at execution from idleness, to execute a criminal, to be executed myself — all this was not something outstanding against the gray background of the life of a demoralized society. The type of corporeal and mortal executions hardly carried out the main goal - the purpose of intimidation.

Foreigners who visited our fatherland were amazed with how easily the convicts themselves treated death. People went into the loop, under the ax, on the fire with the same silent courage with what would have gone to the enemy line. The Englishman Perry in essays about Russia since the time of Peter the Great writes: “Russians are not afraid of death and do not put it in anything. When they are told to go to execution, they do it carelessly. ” His contemporary, Collins, also noted that those sentenced to hanging themselves climb the stairs, say goodbye to the people, put loops on their necks and are thrown down. Another overseas traveler by the name of Berchholz watched the case when one man, after having been wheeled, pulled his arm from the wheel with great difficulty, wiped his nose with it and again calmly put it back. Then, when he saw that he had soiled the wheel with blood, he again pulled out a shattered hand and wiped the blood with his sleeve. ”

These were the results of the merciless domination of frightening punishments. The death penalty turned into an ordinary punishment, and the authorities' struggle against “thieves” and “dashing” people, against “nepochechiteli” and “disobedient” royal decrees increasingly heated, creating new deterrents and new austerity, which further demoralized society, but were powerless to reduce crime rates. It was in this form that the question of the death penalty was passed on to the new eighteenth century, the first quarter of which was marked by the reforms of Peter the Great.

Curiously, but Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, nicknamed Tishayshiy, was never marked by historians as a cruel and merciless ruler. In the preserved chronicles, he appears to be a gentle and good-natured, religious man who can respond to someone else's grief. The second Russian tsar of the Romanov dynasty possessed a passive, contemplative nature, trying on the old Russian and Western situations, but never surrendering to them with the ardor of Peter I. It should be added that Alexey Mikhailovich was the most educated man of his time, read many books, tried to write, practiced in versification. He was a man of order, it is to him that the words belong: “to time, fun for an hour”, and also “without a thing, every thing will not be strengthened and not established”.

If you try to designate one common goal of all the criminal laws of Peter I, it will be the desire to force the subjects to unconditional obedience to the royal will. A similar goal was already manifested in the decrees of the second half of the seventeenth century. However, now in the first place was no longer the intensity of the evil will, and not even the amount of the evil caused, but only the disobedience of the royal commandment, which was punished. As an example, you can bring penal servitude and confiscation of property for a master who accidentally made bad shoes, death “without mercy” for taking a shower at the census, “depriving the belly” of a nobleman for his failure to appear in Moscow or Petersburg. In addition, from now on, the felling of oak in the reserve, slowness in delivering mail, negligence in sending cases to officials was punishable by death.

The death penalty in the criminal law of Peter the Great not only continues to retain its dominant value, but also further expands its scope. In particular, according to the Military Charter of the 1716 of the year, modeled on Western European criminal law, the death penalty is imposed in one hundred twenty-two cases (per two hundred articles of the Charter), that is, twice as often as in the Code of the 1649 of the year. The epoch of Peter I was marked by the use of all types of the death penalty already known in Russia from past centuries, as well as the addition of one new one - “arc-biting” or the usual shooting by bullets from a firearm. weapons. In addition, two other types are authorized - quartering and wheeling, which were previously used in practice and now received legislative recognition.

Only after Peter I, the punitive wave began to subside, and in the second quarter of the eighteenth century in our fatherland, the first timid attempts were made to limit the death penalty. Russian criminal legislation has set out on the path of its gradual denial, returning to the basics of the original Russian legal outlook on this type of punishment.

The 1649 Code of Law and subsequent decrees tell about some of the rituals that accompanied the execution of the death sentence. According to them, the sentenced was ordered to imprison him for six weeks in a so-called “penitential hut”, in which he had to repent and prepare for the end, respectively. Execution over him could be made only after this period. By decree of 1669, the penitential term was reduced to ten days, of which seven were set aside for fasting, two for confession, and the tenth for execution of the sentence. It was impossible to execute anyone on Sunday or on the day of the royal commemoration. Execution of the sentence over pregnant women was postponed until delivery. It was prescribed to carry out the execution, if possible, in the same place where the crime was committed. However, it was impossible to execute a person on an “empty” (uninhabited) place, only in a city or village.

In conclusion, it remains to be noted that, despite all the cruelty and bloodthirstiness of the monuments of legislation of the era of Ancient Russia, researchers of national criminal law unanimously agree that all the horrors perpetrated in their native land turn pale before the fury of justice in the states of Western Europe that “flooded blood seventeenth century". Before the known data on the number of state-owned in France and Germany in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the numbers of those executed during the same period in Russia completely disappear. Even in spite of the frequent resolution of the death penalty, the Code of the 1649 of the year, compared with simultaneous Western codes, seems too soft-hearted. Of course, the forms of execution in ancient Russia were rude and cruel, however, to such sophistication and variety of ways of depriving the life of intruders, to such complex structures that increase the suffering of criminals, which were in the Western "enlightened" states, our ancestors never reached.

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  1. Apollo
    Apollo 30 October 2013 09: 21
    Many thanks to Igor for the article, but the death penalty needs to be revived, my opinion is unambiguous.
    1. klimpopov
      klimpopov 30 October 2013 09: 30
      Yes, but a lot of questions. If the perpetrator is executed? There is no return stroke. For ten guilty, one is not guilty - that's a lot. Vobschem a moot point. Although I would shoot for the betrayal of the Motherland ...
      1. Ingvar 72
        Ingvar 72 30 October 2013 12: 33
        Quote: klimpopov
        Yes, but a lot of questions. If the perpetrator is executed? There is no reverse

        In the absence of the death penalty, many more innocents die from violent death. The very existence of the death penalty is a deterrent, as everyone’s fear of death is subconscious. And the fear of life imprisonment belongs to the field of consciousness, and is often ignored. And the probability of error is everywhere.
      2. vkrav
        vkrav 30 October 2013 16: 38
        Quote: klimpopov
        If the perpetrator is executed?

        Impunity breeds murderers and other trash ... There is no longer the inevitability of punishment. Any murder is sanctioned and stimulated by such fine-minded humanists ... Do you feel no responsibility for what is happening on the streets with the tacit approval of people like you? clean and with a conscience everything is OK ... But when it touches you personally - "Choke! Crush! Hang!" - it has been repeatedly checked! Right in front of your eyes, maniacs, murderers and traitors are stupidly ransoming - and you have only one question - and Is an innocent person suddenly executed? And the nowadays murder on the street, like in Biryulyovo, is not the execution of an innocent person?
      3. don.kryyuger
        don.kryyuger 30 October 2013 18: 41
        In the United States, they are waiting 10-15 years for death in a cell until everything is checked. And for the life-sentence in Russia, sometimes the state spends more money than on the free. For example: about 500 rubles a month goes for it, and the allowance for child-167rub.
      4. zennon
        zennon 30 October 2013 21: 46
        If the perpetrator is executed?

        Have you ever heard how a sentence passed 20 years ago is carried out in a mattress? Because there is a practice of a postponed death penalty. That is, if a judicial error is really corrected over many years, then the innocent will be released. There have been such cases. to pass a sentence with a suspended execution, if there are any doubts. Besides, why is the word "mistake" always interpreted in relation to a possibly innocent person? Let me explain. Let's not pass a capital punishment sentence to some bastard who deserved it. for several years he starts an escape and kills a guard in the course of it. Is this not a miscarriage of justice? The person will die, but there is no way back, as you write. Think about it.
      5. bif
        bif 31 October 2013 02: 21
        Quote: klimpopov
        Yes, but a lot of questions

        There is an option that is the "golden mean".
        Do not use the death penaltyas such (do not shoot, do not hang, etc.), but use a long-proven way - MINE LINKS (Kalyma and other areas of the extreme north). Under Stalin, for example, the exiles mined cinnabar - ore to obtain mercury, the toxicity of the ore and the conditions of permafrost for 2 weeks "carried out the sentence." Modern technologies and raising the standard of living in those conditions can extend the "service life" of the exiled. The economic aspect is important - instead of the costly maintenance of life sentences or with 15-20 years in prison and executions with zero benefit for the state, it will benefit and repay the debt to the country, there will be no need to support long-sitting and life-sentenced prisoners on state support, reduce the number of these institutions and etc. shorter than economic (+) a lot.
        Recognizing the inevitability of the death of this punishment, you need to apply it to especially grave articlem and with 100% evidence.
        Something like that.
        1. POCC
          POCC 2 November 2013 00: 04
          Correctly the first there Serdyuk with Vasilieva and a red hawk
    2. KEKS44
      KEKS44 30 October 2013 10: 34
      Quote: Apollon
      need to revive the death penalty

      Mandatory. But apply this punishment to certain categories of criminals - to pedophiles, serial killers, terrorists, traitors to the motherland.
      1. Apollo
        Apollo 30 October 2013 10: 36
        Quote: KEKS44
        Mandatory. But apply this punishment very carefully and in extreme cases and to certain categories of criminals - to pedophiles, serial killers, terrorists, traitors to the motherland.

        I agree, but how could it be otherwise? +.
        1. The comment was deleted.
      2. vlad0
        vlad0 30 October 2013 11: 46
        The concept of "traitor to the Motherland" already raises many questions. There are types of Penkovsky and Rezun, everything is clear here. And how many of those were declared in our history for slander or bewilderment? Well, I agree with the rest, there is no doubt about it.
        In general, our law is striking: complete humanity towards criminals and cynical indifference to victims. This is probably wrong?
        1. zennon
          zennon 30 October 2013 22: 00
          This is probably wrong?

          But it’s tolerant. I will remember that the EBN introduced a maratorium to join the council of geyrops. To be honest, I can’t understand the motives that govern the Because, in their opinion, the relatives of the victims of terrorists, murderers, rapists, drug dealers should contain with their taxes all this bastard. By the way, how can our government comb itself to the democrats? After all, democracy is the power of the majority. And the majority is definitely for the highest measure of social protection.
      3. vlad0
        vlad0 30 October 2013 11: 47
        The concept of "traitor to the Motherland" already raises many questions. There are types of Penkovsky and Rezun, everything is clear here. And how many of those were declared in our history for slander or bewilderment? Well, I agree with the rest, there is no doubt about it.
        In general, our law is striking: complete humanity towards criminals and cynical indifference to victims. This is probably wrong?
      4. Vasyan1971
        Vasyan1971 1 November 2013 00: 24
        It will not give anything. If necessary, any poor fellow under any article can be summarized. And there is a cleaver and ends in the water.
      5. POCC
        POCC 2 November 2013 00: 58
        To the furniture maker labeled Vasily Chubais
    3. Sakhalininsk
      Sakhalininsk 30 October 2013 14: 48
      Quote: Apollon
      Many thanks to Igor for the article, but the death penalty needs to be revived, my opinion is unambiguous.

      I welcome and support, but the truth is only partially.
      The death penalty is not the best option for solving problems with crime, but of course for certain types of crimes it is necessary to punish as severely as possible, however, even in this case, there remains the option of a judicial error. And the very fact of the erroneous killing of an innocent person by the state is perhaps even a great crime, and there are enough such examples.
      In short, it is difficult to accept precisely that middle ground which does not liken the state and society to those ghouls whom they will destroy by means of execution.
    4. Digston
      Digston 31 October 2013 00: 12
      And you don’t have to spend money on bastards, and jailers will have less worries wink
  2. Same lech
    Same lech 30 October 2013 09: 28
    The death penalty is not a matter of morality and humanity, but a matter of justice.
    I don’t have the slightest desire to support the life of the taxpayers with the money and the needs of the murderers of our women and children or such as BASAEV.
    1. Krasnoarmeec
      Krasnoarmeec 30 October 2013 10: 01
      on the one hand I agree, but on the other, death is too light a punishment, for me it is much better to realize that the criminal lives in "hell" like "Black Dolphin" and eventually begins to dream of death ...... HZ. generally......
      1. KEKS44
        KEKS44 30 October 2013 11: 21
        Quote: Krasnoarmeec
        the criminal lives in "hell" like "Black Dolphin"

        A convict can go free (and do things) - although this is unlikely. A executed maniac or terrorist is guaranteed to do no harm to anyone.
        1. Ingvar 72
          Ingvar 72 30 October 2013 12: 36
          Quote: KEKS44
          A executed maniac or terrorist is guaranteed to do no harm to anyone.

          And it will serve as a demotivator for many others.
        2. zennon
          zennon 30 October 2013 22: 05
          A convict can go free (and do things) - although this is unlikely. A executed maniac or terrorist is guaranteed to do no harm to anyone.

          Just a week ago, a Basque terrorist was released in Spain. She killed police officers. She was spoken by 3800 years (not a typo). So she also paid compensation of 30 euros!
    2. Alekseir162
      Alekseir162 30 October 2013 12: 30
      The death penalty is not a matter of morality and humanity, but a matter of justice.

      The most difficult question. Without a doubt, monsters like militants do not deserve any leniency. But there are times when a person driven to despair kills his offender (or offenders) and, according to the law (justice), he is subject to the death penalty. And then everything depends on the judge. And how many were executed because of the so-called "miscarriage of justice". Some questions, although I personally think that the death penalty is needed in the Criminal Code.
  3. AK-47
    AK-47 30 October 2013 09: 45
    The Englishman Perry ... writes: “The Russians are not afraid of death and do not put it in anything. When they are given to go to execution, they do it carefree. ”

    It is amazing what the people were brought to; they didn’t value their own lives or others.
    1. KEKS44
      KEKS44 30 October 2013 11: 57
      Quote: AK-47
      Englishman Perry ... writes

      On the sheds, too, a lot of things are written .... and there the firewood is. Death is not aunt, everyone is afraid of her, both Russians and British.
      1. Ingvar 72
        Ingvar 72 30 October 2013 12: 40
        Quote: KEKS44
        Death is not aunt, everyone is afraid of her, both Russians and British.

        I'll correct it a bit. The Russian people have always put common ideals above their own, and therefore easily went to death. "In the world and death is red."
  4. lewerlin53rus
    lewerlin53rus 30 October 2013 09: 59
    I would also put the authors of this video here:
    1. predator.3
      predator.3 30 October 2013 10: 17
      This Yuri Plavsky, along with a pickaxe and a mine, let it destroy the bowels of the earth there!
    2. DmitryK
      DmitryK 30 October 2013 13: 03
      And how to really explain this video?
  5. Doctorleg
    Doctorleg 30 October 2013 10: 11
    What about the video? True, some people ... Or mounted? Who is in the know?
    1. tomket
      tomket 30 October 2013 22: 18
      if you watch the video, you can see how the bag is puffing at the jumper before the door is opened, it’s just that you can clearly see it after the loaf’s door is opened, well, there’s more than one jumper, you can see the second person jumped about the same way, you get a whole FSB bus was driving ??? it’s not at all clear why the FSB officer should take the risk of traveling on a bus, and they could not have blown up dangerously close to the bomb, in short, the uncle with a pickaxe was another truth-seeker from the people, in Kolyma he had the right place.
      1. DmitryK
        DmitryK 1 November 2013 12: 46
        Why is it necessary to FSB? Terrorists can, I think who should also studied this video.
    2. Vidok
      Vidok 4 November 2013 17: 39
      Just witnesses of the incident could jump out of the "loaf" in order to help the victims. For safety reasons, they did not immediately climb into the bus, but ran away and after making sure that there was no fire, they returned to the bus. "Loaf" drove off the passengers in front of the bus so as not to clutter up the passage. She stands there in the following photos. The one who jumped out of the window had a bag hanging on his shoulder all the time. He could stop near the car answering questions from those sitting in the car. The fact that he jumped out "professionally" is most likely a student, young and shocked. And then to go next to the bus which I will blow up now is absurd for a professional demolitionist. There must be a safe distance.
      Well, the guy with the pickaxe needs this pickaxe elsewhere and he himself needs to be there.
  6. Enjoy
    Enjoy 30 October 2013 10: 11
    The execution of notorious animals such as terrorists, cruel killers, especially distinguished state criminals (hi, Serdyukov and Co.) is possible and necessary. But only with 101% confidence in the veracity of the verdict and with the legal liability of the judge for his decision. After some test period of several years.

    And today there is little faith in our court and investigation. Although with serious criminal offenses it seems like the situation is being corrected, in contrast to economic crimes, in which the interests of the powerful are all around.

    Without the full justice of the court, execution will simply be reprisal against the public and one innocently executed on behalf of society and the state will negate the benefits of disposing of thousands of chicatillas and Serdyukov.
  7. 0255
    0255 30 October 2013 10: 12
    oh well nafig live at that time ...
  8. Vasia kruger
    Vasia kruger 30 October 2013 10: 13
    It was not for nothing that execution was once called "the highest measure of social protection."
    I am for the return.
  9. Nikor
    Nikor 30 October 2013 11: 05
    you forget one thing "you can put anyone you want" ie and bring them under the death penalty. No one has the right to take life. Correctly spotted the AK-47
    It is amazing what the people were brought to; they didn’t value their own lives or others.
    You just don’t think there is any sympathy for a pedophile or a terrorist, but a person has the right to recognize his mistake and take the path of correction. Another issue is relapse. Yes, it is possible if it is a relapse + 200% of guilt.
    1. carbofo
      carbofo 30 October 2013 11: 52
      Quote: Nicor
      Yes, it is possible if it is a relapse + 200% of guilt.

      We do not play Diablo + 200% experience, it requires accuracy and flexibility.
      moreover, exactly how flexible it is to apply the rules regarding the act must be described, the ideal law is flexible as much as accurate in the wording.
    2. KEKS44
      KEKS44 30 October 2013 14: 39
      Quote: Nicor
      Yes, it is possible if it is a relapse + 200% of guilt.

      Those. need to wait until people convicted of especially serious crimes commit them again and only after that apply the highest measure to them?
  10. KG_patriot_last
    KG_patriot_last 30 October 2013 11: 26
    And why consider Russia separately from humanity? From birth, a person needs basic factors: food, shelter, reproduction. In psychology, this is the first step in the oil pyramid. Above it is immediately the second step - a sense of security. This step is more important than the other 5 which are even higher (you can find more details in any book of psychology). Food, shelter, reproduction. If it is, then you immediately need a sense of security.
    So any criminal - a thief, a robber, a murderer - automatically instills in you a sense of self-preservation and protection of primary needs. Therefore, people are trying to get rid or punish antisocial elements. In antiquity, fled. Then they began to kill together. Recently, they have been together isolated in a certain place called a prison.
    I would add a fourth kind as the measure of the highest justice: artificial hell in prisons. Hope for God, but don’t be fooled by yourself.
    1. Ingvar 72
      Ingvar 72 30 October 2013 12: 43
      Quote: KG_patriot_last
      I would add a fourth kind as the measure of the highest justice: artificial hell in prisons.

      With extensive advertising of this hell.
      1. Vidok
        Vidok 4 November 2013 18: 05
        And at whose expense will the banquet be? I am for uranium mines, even if they are advertising. And also deprive them of the first step of the Maslow pyramid. They can work while they feed, housing that they would not freeze, and finally, a complete amputation of the causal place, so that even youthful ananism would only dream of it.
  11. Sergey Medvedev
    Sergey Medvedev 30 October 2013 11: 58
    Igor Sulimov is trying to convince us of the need to not use the death penalty. I was not convinced. I still believe that the death penalty for the worst criminals should work.
    1. The comment was deleted.
  12. report4
    report4 30 October 2013 13: 38
    Honestly, KG / AM.
    The smallest thing - STATISTICS - is not enough to show the "cruelty of Russian people" And, unexpectedly, it turns out that the number of those executed was scanty - to compare those who were burned alive in five centuries, there was not even fifty. In "prosperous Europe" of that time per year five times more people were burned at the stake than in our country in five centuries (with the same "witch hunt", for example, more than 50 thousand people were burned in two hundred years). For other types of executions - the same. The author is very weakly familiar with the material.
    1. Tyumen
      Tyumen 30 October 2013 19: 40
      You are wrong here. During the Reformation, about a million "witches" were burned in Europe.
      And in Russia, during the split, they burned whole villages. Something about 30 thousand.
  13. Black
    Black 30 October 2013 14: 17
    Opponents of the death penalty put forward the main arguments for their position as a possible (even obligatory !! - according to them) mistake and the possibility of punishing the death of an innocent person, and that the introduction see. does not reduce the number of crimes.
    Both the first and the second are initially false, distorting. For this, even in poker beaten face.
    As for the mistake, I don’t think that the investigators who had pushed innocent people to the shooting case in the Chekotilo case had no doubt that they were not a criminal. I think, even more than that, they probably knew that they were not a maniac, they did not conduct business, but they cooked it. Problem so not in the death penalty as such, but in the people who use it, in the good faith of supervisory, investigative, judicial instances.
    1. Yarosvet
      Yarosvet 30 October 2013 16: 21
      Quote: Chen
      As for the mistake, I don’t think that the investigators who had pushed innocent people in the Chekotilo case to a firing squad had no doubt that they were not a criminal. I think, even more than that, they probably knew that they were not a maniac, they did not conduct business, but they cooked it.
  14. ko88
    ko88 30 October 2013 14: 37
    right now, in our country, it is necessary to introduce the death penalty, according to a number of articles, for example, for drug trafficking, for premeditated murder, terrorism, organized crime groups, and banditry. Then it will become an order of magnitude better to live in the country.
  15. Savl
    Savl 30 October 2013 14: 58
    I am for. Terrorism, homicide, drug trafficking and rape must be punishable by death. And the Russian special forces do wonderful that after the operation there is almost no one left to interrogate.
  16. combat192
    combat192 30 October 2013 16: 23
    Quote: predator.3
    This Yuri Plavsky, along with a pickaxe and a mine, let it destroy the bowels of the earth there!

    I remembered this "pearl" of recent times:
    "Comrade, believe
    it will pass - all-permissible publicity!
    And then the state security
    will remember your names! "
  17. Yarosvet
    Yarosvet 30 October 2013 16: 31
    3/4 of the population for the execution of the highest measure of social protection, but we have the SOVEREIGN democracy ...
    1. Same lech
      Same lech 30 October 2013 16: 43
      If the state does not fulfill its functions of protecting citizens from such citizens themselves take justice into their own hands and punish such scumbags.
      In place of the parents of these girls, I would not hesitate for a minute and would punish these freaks in their affairs.
      What is interesting then comes the corresponding reaction of law enforcement agencies, they seem to wake up from hibernation and begin to buzz in our ears about the LAW AND LAW cynicism in the state machinery with respect to their citizens.
      1. Yarosvet
        Yarosvet 30 October 2013 19: 15
        Quote: The same Lech
        What is interesting then comes the corresponding reaction of law enforcement agencies as if they wake up from hibernation and begin to buzz in our ears about the LAW AND THE LAW

        If only buzzing - 115 CC, a minimum of seven in common - if one, and at least a dozen - if a group and a group (and this is mitigating)
      2. George
        George 30 October 2013 21: 12
        Quote: The same LYOKHA
        If the state does not fulfill its functions of protecting citizens from such citizens themselves take justice into their own hands and punish such scumbags.

        And the state is planting killers of pedophiles and drug dealers. Everything is by law.