Military Review

One of the versions of the new world order: what did the famous geostrategy not consider?

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One of the versions of the new world order: what did the famous geostrategy not consider?Editor’s Note: When we see the current rapid developments in the EU and the Middle East threatening traditional US alliances in Eurasia, we can only be surprised at how little attention has been paid to the domestic reader (and is still being paid!) In the last book of Zbigniew Brzezinski. But, having come out in America in January 2012, it was already released last summer in Russian ...


Perhaps internal political tension within our country did not give us the opportunity to carefully analyze this book and, raising our eyes from its lines, look at the events taking place on the international stage from a completely different, new angle. And it was then, in 2012, that everything began to change rapidly.

You can relate to Brzezinski as you like, but he clearly belongs to those authors whose opinion is simply necessary to know in order to understand the direction in which the American (and global in general) geopolitical thought works, an idea that, coming off the assembly line of the knowledge factory, tomorrow may become a new foreign reality. Moreover, this new reality is not developing without the participation of Russia. Zbignev Brzezinski is more unacceptable (neither tactically, nor strategically) considered as such an avid "anti-Soviet", "Russophobe" and generally some kind of linear "enemy". He is an outstanding producer of political thought in the West. It must be read and studied. At least for those two simple reasons that many of his predictions influenced US policy and that his views are clearly evolving, reflecting the evolution of the modern world.

That is why we decided to make an analysis of his book “Strategic Vision”, which is obviously undervalued in Russia, with a new theme for the column “Ideas”. Several materials on Terra America will be devoted to this.

Today we present to our readers the review of our regular author Alexei Kharin, who, recognizing the value of the study of the famous geostrateg, still points to those global processes and phenomena that he deliberately or accidentally overlooks the development of transcontinental ties without the participation of the United States -economic and region-civilizations that do not fit into the logic of national states and their alliances, which Zbigniew Brzezinski consistently operates with.

* * *

The last decade in the United States more and more works appear that describe the deterioration of the domestic situation in America, the weakening of its international position and the reduction of its influence on world processes [1]. In a series of such works, the last book by Zbigniew Brzezinski “Strategic view. America and the global crisis ”[2] is of separate, particular interest. The author is not only a prominent scientist, politician, but also one of the ideologues of the US foreign policy, a person belonging to the heights of the power establishment of this country.

The book will not disappoint the reader. After the introduction, which briefly describes the emerging geopolitical situation, Brzezinski proceeds to the first part with the more than saying title: "Embering West."

The Euro-Atlantic world, incapable of acting as a whole, is drooping. The situation is influenced by a global political awakening, unsuccessful moves of American diplomacy and the fall of faith in the viability of American society. The collapse of the USSR made the West a global leader, but the global crisis showed that the efforts of only a united superpower (a united West within its present limits) are not enough. It is necessary to involve new states, new global players, to expand the areas of responsibility of non-Western partners. According to the author, it was this logic that led to the creation of the “Big Twenty”.

It should be noted that Zbigniew Brzezinski himself was one of the main ideologists of expanding the outdated G-8 format to a wider one - it was proposed “G-14 or even G-16”. Another thing is that the proposal of the former Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin to create the G-20 is not quite the same thing as the G-8 expansion.

According to Brzezinski, it is G-8, which most fully represents the West in terms of values, should expand, incorporating new countries and defining, thus, the ways of interaction in the new global world order, while G-20, in any case, is if not an alternative to the G8, then in a fundamentally different way of rebuilding the centers of power. (Ed.).

In addition, there has been a process of Asia’s returning its positions, which it had before the XIX century. China Brzezinski confidently puts in second place in the world hierarchy, but along with it, Japan and India are also working on the world stage. The statement of their rights by this troika means not only a change in the balance of forces in the world, but also “the formation of the scattered nature of geopolitical power”.

Assessing the strengths and weaknesses of Asian countries, as well as the European Union and Russia, the author makes two conclusions. The first, traditionally, is about the danger of dispersing the centers of forces and shifting away from the West, and the second, that such dispersal reflects the cultural diversity in the world more accurately (p. 39). It would seem that here it is close to the conclusion of a multi-civilization world, but in terms of “civilization”, “geocivilization” and so on. Brzezinski does not operate.

How long will such a world order last? Difficult to judge. In one hundred years, there have been five cardinal shifts in the global hierarchy (p. 39-40), and the frequency of redistribution is increasing.

The third chapter of the first part is devoted to "global political awakening." This term was introduced by Zbigniew Brzezinski in his previous work “Second Chance” [3]. Boris Mezhuyev, in his analysis of this book, expressed regret that this concept has not yet received such widespread use in political philosophy as “globalization” and “clash of civilizations”. Well, in vain!

Brzezinski examines the origins of this phenomenon (including the French Revolution), as well as the main factors of global political awakening in our day: the growth of interaction and interdependence in the world, along with the demographic predominance of young people in less developed societies. According to the author, the peculiarities of the current awakening and its first results are such that America must re-learn how to maintain the attractiveness of its system.

And so, having said this, he begins the second part, which is called the “Decline of the American Dream”, that is, in essence, the beginning of the end of this very “attractiveness”.

Brzezinski identifies the main stages of the rise of the United States to world power. The secret of the stability of the attractiveness of the "American dream", in his opinion, lies in the combination of idealism and materialism. On the one hand, a political system that protects "fundamental truths", on the other - the vast expanses of America, opening up opportunities for the acquisition of material goods. The difficulties that had arisen for two centuries could not damage the image of America. And only when she was at the top of the world, “her internal political flaws could no longer escape close critical attention” (p. 71).

In the chapter “Down with self-deception!” The author addresses six main reasons for concern:

  • state debt,
  • imperfect financial system
  • growing social inequality
  • dilapidated infrastructure
  • public ignorance
  • political congestion.

    But despite these systemic problems, Zbigniew Brzezinski does not consider Chinese and European models capable of creating an alternative to America as a role model (p. 83-84).

    As if in continuation of the controversy with supporters of these models, the US’s strengths are further analyzed: general economic strength, innovation potential, demographic dynamism, rapid mobilization, geographical base, the appeal of American democracy. Based on them, the author believes, it is possible to correct the existing shortcomings. But this requires reforms in the economy, financial sphere, education. And, in our opinion, very justifiably, an overestimation of values ​​is necessary - you need to think: is it only the acquisition of material goods that is the meaning of life?

    The fourth chapter of the second part is titled "America's Long Imperial War." It is about how America took advantage of the Cold War. On the critical side, its foreign policy is understood after the death of the USSR, especially in the first decade of the 21st century. In general, a negative assessment of the policies of the Bush administration is given, characterized as “demagoguery fueled by fears”.

    The wars in Afghanistan and Iraq dealt a blow to America’s global prestige, plus the growth of Islamic fundamentalism in nuclear Pakistan, the escalation of the conflict with Iran and the new aggravation of the Arab-Israeli confrontation. Thus, America finds itself in isolation and is losing influence. She is also waiting for internal difficulties. There are negative scenarios of the American future. All of these unresolved internal and external problems will lead to the fact that by 2025, America can de facto lose its triumphantly proclaimed leadership in the world.

    The third part of the book is called: “The world after America by 2025 year. Not China, but chaos. ” It is immediately clear what will happen if and when America loses its leadership there will definitely not be a successor. The name also indicates that China will not be able to inherit the post-American world.

    The alleged collapse of America will affect, first and foremost, the national interests of world leaders: Japan, India, Russia, and the EU countries. Brzezinski describes in detail how, as a result of the weakening of the "beneficial influence of America", the accumulated contradictions between countries are revealed, all sorts of coalitions and blocs are created, which are in conflict with each other. The chapter is called "Post-American Confusion."

    The fate of individual states is also unenviable (second chapter: “The most geopolitically vulnerable states”) that are close to the major powers: Georgia, Taiwan, South Korea, Belarus, Ukraine, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Israel, and the Middle East. The decline of America will lead to possible power actions towards them from their neighbors.

    In the event of a weakening of America, negative scenarios in relations with Mexico are not excluded (the third chapter: “The End of Good Neighborhood”).

    Problems so-called. public domain analyzed in the fourth chapter, “Alienated public domain”. We are talking about global problems of our time - the proliferation of nuclear weapons, struggle for water resources, etc. The weakening of America, it is said to the reader, is also dangerous for this sphere.

    Summing up the 3 part, Brzezinski reiterates one of the main points: the US needs to develop a new, timely strategic vision to prevent the world from plunging into turmoil (p. 182).

    But is there a positive scenario? Well, it is described in the fourth part, called the “New Geopolitical Equilibrium”. Geostrateg traditionally connects the main problems requiring resolution with Eurasia. It is here, in his opinion, that the main conflict points are still located. And this is not only Afghanistan, Iran and Israel with its Arab surroundings. The situation in the European Union is also extremely dangerous. Yes, and China is a knot of problems.

    Brzezinski calls for bringing together Russia and Turkey, tightly linking Russia to NATO, and in the East to incline Japan and China to reconciliation, and to develop friendly relations with India and Indonesia. But the main thing is to build compromises between the old forces of the West and the new forces of the East, given that in the modern world sole dominance is no longer possible.

    The following chapters develop theses on America’s relationship with the West and the East. The situation in Russia and Turkey is thoroughly considered, their prospects for entering the expanded West are analyzed, from which they must benefit.

    That is, if in the West it is necessary to modernize and territorially expand, then in the East there should be support for the development of major players, primarily India, to strengthen ties with Japan and South Korea, and to expand cooperation with China [4].

    In the Conclusion, the author reiterates the idea of ​​the double role of America (which he outlined in the last part): the United States must become a conductor and guarantor of expanded and strengthened unity in the West and at the same time a peacemaker and intermediary between the major powers of the East. It was proposed to implement this plan when reassessing a number of key factors: innovation, education, the ability to intelligently combine strength and diplomacy, the quality of political leadership and the attractiveness of a democratic lifestyle (p. 276).

    The final conclusion is the following:

    “Although the modern world is less inclined to obey one power - even the USA, but a stable global order ultimately depends on America’s ability to upgrade and fulfill its roles” (p. 286).

    * * *

    Zbigniew Brzezinski once again brilliantly spends the argument of his main thought in recent years - America needs to change, to be more adequate to the modern world. You need to change your foreign policy as well. Not for nothing, therefore, considerable attention has been paid to the criticism of the aggressive course of the “hawks” of the Bush administration.

    Of interest are also the outlined contours of future contradictions, incl. and in Asia. The author skillfully focuses the reader's attention on the strengths and weaknesses of both the United States and other powers. Its parallels with the past are curious. Nontrivial (although not indisputable) analysis historical cycles of Asia.

    Brzezinski truly monitors many trends in global change. Many, but not all! Suffice it to recall that recent years have appeared works on the “new authoritarian wave” or on the “world without the West” [5].

    The conclusion that there will be no single US domination is quite adequate.

    At the same time, the new work by Brzezinski raises questions and objections. For example, Brzezinski's weakly reasoned conviction that a world without America will plunge into chaos. Or criticism by the author of a multipolar world, as unstable. Yes, such criticism has been known in the world for a long time. However, now there is a different multipolarity, which Brzezinski, apparently, either does not see, or does not want to see. The processes of globalization are accompanied by regionalization, the formation of “large spaces”: region-economies, empires, civilizations. This is a different world, not a world of nation-states, in categories of which the geostrategy continues to think.

    In this regard, his unwillingness for Russia to integrate the post-Soviet space becomes clear - instead, it is proposed to include it in the “expanded West”. By the way, Brzezinski has no abusive for our country theses about the dismemberment of Russia, the transfer of Siberia under the control of the West, etc., as it was in previous books [6].

    But the conviction of Zbigniew Brzezinski that the countries of the world will not be able to interact with each other without America should be dealt with separately.

    The UN, although it does not always work effectively, but as the practice of recent months shows, if the world players want to seriously use this platform, it can be very useful. Work and tools for regional integration. Controversial issues are resolved in regional forums: ASEAN, SCO, and others. Intercontinental alliances like BRICS (or Brazil-South Africa-India), on the one hand, are still weak, but on the other - the desire of the participating countries to establish an independent interaction.

    At the same time, there are situations when states truly dispense with America. Farid Zakaria noted [7]:

    “There are capable volunteers who can do the right thing in a situation in which the United States cannot or will not do so. During the Russian-Georgian conflict, Sarkozy, not Bush, went to Moscow. When Israel and Syria sat down at the negotiating table last summer, Turkey and not Washington acted as a mediator. ”

    In this regard, the response of the Indian Foreign Ministry in the spring of 2008 to the prohibitive reaction from the United States over the Indo-Iranian relations [8] is characteristic:

    “Iran and India are ancient civilizations, the history of relations of which goes back centuries. No country has the right to indicate how these relations develop in the future. ”

    This rebuke, on the one hand, quite lays down in Brzezinski’s logic about Asia’s return to big politics, but, on the other hand, is some alternative form of such a return, in relation to his ideas.

    This does not mean that the world can do without America. Not! The current global world is interdependent. But not every region and not every problem requires the mandatory attention and intervention of the United States.

    The world is only learning to do without American hegemony, but when it learns, it is likely that this hegemony will not be needed even in its new, softer quality of the “first among equals”.

    Brzezinski is right: the world is different. But how? Without taking into account civilizational diversity and the regionalization of the global world, it indicates only one of the possible models of a stable future.

    [1] See eg: Buchanan P. The Death of the West. - M., 2003; Kaphen C. The Decline of America is coming soon. - M., 2004; Prestovits K. Rogue Country. M., 2005; Zakaria F. The post-American world. - M., 2009.
    [2] M .: Astrel, 2012. 285. In the opinion of the editorial board, a more adequate translation would not be the “Strategic view”, but the “Strategic vision”.
    [3] American Superpower / Zbigniew Brzezinski / Basic Books, 2007.
    [4] Intentionally or not, but here Zbigniew Brzezinski lays down an obvious contradiction in his program: support for India in a regional sense will obviously be (albeit subtly pronounced) anti-Chinese. Perhaps that is why in a different place (p. 252-253) there is a consistent criticism of the American-Indian alliance. - Ed.
    [5] Barma N., Ratner E., Weber S. A World Withaut the West. The National Interest. No. 90. July / August 2007 // http://iis.berkeley.edu/sites/default/files/a_world_without_west.pdf;
    Gat Azar. The Author Of Great Powers // Foreign Affairs. July / August 2007 // http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/62644/azar-gat/the-return-of-authoritarian-great-powers
    [6] Z. Brzezinski. The Great Chessboard. - M., 2006. - p. 239-240; Selection World domination or global leadership. - M., 2004. - pg. 139-140.
    [7] Zakaria F. The post-American world. - M., 2009. - p. 22.
    [8] Cit. by: Brutents K.N. The decline of American hegemony. The end of the unipolar world and the great geopolitical revolution. - M., 2009. - p. 338.
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    1. Vladimirets
      Vladimirets 30 October 2013 08: 37
      +4
      "That is why we decided to make the analysis of his book Strategic Vision, which is clearly underestimated in Russia, as a new topic for the Ideas column."

      I propose to call the rubric "Zbig's Page". smile
      1. zart_arn
        zart_arn 30 October 2013 08: 41
        +2
        You should always listen to the opinion of the sage, even if it is alien to us or seems to be such.
        1. Deniska
          Deniska 30 October 2013 10: 13
          0
          Sage? How much is he?
      2. INTER
        INTER 30 October 2013 08: 42
        +3
        To be honest, I did not understand the idea, Russia-Turkey + NATO. This is how it turns out, always opposed, and when the sunset and defeat + Russia to us))) Yes, there is nothing to say!
      3. Vadivak
        Vadivak 30 October 2013 08: 48
        +2
        Quote: Vladimirets
        I propose to call the rubric "Zbig's Page"


        It would be possible, only he works on order. It’s clear from the phrase - countries of the world will not be able to establish interaction with each other without America,
        1. Vladimirets
          Vladimirets 30 October 2013 09: 05
          +1
          Quote: Vadivak
          It would be possible, only he works on order.

          That's good, who will obstruct.
      4. Mikhail3
        Mikhail3 30 October 2013 13: 13
        -1
        "Tales of the disgusting grandfather Bzhe"
      5. Geisenberg
        Geisenberg 30 October 2013 13: 14
        -1
        Quote: Vladimirets
        "That is why we decided to make the analysis of his book Strategic Vision, which is clearly underestimated in Russia, as a new topic for the Ideas column."

        I propose to call the rubric "Zbig's Page". smile


        "Zbysheka" if you follow the rules of the language.

        Dear site administration! On behalf of all those gathered, I want to ask you a question. This site is a platform for advertising anti-Russian literature and authors, or a new-line military-political tape ???

        Thank you.
        1. silver_roman
          silver_roman 30 October 2013 19: 27
          0
          logical question.
          ZBIGNEV's logic is as clear as day: withering America is no longer pulling, not dragging ... of course it needs alliances with those with whom it cannot cope. Namely, with the Russian Federation, China, India ... and at the expense of the latter to restore their "totalitarianism".
          It looks like a Huge young eagle ruffled everyone in the area and eventually hurt the beak ... and now wants an alliance with those he ruffled. Roughly, but somehow.
          In the words of BZIZHIK one can clearly see their typical selfishness and American "exceptionalism" imposed on everyone. And where did BZIZHIK get the idea that they will / want to reckon with half-dead America? what if they want to tear her apart like Germany once did after World War II !!! ??? Apparently this does not occur to him, as well as the idea that most of the US allies, as for me, do not believe in the values ​​proclaimed by the "hawks", they are just puppets who will change sides at a convenient moment.
    2. makarov
      makarov 30 October 2013 08: 49
      +1
      I think there is no need to be afraid of the elder "Zbiga", he will die soon, bile to the Slavic world does not find a way out, and poisons the organism of the elder. Will die from intensification.
      1. APES
        APES 30 October 2013 08: 55
        +2
        a reassessment of values ​​is needed - you need to think: is only the acquisition of material wealth the meaning of life?


        feels - the end is near.

        The United States is in a state of "Akella missed," when soon the former "allies", or rather satellites, will start tearing up a more "unworthy" leader.

        my opinion - nothing global - in terms of any conceptual ideological breakthrough, the USA in particular and the West as a whole are no longer able to offer the world.
        The time comes to collect stones ..........
    3. a52333
      a52333 30 October 2013 09: 06
      0
      as a result of the weakening of America’s "beneficial influence"
      This is certainly strong. To, to the end and honestly, America and the victim itself. She has no less than the rest of the world. It seems like a simple task - to catch and peel (alive) from two or three hundred Jews (mostly), and it will also be easier for them, like the rest of the world.
    4. shinobi
      shinobi 30 October 2013 09: 28
      0
      It will still be necessary to read the old wickedness. All the same someone else's opinion is someone else's.
    5. ATATA
      ATATA 30 October 2013 09: 30
      0
      Some kind of chaotic analysis.
      So I didn’t understand anything.
      Either Zbig’s book turned out like this, the roofing felts in the article could not be clearly stated.
      These chapter jumps cover everything and nothing.
      With all due respect to the author, the article is minus.
      There is nothing to discuss except Zbig himself. hi
    6. Asgard
      Asgard 30 October 2013 10: 23
      +2
      Zbigniew has changed dramatically))))
      The "owners" left us)) and He himself looks like a reptilian, the further it looks like))))
      Rhetoric has changed ....
      views transformed))))
      So Bzheninsky is still alive (and wants to live)) although it’s time to go to the grave ....

      there’s nothing to blame (all in the past))you can put the CROSS on it))))
      1. Alex 241
        Alex 241 30 October 2013 10: 33
        +1
        There is one wisdom: If you become unnecessary to yourself, then you will also be different, you are not needed. With Brzezinski, apparently this happened.
    7. Yuri Y.
      Yuri Y. 30 October 2013 10: 32
      +1
      a reassessment of values ​​is needed - you need to think: is only the acquisition of material wealth the meaning of life?

      Yes ... killed. The turn can be said to be 180. But still the shkrebet is "first among equals".
      But the conviction of Zbigniew Brzezinski that the countries of the world will not be able to interact with each other without America should be dealt with separately.

      Well exclusivity and rushing.
    8. Andrew 447
      Andrew 447 30 October 2013 10: 43
      +2
      Thank you for the article. You need to know your enemy, especially one so clever and sophisticated.
    9. amp
      amp 30 October 2013 12: 13
      +2
      I don't see anything brilliant in Brzezinski's books. It is enough to read his book "The Grand Chessboard" and look out the window to understand his full degree of genius ...

      In a new book, he misses the main reason for the West losing leadership in the world: the deindustrialization of the West. When Europe was the workshop of the world, Europe ruled the world. After the war, the United States produced 50% of all industrial products and became a superpower. Industry is the basis of imperial power. If there is no such basis, then why all these geopolitical calculations of Brzezinski?
      Money and technology follow industry, as China clearly demonstrates. After the factories, the offices will follow, and the West will be blown away completely. Brzezinski writes about this problem? No! He writes some nonsense about disappointment with the American dream and other rubbish.

      Thus, Brzezinski’s mistake is already at the core of his reasoning. So the methods for solving the problem are also erroneous. No 20 ki will save the fading west. Only the new scientific and technological revolution can save it, which will create substitute technologies that will make traditional industry ineffective, just as factories once made craft workshops ineffective. Brzezinski writes nothing about this.
      I do not think that it is necessary to spend too much time on this gentleman. It’s time for grandfather to write his memoirs.
      1. cdrt
        cdrt 30 October 2013 15: 42
        -1
        Quote: amp
        Industry is the basis of imperial power.


        And to prove this statement?
        WB, for example, at the beginning of the 20th century. it was no longer the workshop of the world, however, it remained the most powerful empire in the world, probably until the end of the 1930s.
      2. Yuri Y.
        Yuri Y. 30 October 2013 15: 56
        0
        Quote: amp
        Thus, Brzezinski’s mistake is already at the core of his reasoning.

        As far as he is known, this is more likely not a mistake but a desire to convince others of the exclusivity of the USA. When there is no physical strength, the question of program control always arises. As the old anecdote says: "And you are with a small bag."
    10. Ross
      Ross 30 October 2013 12: 37
      0
      Quote: zart_arn
      You should always listen to the opinion of the sage, even if it is alien to us or seems to be such.

      Moreover, realizing that the "wise man" is the secret mouthpiece of the World Elite, acquainting us with the contours of the plans of this elite adopted by the Bildelbergs and the Committee of 300. From his "leaks" it becomes clear what they are planning for us.
      1. amp
        amp 30 October 2013 12: 41
        +1
        Miserable means the world elite plans. smile
    11. Bober
      Bober 30 October 2013 13: 22
      +1
      a world without America will plunge into chaos

      The idea is clear. Countries will plunge into the chaos of the world. No, of course, ordered wars are more acceptable for them.
      And at the expense of Zbig’s thoughts, it’s all foggy and that means nonsense, or the above is a small pebble in a big game, where there are few authors and there will be a knight's move at the end, which in the end only confirms the idea that the vector did not change and it was only necessary be able to read between lines.
    12. Mikhail3
      Mikhail3 30 October 2013 13: 33
      0
      "to build compromises between the old forces of the West and the new forces of the East"
      I'll cry. I am silent about the fact that the "old forces of the West" look like one-day flies compared to baobab. But what kind of compromises does he want? How to do it? What compromise is possible between people who consume stolen goods and those who have been robbed? Anyone who can compare the level of consumption in America and anywhere in Asia can only laugh at such a good wish.
      Of course, Grandpa Bzhe understands this well. That is why he is trying to cancel the work of his whole life - an attack on Russia. Since the "advanced ideas" of the West, which under great pressure are trying to squeeze into our heads, have led to the fact that the West is easily capable of three throats, choking and choking, to eat stolen from the whole world. But he completely lost the ability to fight for loot! The funny thing is that the brain twist and loss of strength occurred largely because it is a side effect of the fight against the USSR. Winners, Edren Matren ...
      So now "compromises" are urgently needed. Well, that is, someone must, with all their foolishness, hit the robbed, knock out teeth, break bones ... break the spirit and lead to obedience. Otherwise, there is no way to force Asia to continue pumping up the West with resources, so that it ate them, and Asia obediently reeling from hunger. The West was blown away and rotten, the mountains of American weapons are not only frankly bad, but there is no one to keep them. The hope for the indestructible phalanxes of battle p ... owls is not justified sad So I had to rotten the filthy dido somewhere with old hatred and call Russia for the role of the Western fist. Promise for this to generously share the crumbs from the western table (not, well, do not let these Russians at the table ?!) and maybe even, what the hell is not joking, recognize Russia's very right to exist!
      No, tears of tenderness flow from me ...
      And one more moment. Please note that all these theorists (and practitioners such as Adolf Aloysich) stubbornly seek to impose a certain world order. Let's see what is the most orderly in this world? Well, in general, the most order is in an ordinary crystal. What else makes a crystal different? In all cases, the crystal is irrevocably DEAD.
    13. zav
      zav 30 October 2013 14: 03
      +1
      How long will such a world order last? Difficult to judge. In one hundred years, there have been five cardinal shifts in the global hierarchy (p. 39-40), and the frequency of redistribution is increasing.


      The frequency of redistribution is increasing ... That is, the world order is becoming increasingly unstable, subject to global changes, and local wars, which occur more often, threaten to develop into regional ones. And the United States has just not kicked ...
      Why? Because the planet has suddenly decreased in size. The world has suddenly become so crowded with people, the lack of various resources has become so palpable that it becomes uncomfortable with the mere thought of further "development" of the world economy and everything connected with it.
      Who will do the “reappraisal of values” that the author calls for? If you still can’t do without material wealth, but who will think about their allowable amount? And if material wealth should not be the meaning of life, then what is its meaning?
      proza.ru/2010/10/08/700
    14. maxvik
      maxvik 30 October 2013 16: 18
      0
      America - peacemaker is an entertaining idea laughing. A public debt requires someone to eat. Here is a dialectic.
    15. maxvik
      maxvik 30 October 2013 16: 29
      0
      "By the way, Brzezinski already lacks the theses of the dismemberment of Russia, the transfer of Siberia to the control of the West, etc., as it was in previous books, which are offensive to our country, as it was in previous books" - it seems that the smartest experts of the beacon of democracy smeared their pants, because why so quickly the opinion changed ...
    16. dropout
      dropout 30 October 2013 16: 42
      -1
      The final conclusion is the following:

      “Although the modern world is less inclined to obey one power - even the USA, but a stable global order ultimately depends on America’s ability to upgrade and fulfill its roles” (p. 286).

      * * *
      And our final conclusion. Urgently restore the Great Russian Empire.