Military Review

Soviet post-war anti-tank artillery

37

After the end of the war, anti-tank artillery was in service in the USSR: 37-mm airborne cannons of the 1944 model of the year, 45-mm anti-tank guns arr. 1937 year and arr. 1942 of the year, 57-mm anti-tank guns ZIS-2, divisional 76-mm ZIS-3, 100-mm field model 1944, BS-3. Also used German captured 75-mm anti-tank guns Cancer 40. They were purposefully assembled, stockpiled and repaired if necessary.


In the middle of 1944, it was officially adopted 37-mm airborne cannon CHK-M1.



It was specially designed for arming parachute airborne battalions and motorcycle regiments. The gun weighing 209 kg in combat position allowed air transportation and parachuting. It had good penetration resistance for its caliber, allowing it to hit medium and heavy airborne armor with a small-caliber projectile at short range tanks. The shells were interchangeable with the 37-mm 61-K anti-aircraft gun. The guns were transported in Willis and GAZ-64 vehicles (one gun per vehicle), as well as in Dodge and GAZ-AA vehicles (two guns per vehicle).

In addition, it was possible to transport the gun on a single-carriage or sleigh, as well as in a motorcycle pram. If necessary, the gun is disassembled into three parts.

The calculation of the gun consisted of four people - the commander, gunner, loader and podnoschika. When shooting calculation takes a prone position. The technical rate of fire reached 25-30 shots per minute.
Thanks to the original design of recoil devices, the 37-mm airborne gun obn.1944 combines powerful for its caliber anti-aircraft gun with small dimensions and weight. With close to 45-mm M-42, the values ​​of armor penetration of the ChK-М1 are three times lighter and much smaller in size (much lower line of fire), which greatly facilitated the displacement of the gun by the forces of calculation and its disguise. At the same time, M-42 has a number of advantages - the presence of a full wheel course, allowing the vehicle to be towed by a car, the absence of a muzzle brake unmasking when firing, a more effective fragmentation projectile and the best armor-piercing action.
The 37-mm gun ChK-M1 was late for about 5 years, was put into service and put into production when the war came to an end. In hostilities apparently did not participate. A total of 472 guns were produced.

45-mm anti-tank guns by the time of the end of hostilities are hopelessly outdated, even the presence in ammunition 45 mm M-42 guns sabot projectile with armor penetration along the normal at a distance of 500 meters - 81-mm homogeneous armor could not remedy the situation. Modern heavy and medium tanks were only amazed when firing at the side, from extremely short distances. The active use of these guns until the very last days of the war can be explained by high maneuverability, ease of transportation and camouflage, huge accumulated stocks of ammunition of this caliber, as well as the inability of the Soviet industry to provide troops with the required number of anti-tank guns with higher characteristics.
Anyway, in the current army, the Forty-Pieces enjoyed immense popularity, only they could move by the forces of calculation in the battle formations of the advancing infantry, supporting it with fire.



At the end of 40's, forty-fives began to be actively withdrawn from parts and transferred to storage. However, for quite a long period of time they remained in service with the Airborne Forces and were used as training tools.
A significant amount of 45-mm M-42 was transferred to the then allies.

Soviet post-war anti-tank artillery

American soldiers from 5 of the cavalry regiment are studying M-42 captured in Korea


"Sorokapyatka" actively used in the Korean War. In Albania, these weapons were in service before the 90's.

Mass production 57-mm anti-tank guns ZIS-2 It became possible in 1943 year, after the necessary metalworking machines were obtained from the USA. Restoration of mass production was difficult - again there were technological problems with the manufacture of barrels, in addition, the plant was heavily loaded with the production program of 76-mm divisional and tank guns, which had a number of common nodes with ZIS-2; under these conditions, the increase in the production of ZIS-2 on existing equipment could be carried out only by reducing the volume of production of these tools, which was unacceptable. As a result, the first batch of ZIS-2 for conducting state and military tests was released in May 1943 of the year, and the production of these tools was widely used preserved at the factory from 1941 year backlog. The mass production of ZIS-2 was organized by October - November 1943 of the year, after the commissioning of new production facilities, provided with equipment supplied under lend-lease.

The capabilities of the ZIS-2 allowed at typical combat distances to confidently hit 80-mm frontal armor of the most common German medium tanks Pz.IV and assault SAU StuG III, as well as onboard armor of the tank Pz.VI "Tiger"; at distances less than 500, the Tiger frontal armor was also struck.
In terms of cost and manufacturability, combat and service and operational characteristics of the ZIS-2 was the best Soviet anti-tank gun of the war.
From the moment production resumed, until the end of the war, more 9000 guns entered the army, but this was not enough to fully equip anti-tank units.

Production of ZiS-2 continued through the 1949 year, inclusive, in the post-war period around 3500 guns were fired. From 1950 th to 1951, only ZIS-2 trunks were produced. Since 1957, the modernization of the previously released ZIS-2 to the ZIS-2H variant has been carried out with the possibility of fighting at night due to the use of special night sights
In the 1950-ies for the gun were developed new sabots with increased armor penetration.

After the war, ZIS-2 was in service with the Soviet Army at least until 1970, the last combat use case was recorded in 1968, during the conflict with the PRC on Damanskiy Island.
ZIS-2 were supplied to a number of countries and took part in several armed conflicts, the first of which was the Korean War.
There is information about the successful use of ZIS-2 Egypt in 1956 year in battles with the Israelis. Guns of this type were in service with the Chinese army and were manufactured under license under the symbol Type 55. As of the 2007 year, ZIS-2 was still in service with the armies of Algeria, Guinea, Cuba and Nicaragua.

In the second half of the war, armed with fighter - anti-tank units consisted of captured German 75-mm anti-tank guns Cancer 40. During the offensive operations 1943-1944 g a large number of guns and ammunition were captured. Our military appreciated the high performance of these anti-tank guns. At a distance of 500 meters, the piercing pierced normal - 154 – mm armor.



In 1944, for the 40 Cancer in the USSR, firing tables and operating instructions were issued.
After the war, the guns were deposited, where they were at least until the middle of the 60-x. Subsequently, part of them was "recycled", and part transferred to the allies.


A shot of the RaK-40 guns was taken at the parade in Hanoi in 1960.


In fear of an invasion from the South, several anti-tank artillery battalions, armed with German 75-mm anti-tank guns of the World War II era, were formed as part of the army of North Vietnam. Such guns in large quantities were captured by the Red Army in 40, and now the Soviet Union has provided them to the Vietnamese people for protection against possible aggression from the South.

Soviet divisional 76-mm guns were designed to solve a wide range of tasks, primarily fire support infantry units, the suppression of firing points, the destruction of light field shelters. However, during the war, divisional artillery guns had to fire at enemy tanks, perhaps even more often than with specialized anti-tank guns.



From the 1944 of the year, due to the slowdown in the production of 45-mm guns and the lack of 57-mm guns ZIS-2, despite the lack of armor penetration for that time divisional 76-mm ZIS-3 became the main anti-tank gun of the Red Army.
In many ways, this was a necessary measure. The armor penetration capability of an armor-piercing projectile, piercing the 300-mm armor at the 75 distance in meters, was not enough to fight the average German tanks Pz.IV.
As of 1943, the booking of the heavy tank PzKpfW VI “Tiger” was invulnerable to the ZIS-3 in the frontal projection and weakly vulnerable at distances closer than 300 m in the onboard projection. Weakly vulnerable in frontal projection for the ZIS-3 were also the new German tank PzKpfW V Panther, as well as the upgraded PzKpfW IV Ausf H and PzKpfW III Ausf M or N; however, all these cars were confidently amazed from the ZIS-3 into the board.
The introduction of the sabot projectile from 1943 improved the anti-tank capabilities of the ZIS-3, allowing it at distances closer than 500 and m to confidently hit vertical 80-mm armor, but 100-mm vertical armor remained unbearable for it.
The relative weakness of the anti-tank capabilities of the ZIS-3 was realized by the Soviet military leadership, but until the end of the war, it was not possible to replace the ZIS-3 in anti-tank units. The situation could be corrected by the introduction of ammunition cumulative projectile. But such a projectile was adopted by ZiS-3 only in the postwar period.

Shortly after the end of the war and the release of 103 000 guns, the production of ZiS-3 was discontinued. The gun remained in service for a long time, but by the end of the 40's, it was almost completely removed from the anti-tank artillery. This did not prevent ZIS-3 from spreading very widely around the world and taking part in many local conflicts, including in the territory of the former USSR.



In the modern Russian army, the remaining operational ZIS-3 are often used as salute instruments or in theatrical performances on the theme of the battles of World War II. In particular, these guns are in service with the Separate Salyutniy Division at the Moscow commandant's office, which conducts salutes on the feast of February 23 and May 9.

In 1946, the armament was created under the leadership of chief designer F. F. Petrov 85-mm anti-tank gun D-44. This tool would have been very popular during the war, but its development was dragged out for several reasons.
Externally, the D-44 strongly resembled the German 75-mm anti-tank 40 Cancer.



From 1946 to 1954, the plant 9 (“Uralmash”) produced 10 918 guns at the factory.
D-44 was in service with a separate anti-tank artillery division of a motorized rifle or tank regiment (two anti-tank artillery batteries consisting of two fire platoons) for 6 units in a battery (in the 12 division).




As ammunition, unitary cartridges with high-explosive fragmentation grenades, sub-caliber coil-shaped shells, cumulative and smoke shells are used. The range of the BTS BR-367 direct shot at the target with a height of 2 m is 1100 m. At a range of 500 m this projectile penetrates an armor plate with a thickness of 90 mm at an angle of 135 °. The initial speed of the BPS BR-365P is 1050 m / s, armor penetration is 110 mm from the distance 1000 m.

In 1957, night sights were installed on a part of the guns, a self-propelled modification was also developed. CD-44, which could move on the battlefield without a tractor.



The trunk and carriage SD-44 were taken from the D-44 with a few changes. So, on one of the gun beds was installed a casing-covered engine M-72 of the Irbit motorcycle plant with a power of 14 hp. (4000 rpm) providing self-propel speed up to 25 km / h. Power transmission from the engine was provided through the propeller shaft, differential and half-axles on both wheels of the gun. The gearbox, which is part of the transmission, provided six forward gears and two reverse gears. A seat is also fixed on the frame for one of the calculation numbers that performs the functions of a driver. At his disposal there is a steering mechanism that controls the additional, third, wheel of the gun, mounted on the end of one of the beds. A headlamp is installed to illuminate the road at night.

Subsequently, it was decided to use the 85-mm D-44 as a divisional to replace the ZiS-3, and the fight against tanks assigned to more powerful artillery systems and ATGM.



In this capacity, the weapon was used in many conflicts, including in the CIS. The extreme case of combat use was noted in the North Caucasus, during the “counter-terrorist operation”.



D-44 is still formally in service in the Russian Federation, some of these weapons are in the internal troops and in storage.

On the basis of D-44 under the leadership of the chief designer F. F. Petrov was created anti-tank 85-mm gun D-48. The main feature of the D-48 anti-tank gun was an exceptionally long barrel. To ensure maximum initial velocity of the projectile, the barrel length was brought to 74 gauges (6 m., 29 see).
Especially for this gun, new unitary shots were created. An armor-piercing projectile at a distance of 1 000 m pierced armor 150-185 mm in thickness at an angle of 60 °. A X-rayed projectile at a distance of 1000 m penetrates homogeneous armor 180 – 220 mm thick at an angle of 60 ° Maximum firing range of high-explosive fragmentation projectiles weighing 9,66 kg. - 19 km.
From 1955 to 1957 released: 819 copies of D-48 and D-48Н (with night sight АПН2-77 or АНН3-77).



The guns entered service with individual artillery anti-tank battalions of a tank or motorized rifle regiment. As an anti-tank gun, the D-48 cannon quickly became obsolete. At the beginning of the 60-ies of the XX century in the NATO countries appeared tanks with more powerful armor sewn. A negative feature of the D-48 was the "exclusive" ammunition, which is not suitable for other 85-mm guns. For firing from the D-48, the use of shots from the D-44, KS-1, 85-mm tank guns and self-propelled guns is also prohibited, this significantly narrowed the scope of the gun.

In the spring of 1943, the VG Grabin, in his memorandum addressed to Stalin, proposed, along with the resumption of production of the 57-mm ZIS-2, to begin designing the 100-mm cannon with a unitary shot, which was used in naval implements.



A year later, in the spring 1944 of the year 100-mm field gun model 1944, BS-3 was put into production. Due to the presence of a wedge gate with a vertically moving wedge with semi-automatic, the location of the mechanisms of vertical and horizontal pickup on one side of the gun, as well as the use of unitary shots, the firing rate of the gun is 8-10 shots per minute. Shooting from a cannon was carried out with unitary ammunition with armor-piercing tracer shells and high-explosive fragmentation grenades. An armor-piercing tracer with an initial speed of 895 m / s at a distance of 500 m at a meeting angle of 90 ° pierced armor with a thickness of 160 mm. Direct shot range was 1080 m.
However, the role of this weapon in the fight against enemy tanks is greatly exaggerated. By the time it appeared, the Germans practically did not use masses of tanks.



During the war, the BS-3 was released in small quantities and could not play a big role. At the final stage of the war, the 98 BS-3 were attached as a means of strengthening five tank armies. The gun was in service with light artillery brigades 3-regimental composition.

The artillery of the RGCs as of 1 in January of 1945 had 87 BS-3 guns. At the beginning of the 1945 of the year, in the 9 of the Guards Army, as part of three rifle corps, one cannon artillery regiment of BS-20 3 was formed.

Basically, thanks to the long range - 20650 m and a fairly effective high-explosive fragmentation grenade weighing 15,6 kg, the gun was used as a body cannon to fight enemy artillery and suppress long-range targets.

The BS-3 had a number of flaws that hampered its use as an anti-tank. When firing, the gun jumped heavily, which made the gunner’s work unsafe and knocked down the aiming installations, which, in turn, led to a decrease in the practical rate of aimed fire — qualities for a very important anti-tank gun.

The presence of a powerful muzzle brake with a small height of the line of fire and flat trajectories characteristic of shooting at bronzelem, led to the formation of a significant smoke-dust cloud that unmasked the position and blinded the calculation. The mobility of a weapon with a mass of more than 3500 kg left much to be desired, transportation by the forces of calculation on the battlefield was almost impossible.



After the war, the gun was in production until 1951, inclusive, in total 3816 field guns BS-3 were released. In the 60-ies guns have been upgraded, this applies primarily to sights and ammunition. Prior to the start of the 60, the BS-3 could penetrate the armor of any Western tank. But with the advent of: M-48А2, Chiefen, M-60 - the situation has changed. New sub-caliber and cumulative shells were urgently developed. The next upgrade took place in the middle of 80-x, when the BS-3 ammunition kit received the 9М117 "Bastion" anti-tank projectile.

This weapon was also supplied to other countries, took part in many local conflicts in Asia, Africa and the Middle East in some of them it is still in service. In Russia, the BS-3 cannon until recently consisted of a coastal defense weapon in the 18 armament of the machine-gun and artillery division stationed on the Kuril Islands, and also a fairly large number of them are in storage.

Until the end of the 60s of the early 70s of the last century, anti-tank guns were the main means of fighting tanks. However, with the advent of the ATGM with a semi-automatic guidance system, which only requires keeping the target in sight, has changed the situation in many ways. The military leadership of many countries considered the metal-intensive, bulky and expensive anti-tank guns an anachronism. But not in the USSR. In our country, the development and production of anti-tank guns continued in significant numbers. And at a qualitatively new level.

In the year 1961 entered service 100-mm smoothbore anti-tank gun T-12developed in KB Yurginsky machine-building plant number 75 under the direction of V.Ya. Afanasyev and L.V. Korneev.



The decision to make a smooth-bore gun at first glance may seem rather strange, the time of such guns ended almost a hundred years ago. But the creators of the T-12 did not think so.

In a smooth channel, you can make the gas pressure much higher than in a rifled one, and accordingly increase the initial velocity of the projectile.
In a rifled barrel, the rotation of the projectile reduces the armor-piercing effect of the jet of gases and metal in the explosion of a cumulative projectile.
A smooth-bore gun significantly increases the survivability of the barrel - you can not be afraid of the so-called "washing" of the rifling fields.

The canal of the gun consists of a chamber and a cylindrical smooth-walled guide part. The chamber is formed by two long and one short (between them) cones. The transition from the chamber to the cylindrical section is a conical slope. Shutter vertical wedge with spring semiautomatic. Unitary loading. The carriage for the T-12 was taken from the 85-mm anti-tank rifled D-48 gun.

In the 60-ies for gun T-12 was designed more convenient to use carriage. New system received an index MT-12 (2A29), and in some sources referred to as "Rapier". The serial production of the MT-12 went into the 1970 year. The anti-tank artillery battalions of the motorized rifle divisions of the USSR Armed Forces included two anti-tank artillery batteries consisting of six X-NUMX-mm T-100 PTPs (MT-12).



The T-12 and MT-12 cannons have the same warhead — a long, thin barrel with a 60 length of caliber with a muzzle brake “salt shaker”. Sliding beds are equipped with an optional retractable wheel installed on the coulters. The main difference of the modernized model MT-12 is that it is equipped with a torsion bar suspension, which is locked when fired to ensure stability.

When manually rolling the gun, a roller is inserted under the trunk of the bed, which is mounted with a stopper on the left bed. Transportation of guns T-12 and MT-12 is carried out by a standard tractor MT-L or MT-LB. For movement on snow, the ski machine LO-7 was used, which allowed fire from skis at elevation angles up to + 16 ° with a turning angle of up to 54 °, and at an elevation angle of 20 ° with a turning angle of up to 40 °.

A smooth barrel is much more convenient for firing guided projectiles, although in 1961 it was probably not thought of yet. To combat armored targets, an armor-piercing-sifting projectile with a swept warhead with high kinetic energy is used, capable of piercing armor 1000 mm thick at a distance of 215 meters. The ammunition includes several types of subcaliber, cumulative and high-explosive fragmentation projectiles.


ZUBM-10 shot with a piercing projectile



ZUBKKhNUMX shot with a cumulative projectile


When mounted on a gun, a special guidance device can be used with shots with the anti-tank missile "Kastet". Rocket control is semi-automatic using a laser beam, firing range from 100 to 4000. The missile penetrates the armor for dynamic protection (“jet armor”) with thickness up to 660 mm.


9M117 rocket and ZUBK10-1 shot


For direct fire, the T-12 gun is equipped with a day sight and night sights. With a panoramic sight it can be used as a field gun from closed positions. There is a modification of the gun MT-12Р with mounted radar 1А31 "Ruth".


MT-12Р with 1А31 "Ruth" radar


The gun was massively in service with the armies of the Warsaw Pact countries, delivered to Algeria, Iraq and Yugoslavia. Took part in hostilities in Afghanistan, in the Iran-Iraq war, in armed conflicts in the territories of the former USSR and Yugoslavia. In the course of these armed conflicts, 100-mm anti-tank guns are mainly used not against tanks, but as ordinary divisional or corps instruments.

Anti-tank guns MT-12 continue to be in service in Russia.
According to the press center of the Ministry of Defense 26 August 2013, an accurate fire from the UBK-8 cumulative projectile from the MT-12 “Rapier” cannon of the Yekaterinburg separate motorized rifle brigade of the Central Military District eliminated a fire at the well # Р23 U1 under the heading of the Novo XYNUMX Brigade of the Central Military District.



The fire began on August 19 and quickly turned into uncontrolled burning of natural gas, which breaks through faulty valves. The artillery crew was transferred to Novy Urengoy by a military transport aircraft aviationflying out of Orenburg. At the Shagol airfield, equipment and ammunition were loaded, after which the gunners, under the command of Colonel Gennady Mandrichenko, officer of the missile forces and artillery command of the Central Military District, were brought to the scene. The gun was mounted on direct fire from a minimum permissible distance of 70 m. The target diameter was 20 cm. The target was successfully hit.

In 1967, the Soviet experts concluded that the T-12 gun “does not ensure reliable destruction of the Chieftain tanks and the promising MVT-70. Therefore, in January 1968, OKB-9 (now part of Spetstekhnika JSC) was instructed to develop a new, more powerful anti-tank cannon with 125-mm ballistic smooth-bore tank gun D-81. The task was difficult to accomplish, since D-81, having excellent ballistics, gave a strong return, which was still tolerable for a tank weighing 40 tons. But on the testing ground D-81 fired from a tracked gun carriage 203-mm howitzer B-4. It is clear that such an anti-tank gun in 17 tons weighing and maximum speed of movement 10 km / h was out of the question. Therefore, in the 125-mm gun recoil was increased from 340 mm (limited by tank dimensions) to 970 mm and a powerful muzzle brake was introduced. This made it possible to install the 125-mm cannon on a three-wall gun carriage from the serial 122-mm howitzer D-30, which allowed circular firing.

The new 125-mm gun was designed by OKB-9 in two versions: towed D-13 and self-propelled CD-13 ("D" is the index of artillery systems of V. F. Petrov). The development of CD-13 has become 125-mm smooth-bore anti-cannon "Sprut-B" (2-45M). Ballistic data and ammunition tank gun D-81 and anti-tank gun 2-45M were the same.

The 2А-45М gun had a mechanized system for transferring it from a combat position to a stopping position and back, consisting of a hydraulic jack and hydraulic cylinders. With the help of a jack, the carriage rose to a certain height, necessary for the breeding or convergence of bedding, and then descended to the ground. Hydraulic cylinders lift the gun to the maximum clearance, as well as raising and lowering the wheels.

The Sprut-B is towed by the Ural-4320 or the MT-LB tractor. In addition, for self-movement on the battlefield, the gun has a special power unit, made on the basis of the MeMZ-967A engine with hydraulic drive. The engine is located on the right side of the gun under the casing. On the left side of the frame are installed the driver's seat and the control system of the gun during self-movement. The maximum speed at the same time on dry dirt roads - 10 km / h, and portable ammunition - 6 shots; fuel reserve is up to 50 km.

The 125-mm cannon “Sprut-B” includes ammunition of separate-sleeve loading with cumulative, sub-caliber and high-explosive fragmentation projectiles, as well as anti-tank missiles. 125-mm shotgun VBK10 with a cumulative projectile BK-14M can hit tanks like M60, M48, "Leopard-1A5". Shot VBM-17 with a sabot projectile - tanks type M1 "Abrams", "Leopard-2", "Merkava MK2". Shot VOF-36 with high-explosive fragmentation projectile OFNNXX is designed to engage manpower, engineering structures and other targets.

If there is a special guidance equipment 9C53, the Sprut can fire shots with the K-14 TOOTH with the 9М119 anti-tank missiles, which are semi-automatic, controlled by a laser beam, the firing range is from 100 to 4000 m. armor behind dynamic protection 24 – 17,2 mm thick.

Currently, towed anti-tank guns (100- and 125-mm smooth-bore) are in service with the countries of the former Soviet republics, as well as a number of developing countries. The armies of the leading Western countries have long abandoned special anti-tank guns, both towed and self-propelled. Nevertheless, it can be assumed that towed anti-tank guns have a future. Ballistics and ammunition 125-mm cannon "Sprut-B", unified with the guns of modern main tanks, can hit any serial tanks of the world. An important advantage of anti-tank guns over the ATGM is a wider choice of means of defeating tanks and the possibility of defeating them point-blank. In addition, the Sprut-B can also be used as a non-anti-tank weapon. Its high-explosive fragmentation projectile RP-26 is close in ballistic data and explosive mass to the RP-471 122-mm projectile A-19 projectile, which became famous in the Great Patriotic War.

Based on:
http://gods-of-war.pp.ua
http://русская-сила.рф/guide/army/ar/d44.shtml
Shirokorad A. B. Encyclopedia of domestic artillery. - Minsk: Harvest, 2000.
Shunkov V.N. Weapons of the Red Army. - Minsk: Harvest, 1999.
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  1. Bongo
    29 October 2013 08: 55
    +9
    Until recently, 85-mm anti-tank D-44s were available in large quantities in the Far East. Being ineffective in Europe against modern Western tanks, they could quite successfully fight the Chinese.
    1. badger1974
      badger1974 29 October 2013 12: 22
      +4
      A 125-mm VBK10 round with a BK-14M ​​cumulative projectile can hit M60, M48, and Leopard-1A5 tanks. A shot of a VBM-17 with a sub-caliber projectile - tanks of the M1 type Abrams, Leopard-2,



      Strangely, the Abrams died in Iraq from 12.7, about the leopard the same concerns. Bo armor in the forehead 60 mm at 90 degrees, along the way such ammunition should carry the engine through the rail. is it not so bad with an octopus? In the course of NATO, in his remarks, he bears a fasting on the priority destruction of the Octopus, because for them this art represents a huge threat
  2. Bigriver
    Bigriver 29 October 2013 10: 10
    0
    The relative weakness of the anti-tank capabilities of the ZIS-3 was recognized ...
    The situation could be corrected by the introduction of ammunition cumulative shell. But such a shell was adopted arming ZiS-3 only after the war.

    "Safe" for calculation repeat armor-burning BP-353A and BP-350M appeared in divisions and tank F-34s since the fall of 1944. Shellers were half-gun in the division sleeve.
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 29 October 2013 11: 02
      +8
      But they seemed to have the property to explode in the barrel, and therefore were allowed to be used only on the shelf?
      1. Bigriver
        Bigriver 29 October 2013 11: 18
        +2
        Quote: Spade
        But they seemed to have the property to explode in the barrel, and therefore were allowed to be used only on the shelf?

        That's why I marked "safe for calculation" :)
        The first regimental godfather appeared in the summer of the 42nd in the army.
        And in the middle of the 44th, using the godmother for the new OB-25 regiment, they fired for divisions and armored. There was another ground fuse, and with a hint of gunpowder they were wise for a long time. But they won.
    2. Bongo
      30 October 2013 06: 03
      +3
      Due to the imperfection of the fuse, it was forbidden to use them in divisional guns.
      1. Bigriver
        Bigriver 30 October 2013 10: 25
        0
        Quote: Bongo
        Due to the imperfection of the fuse, it was forbidden to use them in divisional guns.

        Yes, there was Voronov’s order in March 1943, it seems: //
        But, it's about the 1944th and about another shell.
        In mid-1944, shots were fired with a cumulative projectile suitable for tank and divisional guns - the same colonel BP-353A and adapted from the half-shell arr 1943 (OB-25) BP-350M shell in the “divisional case” (the weight of gunpowder in the case is only 150 grams, and the new BM fuse) - finally a projectile appears capable of SAFETY firing 76,2mm guns with a barrel length of 41,5 calibers (ZIS-3, F-34 ) But by this time there were already effective sub-caliber shells and, in general, German armored vehicles began to come across less and less.

        http://vif2ne.ru/nvk/forum/0/arhprint/841878
        One can see a solid bottom and a head fuse.
        On the BP-353A (early version) there was a screw bottom.
        1. Bongo
          30 October 2013 10: 31
          +2
          Until the end of the war, there was no standard ammunition for divisional 76-mm cannons for cumulative shells. I am declaring this to you as the author of the article, maybe they were created, but the industry apparently was not able to start a mass production. In sufficient quantities, they arrived after the war. Sub-caliber projectiles of frontal armor damage to the Tigers also did not provide
          1. Bigriver
            Bigriver 30 October 2013 11: 25
            0
            Quote: Bongo
            Until the end of the war, there were no cumulative shells in the standard ammunition of the 76-mm divisional cannons. This is me to you as the author of the article I declaremaybe they were created, but the industry apparently was not able to establish mass production ...

            That's how laughing hi
            Then a remark and one question.
            1. I didn’t seem to say that "godfather" massively went to the BC divisions and laying F-34. I met (in memoirs) another thing, that he was almost individually allocated in case of meeting with cats. In probable directions.
            Regarding breaking the forehead of the "six" - I agree. Didn't provide.
            "... as an author"With all due respect, this is not an argument. It would be interesting to see production statistics. That is yes.
            2. And where did you get this ?:
            The new German tank PzKpfW V Panther was also weakly vulnerable in the frontal projection for the ZIS-3.

            According to the results of Kursk, there is a report from the GABTU KA The Panther's forehead was also fired from an F-34 from 100 meters.
            Conclusions:
            Based on the examination of the padded Panthers, it was concluded that they were amazed:
            a) anti-tank rifle - to the lower side plate of the hull from a distance of 100 meters or closer (at right angles);
            b) with a 45-mm cannon projectile - with the exception of the frontal part;
            c) armor-piercing shell of a 76-mm gun - with the exception of the frontal part;
            d) an armor-piercing shell of an 85 mm anti-aircraft gun.
            1. Bongo
              30 October 2013 11: 36
              +3
              According to the armor penetration tables, which were clearly overestimated, the UBR-354A and UBR-354B armor-piercing shells did not guarantee penetration of the frontal armor of German medium and heavy tanks. 100 meters is almost point-blank shooting. It is doubtful that the German tankers allowed themselves to be fired at with impunity up to such a distance.
              I had an article about the PTA of the war, if you are interested to see:
              http://topwar.ru/33705-protivotankovaya-artilleriya-rkka-chast-1-ya.html
              http://topwar.ru/33793-protivotankovaya-artilleriya-rkka-chast-2-ya.html
              1. Bigriver
                Bigriver 30 October 2013 11: 46
                +2
                Quote: Bongo
                ... 100 meters is almost point blank. It is doubtful that the German tankers allowed themselves to be fired at with impunity up to such a distance.

                First, the commission after the defensive operation on the southern front, counted and analyzed combat hits and penetration.
                Further, the F-34 was fired from 100 m. Of the thirty shells 76 mm fired into the forehead. projection, one was able to break through the NLD.
                The report is not rare, it is on the network.
                1. Bongo
                  30 October 2013 11: 48
                  +1
                  Do you consider ZIS-3 a highly effective anti-tank weapon?
                  1. Lopatov
                    Lopatov 30 October 2013 11: 59
                    +1
                    All our artillery must be ready to defeat tanks with direct fire. And that is why there are known cases of using even the Galina Petrovna ML-20 as anti-tank. The ZIS-3 was used only by force, because of their, frankly, overproduction. We could not stop in time and transfer more power to the ZIS-2
                    1. Bongo
                      30 October 2013 12: 02
                      +3
                      Forced or not, the ZIS-3 in the anti-tank divisions was much more than the specialized ZIS-2.
                      1. Lopatov
                        Lopatov 30 October 2013 12: 07
                        +3
                        I know. Due to the lack of "ZiS-2".
                  2. Bigriver
                    Bigriver 30 October 2013 12: 04
                    0
                    Quote: Bongo
                    Do you consider ZIS-3 a highly effective anti-tank weapon?

                    I have no reason to think so. And here you are a big optimist smile
                    And what is your question? If I, on the basis of the opinion of the GABTU, claim the forehead is invulnerable. Panther projections for divisional.
                    1. Bongo
                      30 October 2013 12: 05
                      +2
                      It was not clear what conclusion you made from the report. hi
  3. makarov
    makarov 29 October 2013 10: 13
    +8
    wonderful review material. thanks to the author.
  4. 1969s9691g.
    1969s9691g. 29 October 2013 11: 01
    +1
    read the book by a.b. shirokorada "encyclopedia of domestic artillery". There is everything and even more. 1164 pp.
  5. Kostya pedestrian
    Kostya pedestrian 29 October 2013 11: 41
    -6
    Yet there is nothing stronger than art, artfully in our opinion. I think this one, Jeanne Dark of our day, Zahna Bichevskaya will confirm this, how powerful her videos are, how much Scynism, and the words, well, they’ll just tear the soul of the most persistent marine in captivity at your muse tickling nerves even to the most persistent trackers.





    Well done Bichevskaya, I’ll buy the fastest Porsche for money, I’ll just get something more retroactively, you see the Porsche will disappear like mammoths on the Kursk Bulge.
    1. badger1974
      badger1974 30 October 2013 00: 19
      +4
      come on
  6. zub46
    zub46 29 October 2013 11: 45
    10
    Repeatedly observed the ability of the 85-mm SD-44 to self-propel. Confidently rushing through the snow to the depth of the wheel hub and pulls the calculation and another 10-15 skiers holding on to the sling. Cope with dirt. Some problems with starting the engine in the winter due to the 6-volt ignition system. The engine itself (decommissioned?) As reliable was in great demand among a certain category of owners of low-speed boats.
  7. washi
    washi 29 October 2013 11: 55
    +9
    became possible in 1943, after the necessary metalworking machines were received from the USA.
    Trusted was Comrade Stalin. Or did not want to quarrel with the military, who wanted everything more and more, despite the quality (Trotskyism in its purest form).
    After the purges of 1937, it was the machine tools that began to be purchased.
    The funds for the development of their own machine tool industry were not enough.
    After the Second World War, machine-tool industry came to the forefront. Our machines were purchased not only by the underdeveloped, but also by the capitalists.
    In the 90s, machine tool industry was again ruined. Modern machines were sold at the price of metal scrap abroad.
    The former director of the enterprise was in the mid-90s in Japan. In Japan, there were CNC machines from its former factory.
    Excavations and heavy vehicles have been sold to Australia since the development of the metal price.
    1. Rider
      Rider 29 October 2013 12: 49
      +2
      Quote: Vasya
      Excavations and heavy vehicles have been sold to Australia since the development of the metal price.


      but now hitachi and Hyundai our FSE.
      however, I’ll say, as an excavator, working in the Soviet EE or UVZ, and in foreign ones, are two big differences.
  8. Kovrovsky
    Kovrovsky 29 October 2013 13: 35
    +4
    An interesting article, it is a pity that not all photos are signed.
  9. samoletil18
    samoletil18 29 October 2013 16: 01
    +6
    Very good interesting. To the author +!
  10. GastaClaus69
    GastaClaus69 29 October 2013 17: 25
    +5
    100mm round with the Strugna anti-tank guided missile for the T-12 and MT-12 anti-tank guns.
    Shot mass: 21,1 kg
    Firing range: 5000 meters
    Missile average speed: 340 m / s
    Flight time at maximum range: 16,8 seconds
    Management: semi-automatic, laser beam
    Warhead: Tandem Cumulative
    Penetration: not less than 550 mm
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 29 October 2013 20: 27
      +3
      What's the point? Shooting ATGMs is much easier
      1. Massik
        Massik 30 October 2013 00: 25
        +2
        Well, ATGMs may not be enough at all, it’s better to have at least some kind of gun than crawl with two MT 62 under the tracks of an enemy tank)
        1. Lopatov
          Lopatov 30 October 2013 01: 50
          0
          The gun is not better, especially this one. Tankers will not specifically substitute the board and gallantly not notice where it is shooting from. And the MT-12, firing ATGM, is already too much. Nothing less mobile and come up with.
          1. GastaClaus69
            GastaClaus69 30 October 2013 02: 00
            +2
            In fact, in their current form, anti-aircraft guns are effective only in low-intensity conflicts, and the enemy should not have air support.
            The battle at the bridge across the Dniester at the entrance to Bender is an example when the T-64BV climbed into the forehead without support on the MT-12 battery.
            1. Lopatov
              Lopatov 30 October 2013 11: 24
              +3
              And the enemy should have no trained tank crews.

              Conflicts of low intensity? Only PF on the outskirts of settlements. But it is painfully difficult even for such tasks
    2. badger1974
      badger1974 30 October 2013 00: 15
      +3
      I don’t understand yet? 340 m per second, along with RPG-7, it’s more useful than 5 tons not including ammunition and delivery equipment and 6 valuable boys, garbage, in the arty to get the enemy quickly than he can think about it, then e octopus
      1. GastaClaus69
        GastaClaus69 30 October 2013 00: 41
        +2
        That's when there will be money to get the enemy faster than he can think about it, but for now, as the saying goes, "maєmo scho maєmo". And the effect of surprise is what. It is unlikely that NATO tankers in the 21st century will expect to run into a PTO position. No.
        1. badger1974
          badger1974 30 October 2013 01: 12
          +1
          NATO members will quench the sweetheart, but the dude with RPG-7 is a question, and 6 dudes with RPG-7 (there are variations with RPG-27), here the topic is clear, BUT PASARAN
          1. GastaClaus69
            GastaClaus69 30 October 2013 01: 52
            +2
            Yes, it is dumb and dumb. And it’s also clear that we have an RPG and ATGM throat left from the union + production of our ATGMs. But at the same time, in the combat units I saw more rapiers than the tag of the bassoons. Strugna adopted and apparently someone in the command thinks that this is enough and that it will directly increase our firepower at times. Looks like tank wedges are waiting for ala Guderian-Goth.
  11. chunga-changa
    chunga-changa 29 October 2013 17: 56
    +6
    Great review. Had the opportunity to observe the shooting at the firing range from Rapira and Octopus, the impression was amazing.
  12. Watchman
    Watchman 30 October 2013 00: 44
    +1
    In general, with the proliferation of anti-tank grenade launchers and missiles, the need for anti-tank artillery disappeared.
    1. badger1974
      badger1974 30 October 2013 01: 14
      0
      fl as 2-wait 2-va
    2. Lopatov
      Lopatov 30 October 2013 01: 52
      +2
      With the advent and spread of anti-tank systems. But not grenade launchers with children's range of use, even compared with the D-44
    3. GastaClaus69
      GastaClaus69 30 October 2013 13: 10
      +1
      Modern ATGM can be controlled from the cord while being out of danger, and this method is effective both in the city and in the field, you can’t say the same about the grenade launcher. In the field you need a goal to let the target too close to the current realities that would hit it from a grenade launcher (officers and sergeants, grenade launchers, machine gunners and doctors are the primary goal). In the city, the enemy’s armored vehicles will have the support of infantry, and even in closed rooms it is not so convenient to use a grenade launcher. Infantry needs portable ATGMs instead of grenade launchers. Have a range of at least a few kilometers, they will be several times more effective than grenade launchers.
  13. nnz226
    nnz226 30 October 2013 02: 32
    +2
    about the 100-mm cannon they write that she jumped, my father graduated from the 1st LAU in 1949 and fired from the ZiS-3, as she jumped! If the gunner did not take his head away from the sight when the trigger was pressed, then a half-face "blanche" was guaranteed. But I was delighted with the 85-mm gun. When fired, I stood exactly, the accuracy was excellent, at a distance of 1500 m, a cross was drawn on the target with chalk and a decent gunner put the projectile into this cross. They also fired at tanks (captured and Soviet) - there was always a guaranteed defeat at a distance of 1500 m and closer.
    1. Lopatov
      Lopatov 30 October 2013 11: 40
      +2
      Everyone is jumping. But, for example, MT-12 purely subjectively jumps less than T-12. Here the question is how much it was dug after the first shot (or dug before it), and the quality of the soil.
      I remember, before the first shooting at the school (traditionally direct fire and traditionally MT-1 and T-12), logs were put into the coulters' plows, secured with stakes, and buried. So that after the shot less interference gets lost, which means better results in time are obtained. But they jumped higher at the same time, so sitting on the bed, and even more so resting one’s head on the forehead of the sight, as advised from the senior courses, was not an option.
      When they fired from the D-44 and ZiS-3 from the closed fire, they didn’t bother anymore - the working time was going on there, cadets after all, the battery was not regular.
  14. svp67
    svp67 30 October 2013 10: 37
    +2
    Yes, it is a pity that some of us have begun to forget about the Great Patriotic War and the fact that this gun has "spoiled" more than one "skin" of "fascist panzers" ... well, and paid ... But the "allergy" of the "old woman" "to" foreign "equipment in our land ...
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Alex 241
      Alex 241 30 October 2013 11: 14
      +1
      In a regular schoolyard (Education Center No. 175), a memorial to the teachers and pupils of the school who died at the front is installed. On the wall of the school is a commemorative plaque with 42 names. In front of the memorial, a 57 mm ZIS-2 anti-tank gun of the 1941 model was installed in good condition and modern camouflage.
    3. Lopatov
      Lopatov 30 October 2013 11: 27
      +1
      This is a big cocoa. Especially anti-tank with the MT-12. In our OPTADN divisional barrel entered the gun commander. Sticking out in the middle hatch on MT-LB
  15. igor2
    igor2 24 November 2013 11: 30
    +6
    The main designer of the T-12 gun is Afanasyev Viktor Yakovlevich.

    He is currently 94 years old (!), He lives in the city of Kolomna, Moscow Region.
    He enjoyed reading this article!
    I asked to convey "thanks" to the author.
    1. Bongo
      24 November 2013 12: 21
      +2
      Thank you and glad that you liked it!
  16. vova1973
    vova1973 8 March 2014 13: 30
    +4
    Quote: Sveik
    T-12 and MT-12 are excellent guns. Huge sniper rifles.
    If new projectiles, more powerful and "smart" were developed for them, this artillery system would still be relevant for 15-20 years. Well, and "Brass knuckles" to her is generally a song, or the "Ruta" system

    Yes, they have great accuracy
  17. Denis fj
    Denis fj 6 September 2014 00: 13
    +1
    FOR MORE THESE SUCH WEAPONS WILL BE RELEASED !!! smile