The famous Russian admiral was born on November 20, 1803. No one in the Putyatin family ever doubted the future profession of a boy who grew up on stories about the sea among several generations of sailors. From the earliest years, Yefim had a dream about traveling, discovering new lands and sea exploits. The boy’s childhood passed in the Novgorod district, in the estate of Pshenichishte, which was the family estate of the Putyatins. At the age of thirteen, in the summer of 1818, a descendant of an ancient noble family and the son of a Novgorod landowner went to study at the Naval Cadet Corps, glorified by his grandfather, Major General and member of the Admiralty Board, Grigory Ivanovich Bukharin. With his diligence and industriousness, the midshipman who had a good command of foreign languages from childhood was easily given naval science. He passed the final exams in the spring of 1822 "excellent", showing the highest results in his graduation. In the first voyage, Putyatin set sail after receiving the rank of midshipman on March 1, 1822. Service in Russian navy he began on the thirty-two-gun frigate "Cruiser", which was to make a long voyage around the world. This ship, with a displacement of 650 tons (length thirty-six meters, width - nine), was launched in Arkhangelsk on May 18, 1821.
The young sailor was very lucky with the commander, his first mentor was the captain of the second rank, Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev, who was an outstanding navigator and naval commander of our country, as well as the discoverer of Antarctica. The upcoming round-the-world flight was the third for Mikhail Petrovich. The commander always very carefully and responsibly approached the issue of recruitment, putting the conscientiousness of seafarers and diligent attitude to their duties over the showy exterior gloss. And once having selected officers, he persistently forced them to improve.
The crew of the “Cruiser” could rightly be called heroic, because the best of the best were truly selected. Efim Putyatin’s comrades in the service were: Pavel Nakhimov, the future admiral and hero of the defense of Sevastopol, then serving as a midshipman, Lieutenant Mikhail Annenkov, who already had twelve maritime campaigns (including sailing on Mirniy to the Antarctic), midshipman Dmitry Irinarkhovich Zavalishin and Lieutenant Fyodor Gavrilovich Vishnevsky, who later became Decembrists. The future vice-admiral, one of the leaders of the Russian-American company, and then still lieutenant Ivan Antonovich Kupreyanov served in that team. All of them were students of Lazarev and, proud of this, they tried to be at least a bit like the commander in everything. And the sixteen-year-old midshipman Putyatin had all the more reason to learn from these experienced specialists and simply wonderful people. Many years later, Efim Vasilievich and other naval officers who served with Lazarev would create the so-called Lazarev school, marked by excellent knowledge of the marine sciences.
Having saluted Kronstadt, 17 of August 1822 of the year, the cruiser “Cruiser” accompanied by the sloop “Ladoga” - a transport vessel on which all necessary things and products were loaded, left its native coast and set off on a three-year journey. In this campaign, Mikhail Petrovich’s elder brother, Lieutenant Commander Andrei Petrovich Lazarev, was appointed commander. The vessel headed for the west, safely survived a storm in the Baltic and, following the English Channel, sailed into the Atlantic. In mid-December, the ships passed the Canary Islands, and soon the equator was overcome. This event according to the old maritime tradition celebrated the holiday of Neptune.
In Rio de Janeiro, or rather in the Bay of Guanabara, a frigate with Russian sailors arrived on January 25 of the 1823 year. After seeing the Brazilian capital and visiting the palace of the emperor, as well as the house of the Consul General of Russia Langsdorf, the sailors were extremely interested in the orders of this country. At that time, Brazil had already declared its independence, without abolishing the slavery system. There was no limit to the outrage of Russian sailors when on the streets of the city they met half-nagged, chained and branded Negro slaves. For example, Zavalishin wrote to his relatives: “It excites irritation and insult to the human sense .... When you see a non-slave animal reduced to the level of an animal, right, you no longer think of scientific interest, you feel only longing and deep sorrow. ”
After departing from Brazil, the captain decided not to go past Cape Horn, but through Africa and Australia, hoping to avoid storms raging at this time. But near the Cape of Good Hope the court, despite the precautions taken, fell into a violent storm. Two weeks of hurricane wind seemed to test the strength of the Cruiser. People were exhausted, but with dignity passed this difficult exam. Even being in an extreme situation, the team participated daily in the exercises conducted by the commander, who was very pleased with the coordinated work of his subordinates. He wrote that the midshipmen Nakhimov, Zavalishin and Putyatin coped with the sailor’s work they were not used to just as well as any other experienced crew member. Young officers quickly and accurately performed all the necessary operations, showing high training. At the same time, the commander taught them responsibility not only for their own miscalculations, but also for the mistakes of the people entrusted to them, which later greatly helped the mariners. In this campaign, each of them went through a difficult but necessary school of survival in a team. In addition, deprivation and hardships were generously rewarded: for the round-the-world voyage in September 1825 of the year midshipman Putyatin was awarded not only an order, but also a double salary.
And in the spring of 1826, Putyatin was appointed a midshipman to the team of one of the best domestic ships of that time - the 74-gun gun sailing ship Azov. His commander was again Mikhail Lazarev. The ship had just descended from the stocks of the Arkhangelsk shipyard and had to go to Kronstadt. Lieutenant Pavel Nakhimov, as well as midshipman Vladimir Istomin and midshipman Vladimir Kornilov, were again in the same team with Yefim, who would later become heroes of the defense of Sevastopol.
After a difficult transition to the "Azov" in Kronstadt at the beginning of 1827 year Putyatin on the same vessel, which entered the squadron under the command of Dmitry Nikolaevich Senyavin, headed for the Mediterranean. It was there that October 8 midshipman participated in the Battle of Navarino, and for bravery and courage in battle was awarded the Order of St. Vladimir of the fourth degree. In 1828, Efim Vasilyevich was fired as a lieutenant, and before 1830, he served on the cruiser Azov. Putyatin took an active part in the blockade of the Dardanelles and Constantinople (during the Russian-Turkish war of the 1828-1829-s). Upon returning to Kronstadt, for eighteen naval campaigns, the lieutenant was awarded the Order of Saint George of the fourth degree, and in the 1831 year, the young officer was appointed commander of the brig Diomed, which flies to Baltic from Kronstadt to Danzig.
According to the recommendations of Vice-Admiral Lazarev Efim Putyatin, as an experienced sailor, they transferred to the Black Sea in 1833-em, where he took the post of special assignment officer at the fleet commander. On the flagship "Memory of Eustache" he conducted a detailed description of the coast and depth measurements along the Bosphorus and Dardanelles. For his excellent assignment, Putyatin was awarded the Order of St. Stanislav of the third degree and the Turkish gold medal.
After being awarded the rank of lieutenant commander in 1834, Efim Vasilyevich was appointed to command the Ivigenia corvette, which flew near Greece and in the Black Sea. In December of the same year, returning to Sevastopol, Putyatin received a three-month vacation, taking it on a trip to his homeland, in the Novgorod province. Upon his return, he began training young midshipmen who were trained on the Putyatin ship during the navigation period of 1836. There is evidence that, showing perseverance and patience in the preparation of future sailors, Efim Vasilyevich was at the same time rather power-loving, quite capricious and stubborn. These qualities did not decorate the commander, managing not only the ship, but also the fate of future officers. But talent and experience outweighed the cup, and therefore, in flaws in the difficult character of Putyatin, neither in these years, nor in his subsequent colleagues did they try not to pay attention.
From 1837 to 1839, the captain of the second rank Putyatin was the commander of the frigate “Agatopol” and the steamer “North Star”, and later headed the crew of the battleship “Silistria”. At that time, the ship was cruising along the shores of Abkhazia, where Yefim Vasilyevich took part in hostilities against the Highlanders on the coast of the Caucasus, storming Cape Adler and taking the cities of Tuapse and Shapsuho. 5 May 1839-year during ongoing amphibious operations near Subashi and Shah, when Putyatin was entrusted to command the naval battalion in the squad under the leadership of Lieutenant-General Rayevsky, the captain was wounded in the leg, but did not leave the battle. For his courage and determination, he was awarded the Order of St. Anna of the second degree and promoted to captain of the first rank.
After being injured, the officer needed to undergo a course of treatment and recovery, so in 1840, he temporarily left the service and went to travel around England. At the same time, he was assigned the task of purchasing steamboats for the Russian Black Sea Fleet. Upon returning home, Efim Vasilyevich re-occupied the post of naval officer performing special missions of the Fleet General Staff. But in this position, he worked for a very short time, because on June 1 of 1841, he was baptized as a diplomat. On that day, Russia, largely thanks to Putyatin’s efforts and talents, concluded a trade agreement with China that was beneficial for the Russians, according to which the seaports of this country were now open to our ships.
In the same year, Yefim Vasilyevich was sent to the Caspian Sea in order to lead negotiations with the Iranian government. And here Putyatin again showed his best side. After meeting with Mohammed Shah, he achieved the complete abolition of the previously existing restrictions on trade between Iran and Russia in the Caspian Sea. In addition, measures were taken to delineate fishing places, to establish a permanent steamship connection between Iran, the Caucasus and the mouth of the Volga. And in the Gulf of Astrabad, the first “military station” was laid, which put an end to piracy, which the Turkmen were engaged in in this region. Motherland appreciated the contribution of the diplomat - for success in the negotiations, Efim Vasilyevich was promoted to the rank of Rear Admiral of the Navy Ministry. In this case, the Shah of Persia personally awarded him the Order of Leo and the Sun with a star of the second degree.
Performing ministerial work, in 1848, Putyatin was involved in drafting a provision on shipbuilding in Russia. To address this issue, he studied in detail how the shipbuilding business was established in Egypt, Turkey, Holland and England. During one of his business trips to Britain, Nicholas I laid upon him an honorary mission to select and order a steamer for the royal court. Responsibility, professionalism and efficiency of Putyatin, of course, did not go unnoticed by the emperor, and in 1846-th year he was “granted” to the imperial retinue with the simultaneous conferment of the rank of adjutant-general and awarding the Order of St. Stanislaus with the Greek Order of the first degree.
In the 1843 year, Yefim Putyatin developed a plan for an expedition to explore the eastern maritime borders of Japan and China. In a note to the sovereign, he wrote: “... until now we only know that there is not a single trustworthy port along the entire length of the eastern shore. ... expeditions need to inspect and describe the marked coast. With the navigation of ships can be connected and a new attempt to open ties with Japan. " This plan, like many others like it, was rejected by Nicholas I, thanks to the efforts of the Special Committee. Looking ahead, it is worth noting that they returned to this proposal ten years later. And in the 1849 year, Efim Vasilyevich married the daughter of English admiral Charles Nouls, which was an extraordinary and significant event. His wife at Orthodox baptism received the name of Maria Vasilyevna.
From 1852 to 1855, Efim Vasilyevich headed one of the most difficult diplomatic missions to Japan at that time. His secretary in this position was the writer Ivan Goncharov. In December, 1853-go Putyatin arrived in Nagasaki on the Pallas ship, where negotiations were started with the inhabitants of the Land of the Rising Sun. After making sure that his mission was delayed, the diplomat was forced to go to Manila and then to Korea, making an inventory of the eastern shores of Primorye along the way and collecting data for the ships. Under the leadership of Putyatin, the ship's team discovered the bays of Olga, Posyet and the island of Rimsky-Korsakov. 11 July 1854, the frigate Diana reached the Far East, on which Putiatin went back to Japan to continue negotiations, which became particularly relevant due to the start of the Eastern War.
The dialogue resumed on December 22 in Shimoda, but the very next day it was again suspended due to the devastating earthquake that caused the tsunami. Of the thousand houses of the city, only sixty remained. The frigate "Diana" sank, and its crew, having lost three people, was forced to move to the shore, where he organized active assistance to the local population. In many respects, precisely due to the courage and self-sacrifice of the Russian sailors, who showed up during the rescue of local residents, the attitude towards Russia among the Japanese changed dramatically.
At Putyatin’s request, his people were given all the necessary materials and provided the necessary number of workers to build a new ship. The Japanese received the first experience of building Western-style ships. The schooner was called Head, it was completed on 14 on April 1855, and on April 26, after signing a trade agreement with Japan, known as the Simodsk treatise, Putiatin went home. Once again, the emperor appraised Efim Vasilyevich's merits very generously, for the diplomat not only received the Order of the White Eagle and the “royal favor”, but was elevated to the count's dignity, inherited.
From December 1856, Efim Vasilievich worked for a short time as the head of the Governor-General of Kronstadt, and a year later he was again sent to the Far East to hold regular talks with China that ended on July 12 with the signing of the Tianjin Treaty. By the way, he managed to get to the territory of this country only as a part of the Anglo-French delegation. But under the new treaty, the Russian missionaries now had the right of free access to the Chinese regions.
Immediately after completing the mission in China, Putyatin set off for the frigate Askold to Japan, where on August 7 of 1858, with his direct participation in Edo, a Russian-Japanese trade agreement was in force up to and including 1895. In accordance with the new document, Russia was given permission to have a permanent diplomatic representative at the court of the shogun with the right of free movement on the territory of this country. In addition to Nagasaki and Hakodate, several more convenient ports in the Kanagawa and Honshu area were now opened for the entry of Russian ships. In addition, the diplomat managed to obtain permission to have Russian consuls in all ports open to Russia. The Japanese representatives were sympathetic to the restrained, tactful and respectful manner of communication of the Russian official, which favorably differed from the arrogant and defiant behavior of the British Lord Elgin, who arrived in Japan accompanied by three warships.
On August 8, immediately after a personal audience with the new shooter Izmoti, the Russian diplomat left Japan, and the new tsar was ratified by the Russian Tsar on August 20. For high achievements in the negotiation process, on return to St. Petersburg 26, August, Putiatin received the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky and the rank of admiral. In addition, for participation in various geographical research and a huge contribution to the development of Russian sciences, the Russian Geographical Society elected Yefim Vasilyevich as its honorary member. This was followed by the appointment of a naval attache in London, in which Putyatin worked until 1861.
While abroad, a versatile researcher published a book on how to transform maritime educational institutions and create new type of gymnasiums. His interest in education led to the fact that on July 2 of the year Putyatin was appointed Minister of Education for 1861. However, the interests of an experienced sailor, researcher and geographer were so far from the work of an ordinary official that all his attempts to fit into this area of activity were very unsuccessful. He carried out a number of reforms in the field of higher education, in particular, he introduced matricules (that is, test books), compulsory attendance at classes and tuition fees. The last two innovations painfully hit the raznochinnoy youth. Also, being a very religious person, Yefim Putyatin decided to fully transfer the initial training to the jurisdiction of the church. But the biggest resonance was a circular issued by 21 on July 1861, prohibiting any student meetings. Students, who learned about these innovations at the beginning of the school year, responded with riots. In Kazan and Petersburg, clashes with police occurred. After the student unrest at Russian universities showed the failure of the newly minted minister, 21 December 1861 of the year Putyatin resigned.
Respecting the merits of the diplomat and scientist, the Russian sovereign in subsequent years entrusted Efim Vasilyevich with the performance of responsible, but absolutely burdensome, duties. During this period, the navigator served as a member of the State Council, and also worked in various societies and commissions, where he was not only a member, but also the chairman. In particular, he led a special committee for the construction of the Obukhov arms factory at sea. In 1872, Efim Vasilievich became a full holder of the Order of St. Vladimir, and soon the Japanese government honored him, as one of the first foreign citizens, with his honorary award, the Order of the Rising Sun of the first degree.
After the death of his wife at the end of 1879, Putyatin went to live in France, where 28 passed away on October 1883. Five months before his death in Paris, the admiral received his last highest award — the Order of St. Andrew the First Called. According to the testament left, the body of Efim Vasilyevich was delivered to Kiev and buried on the ground of November 1 in the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra. From marriage with the daughter of English admiral Maria Vasilyevna Knows Putiatina had three sons and three daughters. One of the sons Augustine was a lieutenant of the Preobrazhensky regiment and died in the 1877 year.
As evidence of the recognition of the enormous contribution of the talented admiral to the development of our country, a cape on the shore of the Bering Sea and an island located in Peter the Great Bay were named after Putyatin. The name of the seafarer and the diplomat was carried by two ships of the navy in the Far East, and in addition to the bust of Putyatin in Novoaleksandrovsk, monuments to him were erected in the cities of Fuji (Honshu Island), Hade and Shimoda. It is interesting to note that Efim Vasilievich is the most revered Russian in Japan historical personality. In Kronstadt there is a stele dedicated to the Diana campaign, with inscriptions in Russian and Japanese. The most important events that occurred during the journey of Yefim Vasilievich to Japan are described in detail in the books of the writer Nikolai Zadornov “Shimoda”, “Head”, “Tsunami” and “Hong Kong”.