At present, the IBMP is one of the most authoritative and internationally recognized research centers, covering all the key problems of modern medicine, physiology and biology of space flights of various durations. IBMP was established on the basis of the Decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers on October 28 1963 and the order of the Minister of Health of the USSR on November 4 1963 as the country's leading institution for space biology and medicine. The initiative to create an IMBP belonged to an outstanding scientist: the creator of the spacecraft, the general designer S.P. The Queen and the President of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR MV Keldysh, with the active participation of the Deputy Minister of Health of the USSR A.I. Burnazyan. In 1994, the institute was granted the status of the State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation, and from 2000 it is in the system of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Over the years 50, the fruitful work of IBMP has made a significant contribution to the development of new areas of knowledge - space medicine and biology, gravitational biology and physiology. In cooperation with academic, medical, technical organizations of various departments and universities and with extensive international cooperation, the tasks necessary for manned cosmonautics in medicine and related fields: biology, physiology, psychophysiology, habitability and life support systems, radiation safety and a number of other problems were successfully solved. . This progress was largely ensured by the successful implementation by the Institute of programs for biomedical research on manned spacecraft and orbital stations, unmanned satellites (Cosmos, Bion, Bion-M, Foton, etc.) and in ground-based model experiments involving human and various biological objects (cells, tissues, insects, plants, animals).
Based on numerous studies and own developments of IMBP, together with leading clinical centers of the country and the Federal State Budgetary Institution "Scientific Research Testing Center for Cosmonaut Training Yu.A. Gagarin ”(NII TsPK), managed to create a unique system of medical selection and examination of astronauts for flights of various duration, the effectiveness of which has been proven by many years of practice. According to this system, medical selection and periodic examination of not only cosmonauts and cosmonaut candidates, but also volunteer testers is carried out to participate in special ground-based trials and research on various aspects of space and extreme medicine. In addition, a medical examination is carried out of persons wishing to perform a space flight as a tourist.
The prevention system developed by the IBMP staff together with the Institute’s specialists aviation and space medicine, the Institute of Biophysics, NPO Zvezda, and the Research Institute of the CPC is represented by a set of tools and methods that prevent the development of adverse changes in the body, as well as ensuring the maintenance of a healthy and adequate level of performance of astronauts. Currently, it is based on the creation of a new generation of preventive measures system, which is aimed at ensuring the activities of astronauts during long and ultra-long (orbital and interplanetary) flights. An important step in this direction was the implementation of the unique Mars-500 project on modeling a manned flight to the red planet, conducted under the auspices of Roscosmos and the Russian Academy of Sciences with wide international participation.
The Institute has developed special airborne tools and methods for providing medical care in case of a wide range of possible diseases and injuries in flight. Before and during the flight, tools and methods are widely used to prevent adverse effects of space flight on the body. Equipment has been developed for equipping life support systems and biomedical research equipment necessary for space flight operations. They were made (at the Special Design Bureau of Experimental Equipment at IBMP) and put on the ISS an exercise bike, a treadmill and a set of equipment for exercise on board the station.