Military Review

Russian beauties and Domostroy


In foreign historical In his writings, there was a steady cliche about the miserable fate of women in pre-Petrine Russia. However, domestic liberal authors also worked hard on creating this stamp. Kostomarov lamented that "the Russian woman was a constant slave from birth to the grave." They kept her locked up, husbands beat their wives with whips, rods, clubs. What are these statements based on? It turns out that there are not so many sources. One of them is an Austrian diplomat of the XNUMXth century. Herberstein. His mission to Moscow failed, and he left evil and caustic memories of our country (even the Jesuit Possevino, after visiting Russia, noted that Herberstein had lied a lot). Among other negative things, he described that Russian women are constantly locked up, “spinning and twisting threads,” and they are not allowed to do anything else.

But the most famous document on which evidence is built is Domostroy. The name of this popular book of the XVI century even became abusive, it was placed somewhere near the “Black Hundreds” and “obscurantism”. Although in reality “Domostroy” is a complete and quite good encyclopedia of economic life. This was typical of all medieval literature, books were expensive, and the buyer wanted one book to contain “everything” in a particular area of ​​knowledge. “Domostroy” is precisely an attempt to unite “everything”. How to pray, how to maintain a house, how to build relationships between family members, owners and employees, how to receive guests, care for livestock, how to harvest fish, mushrooms, cabbage, how to make kvass, honey, beer, recipes of hundreds of dishes. And all this is united by the concept of “home” as a single organism. A healthy body - will live well, it is amiss in the house - things will go awry.

But according to various works - scientific, publicistic, artistic, the same quotation from Domostroi roams: “But the husband will see that his wife is in disarray ... and for disobedience ... after taking off his shirt and rug, politely beat him, holding his hands, looking to his fault ". It would seem that everything is clear here! What a barbarity! Cruelty is not only allowed, but prescribed, put into mandatory practice! Stop ... Do not rush to draw conclusions. In fact, we have one of the most arrogant examples of historical falsification. The text is indeed pulled out of the Domostroi, but ... pay attention to the dots. They are not missing individual words. Skipped a few paragraphs!

Take the original text of “Domostroi” and see what is torn off by the first ellipsis: “But the husband will see that his wife has a disorder and servants, he would be able to instruct his wife and teach with useful advice.” Do you think the same meaning is preserved in the original and in the quotation? Or was it corrupted beyond recognition? As for the teachings on flogging, they do not refer to the wife at all: “But if the servant does not heed the word of his wife or son or daughter, and does not do what his husband, father or mother teach him, then he will whip him with a whip, looking.” And it explains how to punish servants: “When you punish with the scourge, beat it carefully, and it is reasonable, and painful, and scary, and great if the guilt is great. For disobedience or negligence, taking off a shirt, to fasten with a lash, holding hands and looking at fault… ”

I don’t argue here, rightly or wrongly, to flog a servant if he, suppose, steals (maybe it would be more correct to send him to the gallows right away, as they did in England?) I just want to note that there was an obvious juggling of wives. Writers and journalists who copy a quote with ellipsis from each other may not know this. But really, the nineteenth-century historians did not read the full text of Domostroi. who launched the crippled quote? Could not read. Therefore, committed a forgery intentionally. By the way, some translators also allow additional falsifications. For example, instead of “taking off a shirt”, as in the original, they write “with a shirt up” - to stick a quote to a woman, not a man. And the reader will not notice, swallow! Does anyone really study the original text in Church Slavonic and compare it with the translation?
By the way, true relations between husbands and wives, or between lovers, adopted in Russia, are not difficult to see from other sources. There are plenty of them. Listen to folk songs, read epics. Or "The Tale of St. Petre and Fevronia ”- it was written in the same years as Domostroy. Where do you find cruelty, rudeness, barbarism? Of course, the love of the holy patrons of family and marriage, or the love of fabulous, epic heroes, was the ideal. But this was the ideal that our ancestors were striving for and pursuing.

And Russian women have never been clogged and timid. You can recall at least a talented ruler of a vast state of St.. Equal-to-the-Apostles Grand Duchess Olga. We can also recall the daughter of Yaroslav the Wise, Anna, who was married to the French king Henry I. She was in France the most educated person, fluent in several languages. Documents have been preserved where her accurate signature in Latin stands out, and next to the cross is the “signature” of an illiterate husband. It was Anna who, for the first time in France, introduced secular receptions into the custom, and began to go hunting with the ladies. Before her, the French stayed home, for hoops or idle chatter with the servants.

Russian princesses manifested themselves in the role of queens of Scandinavian countries, Hungary, Poland. The granddaughter of Vladimir Monomakh Dobrodeya-Eupraxia struck even Byzantium with its scholarship - the most cultured country of that era. She was a great doctor, knew how to heal with herbs, wrote medical writings. Her treatise “Alimma” (“Masi”) has been preserved. For its time, the princess had the deepest knowledge. The book contains sections on the general hygiene of a person, the hygiene of marriage, pregnancy, child care, nutrition, diet, external and internal diseases, recommendations for treatment with ointments, massage techniques. Surely Dobrodeya-Eupraxia was not the only such specialist. At home, she had mentors, mentors had other female students.

When humiliating Russians and watering them with slander, foreign authors for some reason do not pay attention to their own past. After all, ideas about the western gallant attitude towards women formed only in the XIX century. from the artistic novels of Dumas, Walter Scott, etc. In reality, the “knightly” was not enough. Luther taught that "a wife must work tirelessly for her husband, obey him in everything." In the popular book “About Evil Women” it was stated that “the donkey, the woman and the nut need to be hit”. The famous German poet Reimer von Tsvetten recommended to the men "to take a baton and stretch the wife along the back, more firmly, with all his might, so that she could feel her master." A British writer Swift argued that the female sex is a cross between a man and a monkey.

In France, Italy, Germany, even the nobility frankly, for money, sold beautiful daughters to kings, princes, aristocrats. Such transactions were considered not shameful, but extremely profitable. After all, the lover of a high-ranking official opened the way to a career and enrichment for her relatives, she was showered with gifts. But they could easily donate to another owner, resell, play cards, beat them. The English king Henry VIII in fits of bad mood beat the favorites so that they “went out of business” for several weeks. Two annoying wives sent to the block. And the commoners of the norms of gallantry did not apply at all. They were treated as if they were to be used. By the way, Kostomarov, condemning domestic customs, referred to a certain Italian - who himself killed a Russian woman to death, which he boasted abroad. But is this a testimony about the morals of the Russians? Rather, about the morals of the Italians.

In Russia, a woman enjoyed much greater freedoms than is commonly believed. The law protected her rights. Insulting women was punished with twice as much fines as insulting men. They rightfully owned movable and immovable property, they themselves disposed of their own dowry. Widows managed the household with minor children. If there were no sons in the family, the heirs were the daughters. Women made deals, sued. Among them were many literate, Novgorodian birch bark notes exchanged even commoners. In Kievan Rus, there were special schools for girls. And in the XVII century. The notorious protopop Avvakum angrily attacked a certain girl Evdokia, who began to study grammar and rhetoric.

But the Russian fair sex knew how to own weapons. There are repeated mentions of how they defended the walls of cities along with men. They even took part in judging fights. In general, in such cases it was allowed to hire a fighter instead of himself, but the Pskov Judicial Charter stipulated: “But donate a field with a jerk, and not accept a hiring from a junk from either side”. If you awarded a duel to a woman with a man - please expose a mercenary, and if with a woman - it is impossible. Wear the armor yourself, go horse-drawn or on foot, take swords, spears, axes and chop as much as you like. Obviously, the law had a tricky background. Two women will quarrel, pay fighters, and one of them will die or be crippled because of a trifling quarrel. And they themselves will not risk taking trifles, make up.

Well, now let's try to deal with the "generally accepted" evidence of the home imprisonment of Russian women. In the era of Moscow Russia 90% of the population were peasants. Think about it - could they keep their wives under lock and key? And who will work in the field, in the garden, care for cattle? This concept is clearly not compatible with peasant women. Maybe locked up kept only the townspeople? No, again does not converge. In addition to the mentioned Herberstein, dozens of foreigners left our memories of our country, who visited it at different times. They describe crowds of women interspersed with men at various festivals, celebrations, and worship services. They talk about the saleswomen and customers who were overfilling the bazaars. Cech Tanner noted: “Everyone, in particular, will look at the goods or trade of the Muscovite girls who are flocking there. Whether they carry linen, threads, shirts or rings for sale, whether they are crowded with nothing to do, they raise such a cry that a newcomer, perhaps, will think whether the city is on fire. ”

Muscovites worked in the workshops, in the shops, hundreds of them washed clothes near the bridges across the Moscow River. Bathing at the water blessing was described - many women plunged into the ice holes along with men, this sight has always attracted foreigners. Almost all foreign guests who came to our country considered it their duty to describe Russian baths. In Europe, they were not there, the baths were considered exotic, so they climbed there to take a look at undressed women. I excitedly retold to my readers how they, steamed, jumped out into the snow or into the river. But ... what about the retreat?

It remains to assume that only noblewomen were sitting in home confinement ... No. They just had no time to be cool! In those days, the nobles left for service every year. Sometimes from spring to late autumn, sometimes missing for several years. And who led the estates in their absence? Wives, mothers. The proof may be, for example, “The Tale of Julian Osorina,” written in the seventeenth century. son of the heroine. He told how his father served in Astrakhan, and his mother kept the household. The court physician Collins described the family steward Miloslavsky, who served in the Pushkarsky order. He reported that they lived very poorly, and Mary Miloslavsky’s daughter, the future queen, was forced to pick mushrooms in the forest and sell them at the market.

As for the representatives of the highest nobility, princesses and boyar, they, too, were engaged in the management of their husbands, estates and crafts. They did not stay away from political, spiritual life. Marfa Boretskaya actually headed the Novgorod government. Morozova ran the schismatic opposition. But most of the boyars themselves were listed in the court service. They were in charge of the king’s wardrobe, occupied important posts of mothers and nannies of the sovereign children. And the queen had her own large courtyard. She served as boyars, noblewomen, the staff consisted of clerks, Russian and foreign doctors, teachers of children.

The wives of the sovereigns were in charge of palace villages and volosts, received reports from managers, considered revenues. They had their own property, land, industrial enterprises. Collins wrote that under Alexey Mikhailovich, his wife Maria, seven versts from Moscow, built hemp and flax processing factories. They are “in great order, very extensive and will deliver work to all the poor in the state.” The queen was widely engaged in charity, had the right to pardon the criminals. Often they themselves, without their husbands, went to monasteries and temples, to pilgrimages. They were accompanied by a retinue from 5-6 Thousands of noble ladies.

Margaret and Güldenstern noted that during the trip to the Trinity-Sergius monastery the queen was driven by “many women”, and “they were riding horses like men”. The fact that the boyars often rode, writes and Fletcher. Come on, try to ride in the saddle from Moscow to Sergiev Posad after indoor sit-back! What will happen to you? It turns out that noble ladies trained somewhere, rode horses. Obviously, in their villages. And if during the period of residence in the capital, the boyars' daughters or wives spent most of their time in their own courtyard, then it is necessary to take into account what the boyar's courtyards were! These were whole towns, their population consisted of 3-4 thousand people servants and servants. They spread their gardens, ponds, baths, dozens of buildings. You must agree that hanging out in such a yard is not tantamount to dreary imprisonment in the “Terem”.
However, the mention of Herberstein, that Russian women “spin and twist threads,” is to some extent close to the truth. Each girl studied needlework. A peasant woman or an artisan's wife has sheared the family. But the wives and daughters of the nobility, of course, poured not over the round ports and shirts. Some samples of their work have reached us - magnificent embroidery. Basically, they were made for the church. Shroud, shroud, veil, air, banners, even the whole embroidered iconostasis. So what do we see? Women are engaged in complex economic issues, in their free time they create works of the highest art - and this is called enslavement?

Some restrictions did exist. In Russia, balls and feasts with the participation of women were not taken. The owner in the form of a special honor could present the guests to her husband. She will come out, bring them a glass and leave. On holidays, weddings, women gathered in a separate room - men in another. Domostroy did not recommend heady drinks for the “beautiful half” at all. But foreigners, who happened to communicate closely with Russian ladies, admired their upbringing and manners.

The German Ayrman described that they appeared before the guests “with very serious faces, but not dissatisfied or sour, but united with friendliness; and you will never see such a lady laughing, and even less with the cutesy and ridiculous grimaces that women of our countries try to show their secular pleasantness. They do not change their facial expressions either by jerking their heads, or by biting their lips or rolling their eyes, as German women do. They do not rush like wandering lights, but constantly maintain their degree, and if they want to greet or thank someone, they straighten out in an elegant way and slowly apply their right hand on the left breast to the heart and immediately lower it seriously and slowly, so that both hands hang down on both sides of the body and just as ceremoniously return to the previous position. As a result, they give the impression of noble personalities. ”

Our distant great-great-grandmothers loved and knew how to dress up. Sewed comfortable and beautiful sundresses, Letniki, fur coats, hats with fur. All this was decorated with intricate designs, festive costumes - pearls, beads. Fashionable women flaunted shoes in very high heels, adopted the custom of painting nails from tatars - by the way, both in the West were new, described as curiosities. Russian jewelers made amazing earrings, bracelets, necklaces. Ayrman noted: “According to their custom, beyond their measure, they adorn themselves with pearls and jewels, which they constantly hang from their ears on gold rings, and they also wear precious rings on their fingers.” The girls made sophisticated sophisticated hairstyles - they even wove pearls and golden threads into braids, decorated them with silk tassels.

Yes, and morals in general, were quite free. As in all times, women were drawn to joy and fun. They loved to dance and swing on a swing. The girls were going with the guys behind the outskirts to circle in round dances, to sing funky chastooshkas, to frolic in young games, in the winter to go skating, on sledges from the mountain. Every holiday had its own customs. On Dormition - “dozhinki”, on Christmas day - carols, on Maslenitsa - pancakes, storming of snowy fortresses, while brides with brides and young spouses famously raced on threes. As in all times, people wanted family happiness. In Ustyug, in 1630, a set of 150 girls was announced who wanted to go to Siberia “for marriage” - there were not enough wives for Cossacks and archers. The required amount was typed instantly, drove through the whole of Russia!

However, the Russian women were not alien to ordinary female weaknesses, as without it? For example, during the next fire in Moscow, they began to find out the reason - it turned out that the widow Ulyana Ivanova left the stove unpayed, went out for a minute to her neighbor, the clerk Timothy Golosov, and sat up, chatted away. Chesa language, until they shouted that her house is blazing. Perhaps this widow could live in any country and in any era.

Olearius describes the case in Astrakhan. The Germans here also thought up to look at the Russian bathers, went for a walk to the baths. Four girls jumped out of the steam room and splashing in the Volga. The German soldier decided to plunge with them. They began to splash as a joke, but one went too deep, began to sink. Girlfriends appealed to the soldier, he pulled pullet. All four stuck around a German, showered with kisses of gratitude. Something is not too similar to the "attachment". Obviously, the girls themselves played out an “accident” in order to get to know each other better.

Ambassador Foscarino boasted how several Moscow women appeared in the arms of the Italians - out of curiosity, they wanted to compare them with their compatriots. Olearius and Tanner mentioned that there were girls of easy virtue in Moscow. They lounged around the frontal place under the guise of canvas saleswomen, but designated themselves with a ring with turquoise in their lips. It is very convenient - if an outfit of archers appears, hide the ring in the mouth. Although the general indulgence, as in France or Italy, it did not reach. Moreover, the situation was largely paradoxical. Medieval draconian laws persisted in most European countries, the death penalty was relied on fornication. But nobody remembered these laws, debauchery flourished openly. In Russia, there were no such laws. Only the Church was concerned with moral issues. But moral standards remained much stronger than in the West.

Of course, not every family reigned "advice and love." Sometimes adultery occurred - it was a sin, and the confessors appointed penance, penance. But if the husband offended her spouse, she could also find protection in the church - the priest will figure it out, he will educate the head of the family. In such cases, the “world” also intervened - the village, suburban, craft community. And the communities in Russia were strong, they could turn to the authorities, the governors, to the tsar himself. We got, for example, a public complaint about Posad Korob, who “drinks and bastards ugly, plays games and plays cards, beats his wife and tortures not according to the law ...” The community asked to be bullied or evicted altogether.

Yes, and Russian women themselves were not at all defenseless greenhouse creatures, able to stand up for themselves. In the folk “Parable of the old husband and young girl” (XVII century), a rich noblewoman wooses a beautiful woman against her will — she forces her parents to marry. But the girl in advance lists the arsenal of means with which to torment him - from treating with dry crusts and undercooked mussels to beatings “along a wooded erythema, an unbroken bottom, a greedy neck, bream leeches, and pike teeth”. Indeed, it also happened that it was not the wife who suffered from her husband, but her husband was getting it from his wife. So, the nobleman Nikifor Skoryatin twice addressed the Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich himself! He complained that Pelagia’s wife beat him, dragged him by the beard and threatened him with an ax. Asked to protect or allow a divorce.

Of course, I cite this example not as a positive one and not as an excuse for squabbled women. But he also confirms how untenable is the “generally accepted” stereotype about slaughtered and unfortunate Russian women who have been sitting behind locked doors and moaning from beatings all their lives.
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  1. zeksus
    zeksus 26 October 2013 08: 58
    “In foreign historical works, a stable stamp has been formed about the miserable fate of women in pre-Petrine Rus. However, domestic liberal authors have also worked hard to create this stamp. Kostomarov” - The West is always barking at us trying to convince the whole world of its rule !!!!! And our liberals are actively helping them in this !!! I believe that liberals in our country are simply the fifth column !!!!!
    1. Pinochet000
      Pinochet000 26 October 2013 11: 23
      Yes FSUs are already on liberals, the time is different, the Russian people wake up faster ... Slaughtered Russian Women? Bullshit, we remember, we see with our own eyes, our women are the best in the world!
      1. Ascetic
        Ascetic 26 October 2013 12: 33
        Quote: Pinochet000
        Slaughtered Russian Women? Bullshit, we remember, we see with our own eyes, our women are the best in the world!

        Liberal freedoms and the pursuit of civilized happiness blew up the heads of Russian women. So they were looking for happiness in the embrace of immigrants from the East or civilized princes in the West. The first, behind the outer veneer of sugary courtship, hid outright sadism, which the most rabid Russian peasant housebuilder never dreamed of. And the latter quickly realized that in marriage with Danes and other different Swedes, they are completely powerless creatures whose juvenile justice can deprive a child and push him back into the "wild rashka". At home, glamor, ViAgra, family planning, surrogate motherhood, brainless ruble dolls and "stars" as an ideal, and supposedly "degenerate Russian men" about whom pro-Western propaganda persistently broadcasts to them. A marriage contract instead of love. And in Russian history, they were downtrodden and deprived of rights. Look how much has fallen on our wives, daughters and girlfriends, they cannot cope with this alone without us men, It's hard for them, they just need to LOVE, with which there are also problems lately, and the main thing is to believe in them, how they believed and loved them grandmothers who, after going through the war, gave birth to the next generation in conditions of total devastation, which they themselves liquidated in the intervals between feeding the babies, and did not grumble about their bitter fate. You just need to look at their faces in family photos more often, and then all doubts about the downtroddenness of Russian women will immediately disappear.
        1. OffenroR
          OffenroR 28 October 2013 00: 03
          In the article:
          “Lubo, in particular, look at the goods or trade flocking there Muscovites.

          What other "Muscovites"? I thought Muscovites live in Moscow ...
    2. Horde
      Horde 26 October 2013 11: 41
      It seems that there is no smoke without fire, the retreat of Russian women most likely took place, but it concerned more girls than married women. In those days, the basis of society was ROD. Therefore, a man must be XNUMX% sure of his children. And this could be done only in one way BANING an unmarried girl, as well as a YOUNG WIFE, away from people's eyes, often often excessively frank and envious.
      1. Pinochet000
        Pinochet000 26 October 2013 11: 52
        Quote: Horde
        that there is no smoke without fire
        It is possible, but on the other hand, in Russian ideology it is impossible to force a person (sin), even the prisoners were treated completely humanly ... Now it is accurate to say that it is not possible, but you can project on yourself, your experience ... only genes. And in my opinion one attitude.
        1. Horde
          Horde 26 October 2013 12: 00
          Quote: Pinochet000
          It is possible, but on the other hand, in Russian ideology it is impossible to force a person (sin), even the prisoners were treated completely humanly ... Now it is accurate to say that it is not possible, but you can project on yourself, your experience ... only genes. And in my opinion one attitude.

          any philologist will tell you that between the words
          there is a direct family relationship
          To what extent were Russian women imprisoned? Now it is already difficult to answer such a question.
          But it seems that the way of life of the women of the East now in some way very strongly coincides with that which was in Russia at DOMOSTROE. Moreover, if you ask the eastern women, - "Do they consider themselves in any way infringed?" many will say no; they will tell you that they live in a free and dignified society.
          1. Pinochet000
            Pinochet000 26 October 2013 12: 50
            Quote: Horde
            any philologist
            Philologists go through the woods, even if the words are related, this does not mean anything, because other peoples have perverted the meaning and sound of the source words.
            1. Horde
              Horde 26 October 2013 13: 07
              Quote: Pinochet000
              Philologists go through the woods, even if the words are related, this does not mean anything, because other peoples have perverted the meaning and sound of the source words.

              Russian life was completely perverted, but even in such a modernized and adapted to the west form, the Russians always evoke only the OPPOSITION of the West. They hate and fear us. Why so, who can explain something clearly?
              1. Pinochet000
                Pinochet000 26 October 2013 13: 17
                Quote: Horde
                And why so, who can clearly explain something?
                Feel their inferiority p.i .... r.asy)
                1. Horde
                  Horde 26 October 2013 13: 48
                  Quote: Pinochet000
                  Feel their inferiority p.i .... r.asy)

                  Yes, our people are even prettier, more thoroughbred, but the roots of hatred are hidden deep in history. Everything comes from a claim to world-wide ORIGIN.
                  According to TI, it was the West that developed its culture many centuries and even millennia earlier, in fact, the Russians were the first, the progenitor people and their Russian language were at the beginning of the emergence of civilization, or, according to Academician Fomenko, first there was ROME on the Bosphorus from him (Moscow THIRD ROME) we received our power. During the LATIN REVOLUTION the times of Princess Sophia after her son Peter were rejected and much of the cultural heritage of Russia was destroyed and replaced by the Western. Now everyone knows perfectly well that history for Russia WRITTEN GERMANS, but find out how long replaced by the STAFF of our life, the people seem to me not yet ready to find out, and when they find out I start waving my hands in indignation, "this could not be."
                  For example, there is good reason to believe that before Peter in Russia there was not a cult of Jesus Christ, and not Christianity, but a cult of the TRINITY and ORTHODOX. And what would it mean? This means that the Russians did not believe in the god of the father, the god of the son and the HOLY SPIRIT, but in the god of the father, the goddess, and the GODDESS.

                  = 141
                  Alexander Grinin and his interlocutor, historian Yuri Ansimov, open new historical horizons
                  1. Horde
                    Horde 26 October 2013 17: 06
                    Quote: Horde
                    And this means that the Russians did not believe in the god of the father, the god of the son and the HOLY SPIRIT, but in the god of the father, the goddess, and the GODDESS.

                    from the holy spirit we have rebirth, from rebirth a recreation, from recreation a knowledge of the dignity of the recreated
                    Gregory the Theologian
                    direct text speaks of birth, which is inherent only to a woman.
                  2. Pit
                    Pit 28 October 2013 11: 04
                    In general, the cult of the trinity in Russia appeared thanks to the previously existing symbol of the Vedic faith. The Khrestiani simply (as always) perverted the old faith, so that people would eventually get used to it and accept it as their own.
                    The main symbol of the Old Faith has always been and is the Star of England. This is a nine-pointed star, which symbolizes the Primordial Pure Light - the Primary Fire of the Divine Creation, the Shining Light of Yarila the Sun and a white harmonious person, a descendant of the Ancient Light Gods.

                    Three triangles (red, green, blue) symbolize the three Great Triglavs of the three Worlds: Reveal, Navi, Reign. The outer circle that frames the triglav means Life-giving England, and the outer circle beyond the infinite space symbolizes the One Creator Creator, whose name is the Great RA-M-HA. His name consists of three runes (Fig. To the right). The rune “RA” is pure Light, the radiance, the rune “M” is the materialized Universe, the rune “XA” is a positive force. In the “Book of Light” the following is said: “Once upon a time, or rather, when there were no spaces and dimensions, we, the people perceived, were, without incarnating, the Great RA-M-HA alone. He appeared in the New Reality and from the perception of a new endless infinity was illuminated by the Great Light of Joy. ” Here, joy is still expressed in us by the sound and the concept of “HA”, i.e. joyful exclamation.

                    Three triangles, symbolizing the human principle, mean: Healthy Body, Strong Spirit, Bright Soul, and the outer circle surrounding them - Pure Conscience. The infinite space outside the circle symbolizes God's Multifaceted World, in which the descendant of the Ancient Light Gods, the White Man, lives and creates.

                    Three triangles symbolizing the natural beginning, i.e. Mother Nature means Earth, Water and Fire, and the outer circle surrounding them means Air. The infinite space outside the circle symbolizes Svarga the Most Pure, i.e. Heaven (Heaven is where there is no demon).

                    Thus, this symbol of the Old Faith has a Divine principle, a Natural principle and a Human principle. And all this is one, all this creation of life. Therefore, this is the most important symbol.
          2. Captain45
            Captain45 26 October 2013 21: 16
            Quote: Horde

            Quote: Horde
            Moreover, if you ask Eastern women - "Do they consider themselves to be disadvantaged in anything?" many will say no; they will tell you they live in a free and dignified society.

            In Islam there is a concept of "haram", if my memory serves me, if a woman utters it three times in front of witnesses, then the marriage is considered dissolved. However, she remains with what is currently with her. Therefore, oriental women wear it on so many jewels. If not right, then let the Muslims correct me.
            1. combat192
              combat192 27 October 2013 15: 16
              In Islam there is a concept of "haram", if my memory serves me, if a woman says it three times in front of witnesses, then the marriage is considered dissolved.

              Cheating on you, dear.
              Haram, haram (Arabic. حرام, the root word - harem) - in the Shariah forbidden actions. The opposite of haramny is halal. For example, pork is haramnaya, and mutton, stabbed to death with the name of Allah, is halal.
              You messed up with the word Talak.
              Talak, Talak (Arabic: الطلاق - al-Talak) - Islam divorces. The right to declare a divorce has the husband, or a Sharia judge, who makes a decision at the request of his wife.
    3. Horde
      Horde 26 October 2013 11: 46

      Tsarevna SOFIA is a very complex person portrait from a German palace, that under Berlin Charlottenburg by TI she is Peter's sister, in fact she is his mother, his father
      Friedrich Hohenzoylern Brandenburg. Peter1 German by birth and in spirit.

      Evdokia Lopukhina, And Tsarevna Sophia canonical images
      1. Pinochet000
        Pinochet000 26 October 2013 11: 57
        It was about pre-Petrine Russia like.
        1. Horde
          Horde 26 October 2013 12: 03
          Quote: Pinochet000
          It was about pre-Petrine Russia like.

          CARDINAL changes in Russia began to occur only in the era of Peter and later. Russia was remade under Europe.
          1. Cossack23
            Cossack23 26 October 2013 21: 24
            Pyotr is the first pedr in Russia))))))))))))))) well, or something like that))) in short, I noticed everyone whom the communists offered up all those more pedrs turned out to be.
            1. Uhe
              Uhe 27 October 2013 23: 17
              The first chronicler hoaxer in Russia was a certain Metropolitan Sysoi in the 16th century - a documented fact, by the way. Here Peter the Antichrist 1 was far from the first;)

              By the way, the communists did not exalt Peter 1. But foreign historians consider Peter the first Bolshevik;)
          2. Uhe
            Uhe 27 October 2013 23: 12
            The first major and significant change was under Vladimir the Fratricide. According to archaeologists, Russia lost almost a third of its settlements, Polovtsy from vassal tribes turned invaders, civil strife and split of the once unified East Slavic union began, the descendants of Vladimir slaughtered entire tribes of Slavs due to disagreement to convert to Christianity. All these feuds led to the Mongol yoke, which threw Russia far back and forever broke many foundations. Peter 1 is the second such major turn and a terrible breakdown of foundations. The third - the Bolsheviks in 1917, the fourth - 1991 and the betrayal of Gorbaty and senior officials from the organs. Nevertheless, our memory is alive, and customs are also many alive. We will get up.
      2. Horde
        Horde 26 October 2013 12: 21

        this is it, it opened freedom to the west of Russia-Horde; pay attention to how the Russian kokoshnik was transformed.
      3. Cristall
        Cristall 26 October 2013 23: 05
        strange .. always thought that Sophia-sister of Peter and Ivan from Naryshkina (Natalia) only her mother Miloslavskaya ...
        maybe Tolstoy is to blame ... and his romance ...
        By the way, it is in it that the life of young girls of different ranks is simultaneously painted. But the egregious case of Dasha’s execution because of the murder of her husband (the English merchant intervened for her - when she was buried, the execution was a burial to death, and then hanging by the leg, according to the novel, Peter ordered Menshikov to shoot her.)
        You can evaluate our history in different ways, but we should be proud of it, and those who describe it as “wild” may need to take a closer look at their “European” sins?
  2. report4
    report4 26 October 2013 09: 36
    Well, that we treated women (and, in principle, people) much more humanely is a well-known fact. Until recently, Europe, in general, was a source of bloody obscurantism - here on this site there is a series of articles, something like "Bloody Europe" (sort of like that).
    True, the author twitches and compares our nobles and their commoners.
    If we compare duck equivalent in social status, it would be more interesting.
    1. Ingvar 72
      Ingvar 72 26 October 2013 09: 58
      While humiliating the Russians and slandering them, foreign authors for some reason do not pay attention to their own past.
      The standard method of all scoundrels in order to hide their shortcomings, you need to pay universal attention to the shortcomings of another person. And if they are not, come up with.
    2. Boris55
      Boris55 26 October 2013 10: 39
      Quote: report4
      Well, that we treated women (and, in principle, people) much more humane ...

      And women are not people? wassat Or did the article affect you like that? laughing
  3. Swag
    Swag 26 October 2013 09: 44
    A lie for the West is part of the mentality that has been developed over the centuries, and therefore the CONSCIENCE concept is absent. It is necessary to show our roots and sources more than such material, otherwise the youth do not know anything, but it would be necessary. Examples are there, in the country's historical past.
  4. Letnab
    Letnab 26 October 2013 09: 55
    lied, and still lie probably from envy!
  5. Orik
    Orik 26 October 2013 11: 50
    It was not a retreat! The restriction was only the role of the woman as WIFE and MOTHER. You don’t really run around when seven, or even ten, in shops. While our country was brought up by Christian mothers and grandmothers, Russia expanded and grew! In the Christian understanding, a woman is saved by childbearing, this means not only giving birth, but also raising children pleasing to God.
  6. Altona
    Altona 26 October 2013 14: 21
    The fact that a lot of unfounded criticism has been written about Domostroy has long been known, it is like the "bloodthirstiness" of the autocrat Ivan IV the Terrible ... In folk tales we do not see slaughtered women, but on the contrary, only "mistresses of the sea" and henpecked women with a net ... What With regards to the "enlightened" West, the sun kings executed a lady with a rod or ramrods in front of a sekas, for obedience ... In sunny Spain and beautiful Belgium, in radiant France and gloomy Germany, millions of women ascended the fires of the Inquisition ... democratic Britain, after the policy of fencing, thousands of women became slaves in factories who could not be sick and give birth ... And you say ... And Domostroy, this is just a textbook on housekeeping and the organization of the simplest crafts - a vegetable garden, beekeeping, cattle care, crop rotation on arable land, weaving at home, well, little by little ...
    1. Uhe
      Uhe 27 October 2013 23: 19
      That's because they burned their women, now they have only horror stories left :) Now they are buried in the Slavs, because we took care of our beauties and propagated :)
  7. CreepyUknow
    CreepyUknow 26 October 2013 14: 58
    Great article, thank you! Western "partners" have always tried to trample us in the mud and make us believe that they are the bulwark of civilization, and we are such wild half-animals. Norman theory, promoted by the same Kostomarov and other mouthpieces of the West from the same ballet. And the fact that it is normal to blacken with our own hands; open interference "even these half-beasts would have noticed." Here's another example - the 1917 revolution.
  8. kaktus
    kaktus 26 October 2013 15: 34
    There are women in Russian selenyazh
    with the calm importance of persons
    with beautiful power in motion,
    with a walk, with the gaze of the queens.
    They do not even see the blind,
    and the sighted one speaks of them:
    "It will pass - as if it will illuminate with the sun!
    He will look - he will give a ruble! "
    (well, hereinafter ...) hi

    NA Nekrasov
  9. OPTR
    OPTR 26 October 2013 16: 27
    It's not just about "Western" influences. After all, the cited quotes from Domostroy not in the west were most likely distorted. It's interesting when these distortions appeared and where.
    A very useful reminder that any source that you are used to, which become familiar and seem reliable from this, can be falsified. An extra reason to read the story and think with your own head.
  10. Ezhaak
    Ezhaak 26 October 2013 20: 07
    “And the husband will see that the wife’s disorder ... and for disobeying ... taking off his shirt and weaving politely beaten, holding hands, looking at the fault”. It would seem that everything is clear here! What a barbarism!

    And the pupils with rods in the Aglitsky schools, and not only that, not barbarism, but for the sake of the pleasure of the schoolchildren is done.
    1. explorer
      explorer 28 October 2013 10: 09
      As our geography teacher liked to say:
      performance in England in schools with a beat is higher than in schools without a beat. laughing
      In general, almost according to the classics: "Bitiyo determines consciousness." angry
  11. understudy
    understudy 26 October 2013 21: 04
    And also, after the construction battalion, we have a second secret weapon - a woman driving! However, it seems such a "weapon" is being developed in many countries. But ours are cooler, they are able to cover the square with obscenities! love
  12. Cossack23
    Cossack23 26 October 2013 21: 20
    I have read 7 books by this author - no one can write more magnificent Russian history. Thank you very much !!! Someone is purifying our truth and honor. Only after his story did I become proud of myself and my ancestors, and not just consider myself a descendant of great ancestors. I advise everyone to read His books, it's worth the time. Start with the book "The Beginning of Russia" or "The Great Civilizations of Ancient Rus", and I recommend to the Cossacks "The Cossacks - the Way of Christ's Warriors." We need to know its history and then we will know our GREAT WAY.
    1. azkolt
      azkolt 27 October 2013 18: 15
      And I would recommend starting with "Russia; the road from the depths of the millennia"
  13. wax
    wax 26 October 2013 23: 47
    There are strong suspicions that "The Lay of Igor's Campaign" was written by a woman.
  14. Kavtorang
    Kavtorang 27 October 2013 09: 42
    Glory to our Slavs! My two previous wives - both in uniform, from different departments. This is about them: they will stop the elephant for a gallop and the trunk will be torn off ...
    The current one, without shoulder straps, but rules the ball and the house - without comment, and if necessary - it will tear anyone, for children or for me, like a Tuzik heating pad laughing
    And in direct subordination there were young ladies in officer / midshipman's shoulder straps - you can't get enough of it, not without extras (especially when an internal conflict between aunts in the department begins), but all issues can be resolved. They themselves could rebuild the factory workers so that the builder of the "order" came to me with a request: to calm down their young ladies or to disrupt the state defense order laughing .
    Once again - glory to our girls drinks
  15. soldier's grandson
    soldier's grandson 27 October 2013 09: 52
    -11 qualifying.
    women in uniform are usually crazy whores
    1. The Indian Joe
      The Indian Joe 27 October 2013 10: 37
      Either you are drunk, or a woman in uniform once refused you harassment.
      1. soldier's grandson
        soldier's grandson 27 October 2013 19: 09
        neither one nor the other
  16. Kavtorang
    Kavtorang 27 October 2013 10: 11
    Quote: soldier's grandson
    women in uniform are usually crazy whores

    Do not be rude or insult women whom you personally do not know. You are welcome.
    If you, personally, have a negative experience of communicating with the commander's mistresses in positions, you do not need to transfer this under the "tracing paper" to all the armed forces. This is, it was and will be - but how? But there will always be heroines of military service.
  17. The Indian Joe
    The Indian Joe 27 October 2013 10: 36
    Another fraud against Russia is revealed, thanks to the author!
    But it’s scary to think how many lies against your own nation are still alive in the minds of Russians.
    1. Cossack23
      Cossack23 27 October 2013 14: 10
      The whole nation and culture is mired in lies and there is no lumen - there would be more people like Shambarov.
  18. graytwice
    graytwice 27 October 2013 12: 37
    What is your edition, whose translation? This is not the final (Sylvester's) edition, which is called "Domostroi".

    The discrepancies, as I understand it, because Sylvester’s place can be understood in two ways.

    In addition, even in the translation of Sylvester's "Domostroi" on the website "Electronic publications of the Institute of Russian Literature (Pushkin House) RAS" I found two cases of apparently incorrect translation. There is a convenient "parallel" mode.
    The electronic library also provides a link to the same translation
    Faculty of History, Moscow State University

    23 chapter
    and unfeigned love for everyone
    impartial love for everyone

    36 chapter
    A breakfast for a husband and a wife is by no means good except for weakness, eating and drinking at a similar time.
    And apart from breakfast, husband and wife are not good at all, unless if someone is sick; eat and drink at the right time
    1. Cossack23
      Cossack23 27 October 2013 14: 12
      Sylvester Masson
  19. serge
    serge 27 October 2013 13: 47
    Only abroad could a delusion be born about Russian women as sweet, touching, sacrificial or generally downtrodden creatures. Because such women actually existed only in the novels of Russian literary classics. Dostoevsky created an especially delusional image of a Russian woman (in all other respects, an absolutely brilliant writer and visionary). The Russian woman is sincere, compassionate, but at the same time extremely energetic, businesslike, practical and calculating. The Russian woman is frank, inclined to empathy, but at the same time she is smart, cunning and resourceful. The beauty and tenderness of a Russian woman is combined with firmness, pride and independence of character. The proverb “a woman wants to - will pass through the wall” (oddly enough, a Japanese proverb) fits well with the Russian female character. In general, "he will stop a galloping horse and enter a burning hut." But, despite the strength of a Russian woman, in most cases she is looking for a man stronger than herself. Having found such a man, our woman completely dissolves in the family, entrusting concerns about the welfare of the family to her husband, because the husband is a "man and must" do everything for the family. In addition to housekeeping and childcare. In the Russian family, at least equal rights have always reigned, whatever the foreign fool might read from Domostroi. Moreover, the Russian woman has always actually been the head of the family, in words always declaring a man as such and easily manipulating him in practice. As the proverb says, "The husband drinks - half the house is on fire; the wife drinks - the whole house is on fire." The basis of the Russian family is a woman. It is not for nothing that Russians, along with their Fatherland, have their Motherland-Mother.
    1. Uhe
      Uhe 27 October 2013 23: 30
      The best image of Russian women is described in Russian epics. Since then, in fact, nothing has changed :) Unless they don’t go to the grave with a dead husband and they don’t end with ritual suicide because of this, but nothing has changed.

      What, for example, would she call the sorceress Marinka Kaydalovna a submissive and slaughtered woman? Or the same Vasilisa Mikulishnu, the wife of Stavr Godinovich? Or the hero Nastasya, beloved of the Danube Ivanovich? Everything is said to us by our perspicacious ancestors.
  20. Kavtorang
    Kavtorang 27 October 2013 15: 03
    Quote: serge
    , the Russian woman has always actually been the head of the family, in words always declaring a man as such and easily manipulating him in practice. As the proverb says, "The husband drinks - half the house is on fire; the wife drinks - the whole house is on fire." The basis of the Russian family is a woman.

    And let's end this srach - let's kiss our lovely wives / lovers / girlfriends. But didn’t they just come to us?
  21. Sergey Medvedev
    Sergey Medvedev 27 October 2013 16: 42
    Thank you for the article. Honestly, I did not know that Domostroy was about cooking and housekeeping. I thought it was a guide to torturing women. More to such articles.
  22. Black
    Black 27 October 2013 18: 14
    The Cossacks did not know the house-building.
    Respect for a woman — mother, wife, sister — stipulated the concept of Cossack honor, honor of a daughter, sister, wife — the dignity of a man was measured by the honor and behavior of a woman.
    In family life, the relationship between husband and wife was determined according to Christian teaching (Holy Scripture). "Not a husband for a wife, but a wife for a husband." "Let the husband's wife be afraid." At the same time, they adhered to the age-old foundations - a man should not interfere in women's affairs, a woman in men's. Responsibilities were strictly regulated by life itself. Who and what should do in the family is clearly divided. It was considered a shame if a man was involved in women's affairs. They strictly adhered to the rule: no one has the right to interfere in family affairs.
    Whoever a woman was, she had to be treated with respect and protect her - for a woman is the future of your people. A typical example of the protection of a woman is described in the story of the Cossack writer Gary Nemchenko:

    "In 1914, in the morning, a Cossack with a red flag rode through the village of Otradnaya, announcing the war. By evening, the Khopersky regiment was already moving in a marching column to the gathering place. Naturally, the regiment was accompanied by old men and women. One of the women drove a horse, harnessed to a chaise, and drove one side of the wheels across the landowner's field. One of the officers, known to the whole regiment by the name of Erdeli, drove up to the woman and whipped her for it. A Cossack rode out of the column and cut him down. "

    Such were the Cossacks, so sacredly honored their customs. The custom did not allow a woman to attend the meeting (circle) even to resolve issues of her personal nature. Her father, elder brother, godfather or chieftain spoke in favor of her or filed a petition or complaint.
    In Cossack society, women enjoyed such reverence and respect that it was not necessary to empower her with a man. Practically in the past, housekeeping lay with a Cossack mother. Cossack spent most of his life in the service, in battles, campaigns, on the cordon and his stay in the family, the village was short-lived. However, the leading role both in the family and in the Cossack society belonged to the man, who had the main responsibility for providing material for the family and maintaining the strict order of the Cossack life in the family. The word of the owner of the family was unquestionable for all its members, and the example was the wife of the Cossack - the mother of his children.
  23. Black
    Black 27 October 2013 18: 31
    The Cossacks did not know the house-building. In written form. But he existed and was indisputable, as a guide, eliminating many unnecessary worries and problems that burden the creation and existence of the family.
    And the old people were the guardian of traditions and foundations.
    During the repressions of the Civil War, the Reds often shot the elderly in the first place, thus immediately depriving a page of memory, conscience and faith ...
  24. Karius
    Karius 28 October 2013 00: 11
    Honestly, I did not know much about the article.
  25. Fobos-grunt
    Fobos-grunt 28 October 2013 07: 57
    Russia - the abode of the Amazons. Herodotus also described the warriors who lived on the Don.
    They were admired even by enemies. The forgotten emperor of the Bosporus Kingdom, Mithridates Eupator, can be said our glorious ancestor of 132–63 BC. e. Until the last moment, this man resisted the power of the Roman Empire. All this time, his wife and faithful companion remained with him - the Amazon Gipsykratiya