Military Review

The Secret War of Great Britain against Russia in 1904-1905

59
History Russian-Japanese War 1904-1905 fairly well covered, but few of the ordinary citizens of Russia know that it was the actions of England (and the United States) in this war that became one of the main factors why Russia suffered a formal defeat. There was no military defeat; Russia could continue the war and win in the land theater of military operations. However, the Russian government succumbed to the pressure of "peacekeepers", mainly the United States, and agreed to peace talks.


Union of England and Japan

England was formally neutral in the Russo-Japanese war, but literally did everything so that Japan won. On January 17 (January 30), 1902, the Anglo-Japanese treaty was signed, which had an anti-Russian orientation. The treaty gave Tokyo the opportunity to start a war with the Russian Empire with the assurance that not a single power (for example, France, with which Russia had been an alliance since 1891) would provide Russia with armed support because of the fear of war not only with Japan, but also with the British Empire. London secured the rear of Japan, it could concentrate all its forces to fight Russia. The rear support of Japan was provided by the powerful English squadron stationed in Weihaiwei. Since 1900, it included at least 5 newest battleships, as well as cruisers, destroyers and other vessels. An interesting fact is that almost immediately after the Tsushima defeat of the Russian fleet all five British battleships withdrew from the Far East to the mother country. These ships were needed to deter Russia.

Even before the 1880's alliance, the British began to help build the Japanese fleet. Japan was supposed to be the "ram" of England against China and Russia. In 1895, the Japanese government adopted the first extensive program to strengthen its navy. The Japanese were going to start building warships of all classes, primarily the main ships of the then fleet - squadron battleships, armored cruisers and destroyers destined for active offensive operations. However, Japanese industry, and especially shipbuilding, was still not sufficiently developed to independently implement this program. Therefore, orders for the construction of ships placed abroad. England became the main assistant in the creation of the fleet core. Abroad, 4 squadron battleships were built - all in England, 6 rank X armored cruisers in England and France, 1 rank X cruisers in England and the USA, 5 destroyers - in England.

In 1896, the Japanese government, considering the 1895 shipbuilding program of the year insufficient, adopted an additional program designed for 10 years. It provided mainly for the construction of cruisers and a large number of destroyers of the destroyers. In addition, the planned construction and equipment of naval bases and ports, which were to ensure the combat activities of the Japanese navy in the Yellow and Japanese Seas.

In June 1903, the third shipbuilding program was approved at a special meeting of the Japanese parliament. February 2 The Japanese government entered into contracts with Vickers and Armstrong firms in London to supply two squadron battleships Kashima and Katori with a displacement of 1904 tons each. The project was based on English battleships of the King Edward VII type. The armament of the battleships was as follows: four 16400-mm guns, four - 305-mm, twelve guns - 254-mm, twelve more - 152-mm. Armadillo squadrons laid in February and April 80, and in May 1904, they entered service. The most powerful ships were built in a very short time.

The Secret War of Great Britain against Russia in 1904-1905

The cruiser Kasuga.

Cruisers

In the prewar period, England provided Japan with comprehensive logistical and military assistance. Unprecedented in the history of military maritime law, British sailors were escorted by two naval cruisers from Italy to the Japanese Empire, escorted by the royal ship. In 1902, the Italian firm Ansaldo received an order from Argentina for the construction of two armored cruisers of the Giuseppe Garibaldi type. The head cruiser of the type "Giuseppe Garibaldi" was laid 1894 year at the shipyard of the firm "Ansaldo" in Genoa for Argentina. For this country was built 4 ship. One bought Spain, three were part of the Italian fleet. Originally, the Argentine cruisers were called “Mithra” and “Fate”, then “Bernardino Rivadavia” and “Maonano Moreno”. The cruisers had a displacement in 7 628 t, the maximum speed - 20 nodes and were well armed. They had good fighting qualities at moderate cost (about 700 thousand pounds) and fast construction rates, which made them attractive for export sales, especially if the customer was on the verge of war.

During the construction of armored cruisers, important political changes took place: the border dispute between Argentina and Chile was resolved peacefully. Both Latin American countries committed themselves in 1902 to establish a balance of naval forces. Previously ordered ships were subject to resale. Argentina refused to cruisers, and Chile from two squadrons ordered in England, the Suifshur type of battleships (they were relatively poorly armed, so they were accepted into service by the English fleet as II rank battleships).

By this time, the Argentine ships were already in a high degree of readiness, and at the beginning of 1903, the Chilean battleships were launched as well. Representatives of Chile and Argentina, acting through intermediaries, immediately began to look for buyers. Considering that Russian-Japanese relations by this time had little doubt about the imminence of a speedy war, Russia and Japan seemed to be ideal candidates for the purchase of warships. Both powers, especially Japan, increased their naval power at an accelerated pace. 28 November 1902, Vice Admiral of the Italian Navy Kandiani, sent a personal letter to his old acquaintance in the Mediterranean, Vice Admiral Nikolai Skrydlov (he will lead the Black Sea Fleet from the beginning of 1903) with an offer from Orlando to sell the battleship laid for Argentina by 12600 displacement tons. Skrydlov reported on this to the Chief of the Main Naval Staff, Vice Admiral Fyodor Havelan. He informed the opinion of the manager of the naval ministry, Admiral Pavel Tyrtov, that there is an instruction from Emperor Nicholas II to build ships only in Russian shipyards.

In January, 1903, Russia refused to buy battleships already launched in England. They were offered to St. Petersburg by the Chilean government through the Rothschild trading house. So that in Russia they did not have time to change their mind, the British acquired ships for their own fleet. In April, 1903, Foreign Minister Vladimir Lamsdorf sent the Naval Minister Abavela a report of the embassy in Rome: representatives of the Ansaldo company privately offered the Russian ambassador to buy two Chilean battleships. In early August, the firm "Ansaldo" transferred to the Naval Headquarters a proposal to buy two armored cruisers. However, the Chief of the Main Naval Staff, Zinovy ​​Rozhestvensky, decided to act on the basis of previous decisions and said that Russia does not intend to acquire ships. Rozhestvensky was convinced that it was enough to ensure the equality of the forces of the Russian fleet with the Japanese, believing that superiority was useless and that there were enough planned measures (emergency measures are not needed). The Russian shipbuilding program was going on as usual; the war in Russia was not particularly feared. Only two regular battleships and two cruisers were sent to the Far East, of which, despite the rush, only the squadron battleship Tsesarevich and the cruiser Bayan managed to arrive at Port Arthur at the beginning of the war.

In November, Japan mobilized its fleet. In December 1903, the Naval Headquarters again rejected the proposal of the already Argentine consul to sell the cruisers built in Italy with a full combat reserve. As a result, almost ready-made armored cruisers were bought by the Japanese. Japan did not miss its chance, unlike the Russian naval department. Both ships - in Japan, they were called “Kasuga” and “Nissin” (armored cruisers like “Kasuga”) - became the most modern armored cruisers of the Japanese fleet by the beginning of the Russian-Japanese war and took an active part in it.

Interestingly, Russia could intercept the new Japanese cruisers, but even here it missed its chance. By this time, a detachment of Russian ships headed by Rear Admiral Andrei Virenius was on the way to the Far East. The squadron consisted of the squadron battleship Oslyabya, the 1-class cruiser Dmitry Donskoy and Aurora, the Almaz cruiser, the destroyers Buiyny, the Blessed, the Fast, the Immaculate, the Pobedovy. ”,“ Vigorous ”and“ Bravy ”, the destroyers №212, №213, №221, №222, three steamships of the Voluntary Fleet:" Eagle "," Saratov "and" Smolensk ". The detachment went from Kronstadt to the Far East. The battleship Oslyabya left Kronstadt together with the cruiser Bayan. The cruiser safely reached Port Arthur, and the squadron battleship due to damage to the bottom, received in the Strait of Gibraltar, was delayed and repaired in Italy. On the way, a number of ships changed directions more than once, they were driven around the Mediterranean Sea. Only at the end of December 1903, the squad arrived in Port Said.

Meanwhile, the new Japanese cruisers on the morning of January 27, 1904, left Genoa and moved to Port Said. The rush was such that the "Nissin" did not complete the work and did not load all the equipment. Armored cruisers marched under the trade flag of England, commanded by English fleet reserve officers Painter and Lee. Crews were mainly composed of English sailors and Italian mechanics, about 240 people in total. Virenius had the opportunity to intercept the Japanese cruisers who were not combat-ready. The war has just begun on January 27. Both cruisers could be the prize of a single "Aurora" or "Dmitry Donskoy." Russia had the opportunity to strengthen the two cruisers and weaken the military power of Japan. The English armored cruiser “King Alfred” (Drake-type cruiser), escorting the Japanese cruisers, was significantly weaker than the Oslyab. The English cruiser with a displacement of 14 376 t, was armed with 2 - 234-mm, 16 - 152-mm and 14 x 76-mm guns. Oslyabya was armed with 4 - 254-mm, 11 - 152-mm, 20 x 75-mm guns. Most importantly, London under no circumstances was going to openly fight against Russia, and especially for Japan, because of some cruisers. British politicians liked to rake in the heat with someone else’s hands, and not to engage in open battle, which could lead to disastrous results. There were chances to intercept Japanese cruisers, but they were not used.

31 January 1904, Virenius's squad finally got to Djibouti, where he received an order from St. Petersburg to go back. The commander of the Pacific squadron Stepan Makarov strongly protested against this decision, realizing that Russia is missing an excellent opportunity to strengthen the Russian fleet in the Far East, but did not take his opinion into account. The delay of the detachment and the subsequent return to the Baltic Sea had quite serious consequences for the course of the war. First, the opportunity to navigate ships to Vladivostok was missed. The Japanese fleet in the spring of 1904 could not leave the Yellow Sea and search for Virenius’s detachment along the straits - Sangarsky, Laperuz, Tatarsky and others. In addition, on the way the detachment could lead a cruising war, disrupting navigation on the Japanese islands. Secondly, the Pacific squadron did not receive the reinforcement it needed, and the opportunity to launch a cruising war was missed. Japan is an island power, and already at that time it depended on the supply of resources. Russian cruisers could deal a very serious blow to the Japanese economy.

In 1902, the Japanese smelted 240 thousand tons of pig iron from their own raw materials and extracted all 10 million liters of oil. And the need of the empire in the same year amounted to 1850 thousand tons of pig iron and 236 million liters of oil. The cost of imports of ferrous metals and hardware in 1901 was 24,4 million yen, oil and oil products - 15 million yen, machinery and equipment for industry - 16,6 million yen, wool and wool products - 12 million yen. These four product groups accounted for more than 54% of the total value of Japanese imports in 1901. During the war, Japan received almost all the heavy guns from abroad. In 1904-1905 Huge quantities of various weapons, including naval ones, including torpedoes and even submarines, were brought to Japan. The cruising war could seriously undermine Japan’s combat capability and even force it to seek peace.


The squadron battleship Oslabya ​​leaves Bizerte, December 27 1903.

To be continued ...
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The secret war of Great Britain against Russia in 1904-1905.
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  1. FlyEngine
    FlyEngine 24 October 2013 08: 54
    15
    Well, I would not say that this war is secret, even in modern history textbooks they write that Great Britain actively supported Japan at that time.
    1. Walker1975
      Walker1975 24 October 2013 15: 32
      +2
      Here is a poster in the subject ... Nothing was secret

      Signed under it:
      We’ll sit by the sea, wait for the weather!
      See how terrible
      seen from behind the Japanese back;
      It must be his guardians? ..
      Overseas patrons! ..
      Smokers, gentlemen, do you want to -
      our Russian little things,
      what is visible on the hill! ..
      And this is for you, Japanese, the toy is our Russian cannon! ..
      Well, soon - start chtol,
      get out to our land!
      Let's meet, - brother, in honor;
      but still I will sit in this place!
      I will prove the yellow-faced enemies
      God help us! ..
      Intercessor !!!
      Op. D. Gusev

      But at the expense of the "formality" of defeat, one can argue here. Wow, a formal defeat - the 1st and 2nd Pacific squadrons ceased to exist, Russia lost its status as one of the most powerful sea powers. Port Arthur fell. The Japanese landed on Sakhalin.

      What then is an informal defeat? Loss of the whole territory?
    2. Petrol
      Petrol 24 October 2013 16: 34
      0
      I think .... that England made the decisive stage (shaving without a beard) in terms of introducing the colonel of Japanese intelligence, who served as a Tibetan doctor Jamsaran Badmaev at the royal court, he very skillfully used the capabilities of Grisha Rasputin
    3. cdrt
      cdrt 24 October 2013 22: 31
      +1
      Quote: FlyEngine
      Well, I would not say that this war is secret, even in modern history textbooks they write that Great Britain actively supported Japan at that time.


      What is this secret war - just the support of Britain's ally. It’s quite public.
      Russia itself refused ships when offered. As usual because of good intentions ...
  2. demon ada
    demon ada 24 October 2013 09: 16
    +4
    Politics is filth
  3. 0255
    0255 24 October 2013 09: 22
    +4
    It’s a pity that Russia missed its chance.
  4. Vladimirets
    Vladimirets 24 October 2013 09: 31
    +3
    If not for the tower of the main caliber, "Oslyabya" could be mistaken for a cruise ship.
    1. Trapperxnumx
      Trapperxnumx 24 October 2013 10: 28
      +3
      Well, yes, it was specially built for high-boarding - for action in any weather. Remember Coronel, when the "correct" British ships could not even fire because of the waves.
      1. UVB
        UVB 24 October 2013 11: 23
        +2
        In the series of battleships of the "Peresvet" type, armament and armor were sacrificed for greater autonomy and cruising range. Their speed would be 2-3 knots higher and would be the strongest armored cruisers in the world at that time.
        1. Yarik
          Yarik 24 October 2013 19: 14
          +1
          And "Pobeda" (I don't remember exactly, maybe "Peresvet") is also the most "long-range" battleship of the 1st squadron. Ironically, the Japanese "Nissin" and "Kassuga", which were never acquired by Russia, too. EBR set.
    2. Storm
      Storm 24 October 2013 11: 25
      +1
      This is most likely due to the Victorian coloring adopted at that time for RIF ships located in overseas voyages.
    3. The comment was deleted.
  5. Kolyanych
    Kolyanych 24 October 2013 09: 46
    11
    It should be borne in mind that at that time the Prime Minister was Graf Witte, who was an agent of the world financial behind the scenes. It was he who persuaded Nicholas II to introduce the so-called "golden ruble", thereby linking the valuation of the Russian national currency to speculation on the London Gold Exchange. It was he who later signed the San Francisco peace treaty with Japan, according to which half of Sakhalin was withdrawn to Japan. for which he received the nickname "Count Polusakhalinsky".
    So, such strange and illogical, seemingly, orders issued to Russian ships on the eve of the Japanese attack are not surprising at all. The "fifth" column in the highest echelons of power was preparing the defeat of Russia in the coming war in full measure
    1. nov_tech.vrn
      nov_tech.vrn 24 October 2013 12: 58
      +2
      Well, Westerners in Russia are the fifth column since time immemorial, especially considering the kinship of the ruling family
    2. cdrt
      cdrt 24 October 2013 22: 39
      0
      Quote: Kolyanich
      It should be borne in mind that at that time the Prime Minister was Graf Witte, who was an agent of the world financial behind the scenes. It was he who persuaded Nicholas II to introduce the so-called "golden ruble", thereby linking the valuation of the Russian national currency to speculation on the London Gold Exchange. It was he who later signed the San Francisco peace treaty with Japan, according to which half of Sakhalin was withdrawn to Japan. for which he received the nickname "Count Polusakhalinsky".
      So, such strange and illogical, seemingly, orders issued to Russian ships on the eve of the Japanese attack are not surprising at all. The "fifth" column in the highest echelons of power was preparing the defeat of Russia in the coming war in full measure


      Hmm ... what about the evidence?
      In the form of links to reputable sources, such as academic ones.
      And so, in the form of EMNIP details, the Minister of War did not submit to the chairman of the committee of ministers.

      Never attribute to malice that which can be explained by stupidity.
      Hanlon's razor however
  6. Storm
    Storm 24 October 2013 11: 23
    +3
    Very interesting article, we look forward to continuing
  7. Dimon-chik-79
    Dimon-chik-79 24 October 2013 12: 02
    +5
    Oh, this Nicholas II, screwed up in full and ... became a saint
  8. Maximus-xnumx
    Maximus-xnumx 24 October 2013 12: 51
    0
    Quote: There was no military defeat, Russia could continue the war and triumph in the land theater of operations. However, the Russian government succumbed to the pressure of the "peacekeepers", mainly the United States, and agreed to peace talks.
    There was something more terrible for the country than a military defeat. The government entered into negotiations in connection with the First Russian Revolution. This reminds me of the classic situation with Germany in 1918. There was no military defeat there either. Troops looted in France and Belgium. A BREST-LITHUANIAN peace treaty has been concluded. Russia completely fell out of the war. Germany is not threatening anything else in the east. Moreover, the resources of Ukraine, Belarus and the Baltic states strengthen the German economy. But the internal problems forced the Germans to sign the Treaty of Versailles ...
  9. Ddhal
    Ddhal 24 October 2013 12: 56
    +6
    A lot has already been published on this subject, including this site.
    It is obvious that it was not Russia that lost the war, but the shortsightedness (or intent) of the appointees who ignored the obvious possibilities for changing the course of events. As for the king, one person always receives subjective information from his environment and he can be charged with the fact that he surrounded himself with one-sided interpreters, and therefore made mistakes one after another.
    Throughout history, our country has always been let down by horseradish management, fortunately compensated by the talent of commanders, but always paid for by human lives ...
  10. UVB
    UVB 24 October 2013 13: 34
    +3
    Quote: Sturm
    This is most likely due to the Victorian coloring adopted at that time for RIF ships located in overseas voyages.

    Victorian coloring is a black building, white superstructures and towers and yellow pipes. And for traveling abroad (naturally, in peacetime), the ships were painted completely white with yellow pipes.
    1. Storm
      Storm 24 October 2013 14: 54
      +2
      All right, I agree. Wrong.
  11. UVB
    UVB 24 October 2013 14: 13
    +2
    In June 1903, the third shipbuilding program was approved at a special meeting of the Japanese parliament. February 2 The Japanese government entered into contracts with Vickers and Armstrong firms in London to supply two squadron battleships Kashima and Katori with a displacement of 1904 tons each. The project was based on English battleships of the King Edward VII type. The armament of the battleships was as follows: four 16400-mm guns, four - 305-mm, twelve guns - 254-mm, twelve more - 152-mm. Armadillo squadrons laid in February and April 80, and in May 1904, they entered service. The most powerful ships were built in a very short time.
    Even during the Russo-Japanese War, the construction of even more powerful, the last Russian battleships - "Andrew the First-Called" and Imp. Paul I "with a displacement of 18590 tons, armament 4-305mm, 14 (!) - 203 and 12-120mm. These were the first ships that had fully (!) Armored sides without a single porthole. Unfortunately, these were ships already for the last war, the era of the dreadnoughts has come.
    1. UVB
      UVB 24 October 2013 14: 32
      +2
      This is after my comment, I immediately forgot to add. (Can be increased)
      1. Storm
        Storm 24 October 2013 15: 00
        +4
        The ships were powerful for their time, but were somewhat late with their appearance. The dreadnought was already propping up. And there were enough shortcomings - for example, with the conditions of crew habitability, they were not good enough (lack of thought of the ventilation system).
    2. Yarik
      Yarik 24 October 2013 20: 09
      +1
      Rather like this: these were ships well protected from FUGAS shells of the last war, and possibly the First World War. Their armor-piercing belt would have been stitched anywhere in the 14th year. Well, maybe not from all distances, but starting from 305-mm for sure ! Was this fact the basis for the choice of "Glory" under Moonsund instead of "Paul"? The channel, if desired, could be deepened in advance, if we talk about a comparative draft?
      1. Storm
        Storm 25 October 2013 14: 23
        0
        As for Moonsund, everything is simpler - they took care of new ships. "Glory" and "Citizen" were considered obsolete, their loss was not as terrible as the loss of new ones, which were already few in comparison with the German fleet.
      2. The comment was deleted.
  12. Bledonene2012
    Bledonene2012 24 October 2013 15: 57
    -2
    Is it enough to blame others for your problems?
    1. cdrt
      cdrt 24 October 2013 22: 42
      -1
      Quote: BledOne2012
      Is it enough to blame others for your problems?


      Finding the causes of problems in yourself is not our method. laughing
  13. alekseyal
    alekseyal 24 October 2013 17: 18
    +3
    One of the chapters of the book by N. Starikov, “Who is financing the collapse of Russia, is devoted to this topic. From Decembrists to Mujahideen "
    Fans of conspiracy theories and fans of conspiracy theories are not recommended to read it. Because on these pages you can find only facts.
    http://nstarikov.ru/books/154

    Chapter 9. Why the revolutionaries were very fond of the Japanese, and then began to rob banks.

    Very often one can hear that the unsuccessful course of the Russo-Japanese war caused a revolutionary explosion in Russia. And this stamp has become so commonplace that we have already stopped thinking about its meaning. And really, what is so terrible that the Russo-Japanese war brought to the population of our country? How did the shots of Japanese cannons near Mukden make the lives of Petersburg and Odessa workers unbearable?

    This chapter is freely available.
    http://nstarikov.ru/old/dm09.htm
    1. Walker1975
      Walker1975 24 October 2013 22: 52
      0
      Quote: alekseyal
      And really, what is so terrible that the Russo-Japanese war brought to the population of our country? How did the shots of Japanese cannons near Mukden make the lives of Petersburg and Odessa workers unbearable?


      Come on. Here they worry about the defeat of the team, people mourn when 10 people died in the attack, and 100 - a shock, 1000 - a tragedy and a desire to punish the guilty. In Afghanistan, only 15 died, and what effect, and remember the Americans what protests against the Vietnam War were. And here only under Mugden 75 thousand were killed, and how many more died during the war, and the wounded ... And they are someone's friends, relatives, neighbors.
  14. Motors1991
    Motors1991 24 October 2013 17: 54
    +2
    I think Russia was self-confident, because 50 years ago the Japanese had no fleet, there were sailing boats for fishing and short-sea swimming. Therefore, it was believed that we would give macaques, let them go, but in reality it turned out the other way: macaques koekakam.
    1. Ulan
      Ulan 24 October 2013 18: 19
      +1
      This undoubtedly took place.
    2. cdrt
      cdrt 24 October 2013 22: 45
      +1
      Quote: Motors1991
      I think Russia was self-confident, because 50 years ago the Japanese had no fleet, there were sailing boats for fishing and short-sea swimming. Therefore, it was believed that we would give macaques, let them go, but in reality it turned out the other way: macaques koekakam.


      And in 1904-1905 we and the British in WWII were let down by primitive stupid racism.
      Where has it been seen that the yellow macaques will defeat the heirs of the Suvorov miraculous heroes and the descendants of Wellington’s soldiers ...
      It turned out that on the sea macaques fight better than Russians, on land - no worse than ours and the British.
  15. Ulan
    Ulan 24 October 2013 18: 03
    +4
    If I am not mistaken, negotiations on the purchase of Italian armored cruisers were underway. However, Admiral Abaza, who was in charge of them, asked the Italians for a large "commission" for himself. According to the current "rollback". The Italians refused, but the case was presented as if these ships were not suitable for our fleet.
    In addition, a mistake was made in the timing of the readiness of the Japanese fleet and, therefore, at the beginning of the war, which was believed not earlier than 1905. Hence the unavailability of battleships of the Borodino type. The fifth of them, Slava, was generally completed after the war.
    Undoubtedly, the most negative role in the course of the war was played by the death of the commander of the First Pacific Squadron, Admiral Makarov, on the battleship "Petropavlovsk".
    Due to the incorrect determination of the timing of the war, they could not build a large-capacity dock in Port Arthur on time to repair armadillos and cruisers and dredge the passage between the external and internal raids in Port Arthur. As a result, the squadron could go to sea only twice day during the tides.
    The case with the Varyag also speaks of the meanness of the British. Chemulpo was a neutral port and the inviolability of ships in it was protected by international law.
    The Japanese committed a gross violation of international law, trying to force Rudnev to surrender, threatening to attack Russian ships right at the port.
    The commander of the British cruiser Talbot was the senior in the roadstead.
    Instead of putting the Japanese admiral Uriu in place, he called Rudnev and warned that if the Russian ships did not leave, then all foreign warships would leave the port so as not to endanger themselves during the Japanese attack.
    Rudnev was forced to take the ships out to sea and accept the battle in unfavorable conditions in a cramped fairway, where maneuver and speed were limited.
    Rudnev requested that the English cruiser escort him to neutral waters. However, the Englishman refused.
    By the way, the English cruiser was the only one that did not take on board the wounded Russian sailors after the battle. The British did not provide any assistance, they were very annoyed that the Japanese did not get the Varyag intact.
    1. Motors1991
      Motors1991 24 October 2013 19: 08
      +4
      At the time of the Japanese ultimatum, Chemulpo was already actually captured by the Japanese, and Rudnev had not to run around on foreign ships for help for help, but had to break out at night, as soon as the returning Korean reported on the hostile actions of the Japanese fleet, which was exactly what Captain Aurora did at the beginning of the Crimean War Izilmetyev, when a few hours before the declaration of hostilities at night slipped out of the supervision of the Ango-French squadron.
      1. Yarik
        Yarik 24 October 2013 19: 28
        +2
        It was necessary, of course, to take advantage of the breakthrough at night, but the question is, would you have been able to pass a rather narrow and winding fairway? I think it was just necessary to send something less valuable as a stationary. The Americans had a gunboat there? someday "Gilyak" would be kept there ....
        1. Motors1991
          Motors1991 24 October 2013 20: 24
          +3
          The Japanese cruiser, Niitaka, in my opinion managed to go out to sea at night, on the Varyag River and did not notice what prevented the Russian sailors from doing the same, only Rudnev’s lack of initiative. that on land, that at sea. The only case when the Japanese battleships blew up on mines and then failed to take advantage.
          1. Pancho
            Pancho 24 October 2013 22: 40
            +1
            I read somewhere (I couldn’t find it later) how the Japanese cavalry division had a clash with the Cossacks, most likely the Ussuri ones, and as a result was completely cut out. The emperor then issued a decree so that from now on less than 2k 1 would not contact the Cossacks. Yes, I forgot to mention that there were much fewer of ours, but they hung the famous samurai by no means indulging.
            1. Walker1975
              Walker1975 24 October 2013 22: 55
              +2
              Cossacks have always been considered fine light cavalry. If the war was decided only by cavalry ...
          2. Yarik
            Yarik 25 October 2013 19: 57
            0
            We didn’t take the opportunity, yes. But there are 2 points (in my opinion, perhaps I’m wrong). Firstly, the lack of initiative of Vitgeft (appointed, among other things, Alekseev - "for our places of genius, Evgeny Alekseev!"), And to prepare for an external raid in the presence of the darkness of spies? Yes, the Yapas simply would not approach Arthur for bombing, as they usually did.
      2. Ulan
        Ulan 25 October 2013 15: 42
        +2
        It’s easy to give advice today. And war has not yet been declared. Squadron commander Stark forbade Rudnev to leave Chemulpo. In addition, Rudnev was subordinate to the Russian consul, who also did not give the go-ahead for a long time.
        Let us now pour mud on this worthy man and sailor.
        Rudnev was also obliged to report on his actions to the senior in the raid.
        Do not forget that there was no war yet, and "Varyag" was on a diplomatic mission.
        1. Cristall
          Cristall 25 October 2013 22: 36
          0
          Rudnev was subordinate to Pavlov (Russian consul in Korea)
          The Japanese did not push the Russian consul, but blocked the connection. Rudnev could not leave on his own - leaving the consul, the detachment of guards and the Koreans and Sungari entrusted to him! The consul was also ignorant of the orders of St. Petersburg.
          What are we talking about? Rudnev is the captain of the inpatient - they are all subordinate to consuls and superiors. He could take an independent step in breaking through only after the official ultimatum to Uriu! Let me remind you that the Japanese also strangely waged a war ... so to speak in their traditional style - suddenly attacking (China, Russia, Southeast Asia and, in the end, the USA then recalled Pearl Harbor)
          Rudnev could be blamed for indecisive actions under international law. But do Russians begin to hide behind treaties and pieces of paper that cost nothing against brute force? * He did the right thing.
  16. Glory333
    Glory333 24 October 2013 18: 38
    0
    The article says nothing about the huge amounts spent by England and the United States on the organization of the 1905 revolution in Russia.
    If anyone does not know the 1917 revolution, it was also mainly financed not by the Germans but by our allies - England, the USA and France.
    1. Cristall
      Cristall 25 October 2013 23: 25
      0
      in December 1904, US Secretary of War William Taft promised to give Japan a loan
      what exactly amounts, history is silent, but as soon as they blocked the credit line, the Japanese could not wage war. It's funny that Roosevelt insisted on a truce knowing that he could not endlessly lend to Japan. Therefore, he persistently persuaded Russia to a truce so as not to corny credit.
  17. chenia
    chenia 24 October 2013 18: 45
    +2
    Quote: Maximus-22
    But the internal problems forced the Germans to sign the Treaty of Versailles ...


    Well, that’s in the sense, Lenin repaid the debt of the German General Staff (exactly one year later), but we must agree to the end.
  18. voliador
    voliador 24 October 2013 19: 17
    +3
    These island rats have made us all the centuries. I will be very glad if we can somehow pinch their tail, or better in general - hang a pendel in the ass.
    1. Yarik
      Yarik 24 October 2013 19: 33
      +3
      Axiom- "Englishwoman always shits."
  19. Guilty
    Guilty 24 October 2013 20: 56
    +1
    I could never understand, but where did the Varyag perform the feat? Came out alone against the squadron? So we have been fighting like this all our lives, now one weapon holds back the column, then 28 people save Moscow. The ship was sunk so that the enemy would not get it? So he got it. The commander saved the crew from losses? Nebogatov saved 2000 lives by surrendering. True, 10 years in hard labor received general contempt for cowardice. In short, a discrepancy with a feat. An ordinary combat episode, I agree. But feat? And how many praising "Varyag" know about "Rurik"?
    1. olviko
      olviko 25 October 2013 08: 34
      0
      "I could never understand, but where did the Varyag accomplish the feat?"

      Yes, this mystery is great! Do not be discouraged, not you alone. The whole West has not been able to understand how many centuries, everyone is talking about the mysterious Russian soul. Probably there is something in such concepts as patriotism, honor, military duty. Although in our time other concepts are in use ...
      1. Guilty
        Guilty 25 October 2013 14: 43
        -1
        It’s not a matter of the Russian soul, which no one can understand, especially the Russians themselves. The point is to exalt that which you cannot even call great a stretch. Rudnev claimed that the cruiser was badly damaged. 7-11 holes-severe damage? Losses of 31 hours were killed, more than 100 were injured from 700 crew members. For a ship of this class is not a reason to leave the battle. The engine is bad? But what about the cruiser from Vladik to Murmansk in 1916? So the feat somehow doesn’t even smell, that's what I’m talking about. By the way, I want to study the episode with the Varangian in more detail, from all sides. From the bookmark to the last tow. If anyone helps with the materials, I will be very grateful drinks
        1. Ulan
          Ulan 25 October 2013 15: 49
          +1
          Yeah ... well, what can I say. You really think that almost all of the artillery is out of order, that there are almost no shells left, the cruiser almost lost speed, but this is no reason to leave the battle. Here are the fighters, there’s no way to ram. the whole macaqua squadron. I understand that you personally committed some super heroic act, removed the cat from the closet, and on this basis now judge who performed the feat and who did not.
          Now let's study in detail from all sides, so as not to make such hasty and biased judgments.
          And then share with us. I didn’t study it, but I heard something, but because of this, it’s not a pull.
  20. Peaceful military
    Peaceful military 24 October 2013 23: 53
    +4
    They will bombard me, but the most acute disaster of RI was ammunition.
    It is not clear why, but, as the Ministry of Defense, as the Admiralty, as personally Rear Admiral Makarov (far from the highest rank and position) were for lightweight shells in general (explosives are much less than that of all the others), and their quality, in contrast to the Japanese "shimosa" was much worse.
    1. Ulan
      Ulan 25 October 2013 15: 52
      0
      Why minus? I read that in addition to this, some naval official thought of shells for the Second Squadron to have gunpowder humidity three times higher, on the grounds that the squadron would be in tropical latitudes and there could be fires.
      It is alleged that because of this, a significant part of the shells did not explode when hit.
      There were no such problems in the First Pacific Squadron.
      1. Guilty
        Guilty 25 October 2013 17: 07
        0
        In Tsushima
  21. Peaceful military
    Peaceful military 25 October 2013 00: 18
    -1
    PS
    Colleagues, compare British / Japanese "Asahi", British / Japanese "Asahi", etc.
    And our "Oslyabya" ...
    1. shurup
      shurup 25 October 2013 02: 11
      0
      What is there to compare? At such a distance "Oslyabya" from "Asahi" will make a colander.
      Compare better with "Tsesarevich" or unloaded coal "Borodino".
    2. Trapperxnumx
      Trapperxnumx 25 October 2013 10: 36
      0
      And what about "our Oslyabya"? Our Oslyabya was initially considered as a raider ship with a long cruising range and excellent seaworthiness. And why with Asahi? Let's compare better with Fuji! This masterpiece is 152mm. artillery - open, tower armor - cardboard. What's the trick to compare the strongest to the weakest? The Asahi class was the best Japanese ship, the Oslyabya class was the weakest Russian battleship. Even Petropavlovsk could withstand the duel with Asahi, not to mention the Tsarevich or Retvizan. Your comparison methods are useless.
    3. Storm
      Storm 25 October 2013 14: 35
      0
      So this is "Mikasa", But one fih
  22. Peaceful military
    Peaceful military 25 October 2013 00: 31
    0
    PPS
    Like a line:
  23. Maximus-xnumx
    Maximus-xnumx 25 October 2013 03: 05
    +3
    Quote: Peaceful military
    I will be bombarded, but the most acute disaster of RI is ammunition

    Why are they clamoring? This is a known fact.
  24. Jellyfish
    Jellyfish 25 October 2013 07: 21
    +3
    The Varangian, if I am not mistaken, was sunk by the team after after having shot all the ammunition during the battle with the superior Japanese forces in Port Arthur, the modern China city of Lushun. The city itself was commissioned after lengthy battles.
    Bulk-tweet-Novodvorskie hundred years ago sent congratulatory telegrams with a victory to the Japanese ambassador.
    1. Walker1975
      Walker1975 25 October 2013 13: 43
      0
      Quote: Jellyfish
      The Varangian, if I am not mistaken, was sunk ...


      Then it was raised by the Japanese, renamed and put into operation, then it was bought by the Russian Empire and sent for modernization, but ... a revolution broke out, money for maintaining and modernizing the ship was not transferred, and, in the end, the ship was cut for scrap.

      By the way, during World War I, Japan was on the side of the Entente. And Russia bought at high prices its own ships raised by the Japanese.
      1. Ulan
        Ulan 25 October 2013 15: 59
        0
        But the cruiser was in such a deplorable state that even a lengthy repair could not return its fighting qualities.
        As a result, the Japanese nevertheless included it in their fleet under the name "Soya", but not as a combat unit, but as a training ship with a different composition of weapons.
    2. Ulan
      Ulan 25 October 2013 15: 56
      0
      The ship lost almost all the artillery. If I’m not mistaken, and only six six-inch guns remain. I had a strong roll, a lot of holes, lost speed, fires periodically occurred.
    3. murriou
      murriou 3 August 2016 00: 37
      0
      Quote: Jellyfish
      The Varangian, if I’m not mistaken, was sunk by the team after after having shot all the ammunition during the battle with the superior Japanese forces in Port Arthur

      You are mistaken, and even a lot of things laughing
      1. The battle between "Varyag" and "Koreyets" was under Chemulpo, in Korea.
      2. The shooting of ammunition - a lie of Rudnev, one of many.
      Actually, only 160 152 mm shells were used up instead of the 500+ attributed by Rudnev in his report, and about the same number of mine shells was 75mm and 47mm instead of another half thousand ascribed.
  25. Ols76
    Ols76 25 October 2013 07: 53
    +1
    Very interesting article, offset to the author.
  26. Cossack23
    Cossack23 25 October 2013 22: 35
    +1
    That war was not lost by sailors with soldiers, but by the command that surrendered the ships to the right and to the left; there are very rare cases when the ship fought until the last, and finally could throw itself out onto the reefs. My great-grandfather (captain of the 2nd rank), in order to avoid the shame of captivity, committed suicide on deck, although the command was guaranteed life, which cannot be said about the sailors and soldiers. It was then that the first revolution took place on the battleship POTYOMKIN. And for those who say that we lost that war, I advise you to read "Port Arthur", the Japanese saw their sight there and in Manchuria their prisoners tore and threw. The Russian-Japanese war was lost as always by the commanders who live for themselves and not for the Fatherland, so GLORY to the sailors, soldiers and prisoners))) !!!
  27. Cristall
    Cristall 25 October 2013 23: 40
    +2
    After Turkey and Sweden were completely exhausted and no longer threatened the interests of St. Petersburg, London took up the young shoot-Japan
    However, Washington and London mutually nurtured loans with support, specialists and other things Tokyo.
    The Japanese without a twinge of conscience violated the rules of international law and no one told them anything ...
    It is a pity that it was impossible to sink all American and British ships - because of the danger of declaring war. And the cruising war did not work out because of this. How can you wage a war, if there are so many enemies inside and out?
    Although I repeat - at the end of 1905 human resources and materials for the war were coming to an end. The Japanese could not continue the war. It’s corny that they contacted RI could withstand a long war and YA could not ... and the loans were over.
    Washington adhered well and the revolution and internal enemies defeated the general mood was not at all like in the Patriotic
  28. Guilty
    Guilty 26 October 2013 07: 50
    0
    Quote: Ulan
    Why minus? I read that in addition to this, some naval official thought of shells for the Second Squadron to have gunpowder humidity three times higher, on the grounds that the squadron would be in tropical latitudes and there could be fires.
    It is alleged that because of this, a significant part of the shells did not explode when hit.
    There were no such problems in the First Pacific Squadron.

    It was about pyroxylin, not gunpowder. In fact, it was.
  29. unknown
    unknown 26 October 2013 17: 51
    +2
    Pyroxylin exceeded the so-called chimose in terms of high explosiveness, while at the same time it leads and menilitis by 1,45 times
    The humidity of pyroxylin is not completely clear.
    In addition, most of the shells for the second squadron came from Germany.
    This information is not new; it is contained in several monographs on individual ships of the second squadron.
    Why from Germany? Because only Germany and Russia equipped shells with pyroxylin, the rest could not develop and master such a technology.
    A lot has been written about the feat of the Varyag, as well as about the cruiser itself.
    Rudnev lost the ship mediocre without using its capabilities.
  30. murriou
    murriou 3 August 2016 00: 31
    0
    Quote: Ulan
    By the way, the English cruiser was the only one that did not take on board after the battle the wounded Russian sailors.

    You got it all messed up. The Talbot had 273 Russian sailors, more than any other foreign ship.

    Refused to accept Russian sailors American boat. At the same time, without any political reasons: 1. they had little space 2. They requested permission from the leadership and did not have time to get an answer.

    Quote: Ulan
    The British did not provide any help, they were very annoyed that the "Varyag" did not go to the Japanese intact.

    In fact, he just got the Japanese wholeheartedly, and even with ship documentation. Rudnev flooded the ships in the shallowest place, at low tide the hull almost completely got out of the water. Photos are in abundance.