The brigade headquarters battalion communications company consists of: a company management, a liaison office, a computer systems protection department, a relay department, a command center support department, and two communications platoons (the main command post and the rear command post).
Placement of advanced gearbox on the ground (option)
Organizational structure of a communications company
The management of the company, the offices of support for the command and control stations and the retransmission are responsible for the administration and logistic support of the communications company, as well as for retransmitting control signals.
The Computer Systems Security Division is responsible for ensuring the security of computer networks and the administration of the brigade’s information networks. The department deployed the main and advanced centers of network operations and information security, which are entrusted with the task of configuring information and local computer networks of the brigade, as well as their interfacing with higher-level networks.
The platoon of communication of the main command post deploys its main forces and means in the area of the OKP brigade and is responsible for:
- deployment of tactical satellite communications in the interests of PCD and control panel of the brigade;
- The conjugation of heterogeneous channels and communication lines and the organization of video and telephone communications, data transmission and the functioning of networks within the OKP brigade;
- deployment of high-speed communication lines to the PCR and the control panel of the brigade;
- subscriber access and operation of all communication systems in the interests of the PCD and the control panel of the brigade.
A rear-area communications platoon provides:
- the organization of communication in the rear area of the brigade;
- organization of noise-protected closed medium-speed (1554 kbit / s) digital channels of satellite communication between stationary subscribers - brigade control points (OKP and PKP), command post of logistics support battalion (command post), as well as organization of communication with the command post of the superior connection;
- The pairing of heterogeneous channels and communication lines and the organization of video, telephone and data transmission between the OKP brigade and the rear support battalion.
The communications department is responsible for ensuring the spatial (electromagnetic) availability of subscribers and communication centers, deploying relay nodes if necessary, interfacing and routing between the networks of the EPLRS system.
In the brigade, as in other parts and formations of the US Army, communications are organized on the principle of "top-down", "left-to-right", "from attached to supporting".
The brigade’s communication system is based on two levels of interaction: telecommunications and information.
The telecommunication level can be represented as key complementary elements:
- Tactical Internet systems;
- command radio communications system of the battlefield;
- communication systems of control points;
- satellite communication systems.
Each of these elements has a specific purpose and capabilities for the transfer of heterogeneous information in digital form between subunits, command and control centers and individual brigade military personnel.
The basis of the communication system of the combat units of the brigade at the level of "platoon-roto - battalion" is the network "Tactical Internet". Functionally, this network is similar to the global computer network "Internet" and is based on its technologies and protocols. When sending a message, Tactical Internet users address the messages in the same way as they do when using email services.
From a technical point of view, the Tactical Internet network is being deployed on the basis of the EPLRS system and the tactical link FBCB-2 ACS terminals.
Terminal system "EPLRS" with a connected laptop
Terminal ACS tactical level "FBCB-2"
“EPLRS” is intended for solving problems of automatic collection and real-time presentation of information about the location and combat capabilities of its forces and assets, the position of the enemy, as well as for the transfer of commands and target designations. It is an upgraded version of the previous version of this system, which was designed to automatically locate its subscribers, display the situation on the map and transmit short commands and messages in the tactical control link.
"EPLRS" is a data transmission network operating in the frequency range 420 — 450 MHz. The network is based on the principle of multiple access with time division based on transceiver equipment with variable frequency.
Each terminal provides the subscriber with the ability to use a virtual channel for receiving / transmitting information at 1,2 speeds up to 58 kbit / s, automatic retransmission of signals, and also provides navigation support services.
The EPLRS type AN / VSQ-2 (V) 1 terminals are equipped with most armored personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles, all command vehicles, auxiliary vehicles, as well as combat units at the rate of four terminals per platoon. Up to two “EPLRS” networks can be deployed in the brigade’s lane.
Portable and wearable terminal of the “EPLRS” system
The “EPLRS” terminals are interconnected with computers of the ACS “FBCB-22”, displaying data on the position of their forces and assets, as well as the revealed enemy forces on a time scale close to real.
The ability to dynamically reconfigure and route the EPLRS network allows users to exchange information about the situation, even when they are out of line of sight and during combat operations in a highly rugged terrain.
When conducting combat operations, the channels of the command radio system are used to transmit situation data and command information to combat vehicles, subunits and individual military personnel who are not equipped with the EPLRS system terminals and the FBCB-2 control system. Thus, using the “EPLRS” system terminals associated with the computers of the FBCB-2 ACS, almost complete informing of all brigade units about the battlefield is achieved.
The command radio system of the battlefield is an addition to the tactical Internet network of the brigade. It is a set of multi-level subsystems of radio communications, tactical satellite communications units (offices, groups, platoons, companies, battalions) and control points.
The main means in the system are digital VHF radio stations of the SINGARS series of various modifications:
-installed on the transport base: AN / VRC-92F, -91F, -90F, -89F, -88F, and -87F;
- wearable, in service with the commanders of battalions, companies, platoons, their deputies, commanders of branches and fire groups: AN / PRC-148 (V) 2, -119A, F and -126.
These radio stations are the fixed assets of the two multi-level subsystems of the command VHF and HF radio communications in the company-platoon and brigade-battalion links.
Tactical satellite VHF communications as an element of the command radio communication system is intended for:
- the organization of direct low-speed voice communication channels and data transmission when operating outside the zone of electromagnetic accessibility of other means of communication,
- for retransmitting channels of a command VHF radio communication, transmitting data of the situation to the ACS by combat operations.
Digital communication and data transmission are organized in multiple access mode with the provision of a channel on demand using UHF repeaters of a UFO-type satellite (225-400 MHz range) at speeds up to 16 kbps.
The main users of tactical satellite communications in the brigade are the brigade control points and battalions. Armed units and PU brigades are portable satellite communication stations AN / PSC-5.
In order to transmit large amounts of information circulating in the ACS by combat operations, a command center communications system is being deployed in the brigade’s area of operations. The operation of this system is based on the use of digital UHF radio stations of the NDTR series, which have a higher data transmission capacity than the Tactical Internet system. The stations of this series are deployed on the OKP and in the rear area of the brigade, as well as on the battalion command post.
A feature of the work stations NDTR series is their multi-mode. The stations allow you to organize radio networks with multiple access of subscribers within their location (cluster) and to maintain communication over the radio directions between the network reference stations.
At the same time, the power levels are dynamically adjusted to work with correspondents within the cluster and to work with another station NDTR of the core network. For the organization of communication, three frequencies are used: for the control channel, for communication of subscribers within the cluster, and for communication between stations of the core network.
In the multistation access mode, the NDTR radios, due to the presence of external interfaces and omnidirectional antennas, ensure seamless interfacing of the Tactical Internet network with existing communication systems of the operational-tactical control link using standard packet switching protocols.
To organize an additional high-speed communication channel (8,192 Mbit / s), a separate digital multichannel radio link of AN / GRC-245 radio relay stations (225-400 and 1 350-2 690 MHz) can be deployed between the OKP brigade and the rear support battalion.
The brigade’s satellite communications system is designed primarily for transmitting and receiving large volumes of information circulating in automated control systems, organizing secure, noise-resistant communications of the brigade headquarters with a higher-level connection and is based on mobile and portable satellite communications stations.
The main satellite communications stations in service with the brigade are:
- Mobile AN / TSC-154 of Milstar system;
- Mobile AN / TSQ-190 (V) 2 and AN / TSQ-190 (V) 3;
- transportable AN / TSC-167A and -185 (V);
- wearable AN / PSC-5.
Satellite stations are usually located on off-road vehicles such as “HMMWV”. These stations are used to organize protected from the effects of interference, closed medium-speed digital channels of satellite communication between stationary subscribers - brigade control points (OKP and PKP), a command post of a logistics support battalion, as well as for communication with a higher command command (unit). Due to the fact that there are a small number of stations in the armament of the brigades, during combat operations, by the decision of the commander, their deployment can be changed in the interests of the forces operating in the most important areas and organizing continuous secure communications with them.