Military Review

Ukrainian empire. Year 1918 th ...

Soon the national-conscious public will have to sigh, and sigh. Like, was, was a chance but not realized. The reason for this will be the 95 anniversary of the collapse of the Ukrainian state Pavel Skoropadsky. Some will lament about the fact that this state had great potential. Others will instructively say that the hetman went to the federation with Russia and thus destroyed himself. In connection with the anniversary, we are interested in another aspect of the policy of the former Adjutant General Nicholas II.

Let me remind you that the power Skoropadsky existed from April 29 to December 14 1918 g. Seven months or more. For a civil war is a very decent time. Moreover, many people at that time Ukraine seemed to be an island of tranquility, so a diverse audience from both capitals and other cities of the Russian Empire reached Kiev. Then, when these people found themselves in emigration, they remembered their life in 1918. Quite often in their memoirs there is a phrase that Skoropadsky said to his friends:

“I take Ukraine revolutionary and intoxicated, to create order in it and keep it from Bolshevism. But when the recovery of Russia comes, I will offer it to the Sovereign, who has already recovered, as the best pearl in the royal crown, as an integral part of the Russian Empire. "

Everything seems to be logical: well-born nobleman, guardsman, general. What remains for him except to “cure” Little Russia and return it to the empire. However, things are not so simple. There is reason to believe that Pavel Petrovich did not at all regard his Ukrainian state as something temporary, as a transitional stage towards the restoration of a united Russia.

Here is an example. In May, a delegation from the Great Don Army arrived in Ukraine on 1918. It consisted of Lieutenant-General Mikhail Svechin. Skoropadsky he knew even in the service in St. Petersburg, and the meeting of two guardsmen was warm. Svechin noticed that in the hetman’s office a large map of his power is hanging. In its composition, the guest from the Don noted with surprise, included not only the Little Russian provinces, but also the Donbass, Taganrog, Novorossiysk, Rostov and Kuban.

Svechin recalled that this card was clearly Skoropadsky's pride. His old comrade could not resist and objected that cartographers swung too much and with such an approach Ukraine could lay claim to the Volga region with Siberia. Then, however, the two Tsarist generals chose not to quarrel and changed the subject. Nevertheless, the fact is obvious: the hetman, whose authority rested on the bayonets of the German occupation forces, had territorial appetites, and considerable ones.

A special place in the heads of Ukrainian figures took Kuban. Nikolai Ryabovol, chairman of the local Council, even conducted negotiations with Skoropadsky in Kiev, discussing on what rights - autonomy or a subject of the federation - this land will join Ukraine. Also in the Hetman's capital, plans for an assault on the Kuban Zaporozhye division were hatched. This compound has absorbed all that remains of the army of the Central Rada. However, after its dispersal, the division was retained. Moreover, the hetman actually did not have his own military force.

The landing, however, did not take place and the Zaporozhians were sent to guard the eastern border of the Ukrainian state. By the way, its western frontiers ended at Zbruch - the Austrians were not going to give Galicia to Skoropadsky.

If the Kuban project of Kiev remained in theory, the Crimean question was nevertheless translated into a practical plane. Claims on the peninsula presented the Central Council. In the hetman state they were not abandoned. His Grace Skoropadsky believed that Crimea should be Ukrainian. The same point of view was held by Dmitry Doroshenko, Minister of Foreign Affairs. The Germans, who were the real masters of the situation, were less categorical, so another puppet government headed by General Matthew Sulkevich (Lithuanian Tatrina) appeared in Simferopol.

While the German generals hesitated, Doroshenko fought for the Crimea. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs allocated money for the publication of three Ukrainian newspapers and campaigning. Years later, the hetman wrote that it all looked rather naive:

“... some young people in Ukrainian costumes in Yalta and in the surrounding towns urged the public to become Ukrainians. Of course, this was not a success, but it did not harm anyone either. ”

Ukrainian empire. Year 1918 th ...

Pavel Skoropadsky: "... a new Crimean government led a new policy, far from being friendly to Ukraine, and pursued the goal of forming an independent state ..."

Matvey Sulkevich: "My government was neither for Ukraine nor against it, but sought only to establish good-neighborly relations, equally useful and necessary for both Ukraine and Crimea."

However, the war soon began, customs. The Ukrainian side established posts on the border with the Crimea and began an economic blockade of the peninsula. Not without firefights.

Sulkevich had even fewer troops than Skoropadsky. But the Crimean separate border division still formed. It was commanded by captain Nikolai Arnoldi. For the fact that in July 1918, the part entrusted to it defended Perekopsk, the commander was awarded - promoted to colonel.

However, the "fighting" were more economic in nature. In the Crimea and Ukraine did not miss the various goods. Along the way, a postal and telegraph message was interrupted.

In general, all this, of course, seemed like a delusion. The author of famous memories “The tragedy of Ukraine. From experienced in Kiev in 1918 year "Nikolai Mogilyansky was harsh:

“... the Russians of Ukraine and Crimea, seriously imagining themselves as two states, waged a customs war between themselves, as if it were useful for someone to rot food in Crimea when they were at crazy prices in Kiev. Shameful page!

However, both governments took it seriously. Ukraine, in particular, did not allow containers for vegetables and fruits to the peninsula. Crimea, in response, cherished plans to deprive the enemy of salt by establishing a monopoly on its extraction. And so - a few months.

Funny, but at almost the same time, a customs war was going on between the Omsk Provisional Siberian Government and the Samara “constituent” (Committee of the All-Russian Constituent Assembly members - Komuch).

In the autumn of 1918, the Germans forced Ukraine and the Crimea to begin negotiations. A delegation from Simferopol left for Kiev. Earned mail and telegraph. Border posts removed. True, not for long. They could not agree, and in October the customs war began again.

This, perhaps, was the last act of the great-power aspirations of the hetman and his government. The Germans lost the world war. 11 November Germany concluded an armistice with the Allies. And already 14-th Skoropadsky abruptly changed the direction of his policy and announced the federation with the future non-Bolshevik Russia. The next day, the Council of Ministers of the Ukrainian state decided to end the customs war.

A month later, the hetman fled from his capital to Germany. Then, in December, 1918, left Crimea Sulkevich. He went to Azerbaijan, became chief of the General Staff of the army of this Transcaucasian republic, and turned from Matvey Aleksandrovich to Mamed bek.

In 1920, security officers shot Sulkevich in Baku. Skoropadsky died in 1945, receiving mortal wounds after a raid by the Anglo-American aviation to the suburbs of Munich.

But the “creative” legacy of the two generals (I mean, what they did on 95 years ago) still worries the minds. Kiev intellectuals quite seriously rant about the fact that the hetman region, unlike Petliurism, was a serious thing, and if only a little more ...

Simferopol thinkers have their own pain. Here is a comment to one of the articles, devoted to the events of those years:

“Yes, Sulkevich could have turned into our Crimean Mannerheim, and then there would be no many problems now ... But alas ...”

What can you say? Only the fact that the interjection “alas”, expressing bitterness and regret, fits perfectly into such reasonings.
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  1. Echo
    Echo 25 October 2013 09: 49
    In fact, there was no "Ukrainian state". Just in the wake of total anarchy, a bunch of venal proto-species got out and, under the conditions of outright external occupation, began to imagine how "non-existent" they were. There were many of them, starting with this Skoropadsky, ending with the criminal Makhno. All of them were only blind pawns of the West in an attempt to destroy the unity of the Russian state.

    Let's better remember that there were the Odessa Soviet Republic and the Donetsk-Kryvyi Rih Republic, which all these UPR, the Ukrainian State and other quasi-colonies of the West were quite successfully sent to themselves, never being part of any Ukraine (then, however, they captured it without war). With regards to Odessa, Odessa in those glorious days simply piled on the villagers so that they would forget about "Ukrainske misto".

    And it is a pity that in our days the occupation of half-breeds in Little Russia, Novorossiya and Crimea has dragged on for so long. Skoropadsky of our days have forgotten about the "glorious" end of their ideological predecessors. And we should remind.
    1. vostok1982
      vostok1982 25 October 2013 10: 17
      I agree. Skoropadsky is a creature of the Germans. He was appointed to oversee the export of food, metals, wood, coal and other goods to the Reich. It was such that the Germans even took out the top fertile layer of black soil - they had a program and they carried it out methodically, in German. And the "hetman" was just a jester in the zhupane, he had no more power than the headman in the Second World War.
    2. Maverick78
      Maverick78 25 October 2013 12: 18
      And you originally interpret the story)
      I recommend VERY CAREFULLY to read the history of the Russian Empire, especially regarding the WWII and the 1917 revolutions. And also (well, it is already possible at the level of personal memories if you are at least 30 years old) the history of the collapse of the USSR. Just read without bias, and trying to understand the meaning of events and you will be very surprised when you see who started the collapse from the inside.
      And read about the criminals ... you will also find out a lot of interesting things.
      Well, my opinion is that the Russian Empire (and the late USSR) always put itself in the position of a "pawn of the West". Not the Russian people, but the ruling "elite" did everything to ensure that the Russian land was constantly on the world periphery. Recall at least the dictum of one of the British prime ministers - "we will fight for the interests of England to the last Russian." It did not appear out of the blue. But for some reason in the address of the Romanov dynasty and others like them such contemptuous passages are not visible. And if you can do one, then there will be others.
      Ancient Russia perished due to such as the Romanovs, Skoropadsky, Yeltsins and Kravchuk ... each smallest prince tried to be as independent and main as possible. Because of this, both RI and the USSR perished. And also because of people like you, whom the Chief said: Ukrainians are enemies. And that's it, chipmunk bird and no animals. And our people say the same thing about the population of Russia. Putin is not bad - and the Russians are bad. And now tell me, how are you different from our Bandera?
      1. smile
        smile 25 October 2013 14: 14
        Need to say. that there is something in your comment ... but you better tell me why Putin is bad? What did he do to bad Ukraine, besides the fact that he was compelled (and not immediately) to respond to the actions of your leadership, by pulling Ukraine away from Russia, and to the detriment of the Ukrainians themselves?
        1. Maverick78
          Maverick78 25 October 2013 20: 24
          "Putin is bad" is a kind of metaphor. But in fact, my personal attitude to GDP changes for the worse every year. I don’t know about you from the inside, but we don’t see from the outside how he is going to raise Russia. With such great opportunities there is no "breakthrough" ... Well, about the "stabilization fund" in the United States, the oligarchs, who have basically kept their own and other illogical for the "savior of the nation" actions, I think you yourself are aware. I personally get the impression that there is some kind of agreement, some kind of border beyond which he is afraid to go (does not want to, cannot)
          1. smile
            smile 26 October 2013 03: 40
            That's better. I myself don’t like everything, and much is unclear ... of course there are complaints. It should also be borne in mind that a significant part of his sins is created by appropriate propaganda and are imaginary.
            As for the restriction of freedom of action, it exists, and it cannot but be, just like the leader of any country without any exceptions.
            Even the absolute monarchs of the Middle Ages were forced to reckon with the interests of different clans, and other vowels or unspoken restrictions ... otherwise, there would ALWAYS be re-elections ... with a snuffbox on the head ... :))) Why would Putin be an exception? Moreover, he stood at the helm of a derailed state with gigantic inertia recruited during the perestroika period.
      2. xan
        xan 25 October 2013 15: 19
        Quote: Maverick78
        Well, my opinion is that the Russian Empire (and the late USSR) always put itself in the position of a "pawn of the West". Not the Russian people, but the ruling "elite" did everything to keep the Russian land on the world periphery

        Quote: Maverick78
        And also because of people like you, whom the Chief said: Ukrainians are enemies. And that's it, chipmunk bird and no animals. And our people say the same thing about the population of Russia. Putin is not bad - and the Russians are bad. And now tell me how you are different from our Bandera

        It started well, but ended badly.
        1. Maverick78
          Maverick78 25 October 2013 20: 40
          And he began and "finished" the same)) You and I have already tried to "discuss" in similar topics. Try to understand what the other person wants to say, and not hear what you want.
    3. APES
      APES 25 October 2013 13: 54
      Quote: Echo
      Skoropadsky of our days have forgotten about the "glorious" end of their ideological predecessors. And we should remind.

    4. Anthony
      Anthony 25 October 2013 21: 22
      That's interesting ... why there is no article about Belarus? Why isn’t her story so washed up and trying to prove to them that they (Belarusians) are just part of one country? Because Belarusians agree on everything? There are no articles about Kazakhstan ... what is it that Ukraine does not let the authors of articles about our country sleep?
  2. v.lyamkin
    v.lyamkin 25 October 2013 10: 04
    Read. There is no desire to comment on the article materials somehow.
  3. Egoza
    Egoza 25 October 2013 10: 28
    Unfortunately, it is during the period of the existence of this "Ukrainian Empire" that the history of Ukraine is being built now. Well, after all, it was "square", and then the "damned Bolsheviks" and Russia ... and so on. And no one wants to admit that such an empire would not have been able to hold out for a long time in any way. Better to blame everything on Russia and "komunyak"!
    1. smile
      smile 25 October 2013 14: 17
      Exactly! I was especially amused by the phrase about "Crimean Mannerheim" ... the one who blurted it out clearly has no idea that in that case there would be no Russians left in Crimea - they would be shot or put in concentration camps - just like it happened in Finland.
      1. smile
        smile 25 October 2013 15: 44
        No one is trying to object, but expresses quiet discontent, :))), he is forced to show a little. WHAT was for the Russians Mannerheim:

        The historian Veijo Meri wrote: “The decree promising to finally do away with the Russians was a precautionary measure and the foundation of a tougher course ... (meaning after the white Finns with the help of the Germans destroyed the Red Finns - and their troops were no less than whites, about 100 thousand). After the capture of Tammerfors, 200 Russians were executed at the Tammerfors station. Among them were white Russian officers hiding in the city. Vyborg also shot captured Russians, including civilians, not only Poles, businessmen and entrepreneurs who supported the white army. ”Mary W. Mannerheim, Marshal of Finland.

        “On April 14, announcements of the alleged urgent eviction of Russian citizens from Helsingfors were posted on the city. Then began the seizure by the White Guard of Russian ships under the commercial flag, which was protested by the Russian command. Tugboats and minesweepers were mainly captured, and this was carried out in the most unceremonious way: the teams were driven out, having 5 minutes of time to collect their things, and all provisions were selected. In the city and on ships, German and Finnish forces arrested Russian officers and sailors on the most ridiculous pretexts. Local newspapers showed extreme viciousness towards Russia and poured mud tubs on everything that was somehow connected with the Russian name ... The Finnish government imposed an embargo on hospital ships and completely ignored the Red Cross flag and the Danish flag raised after the adoption of the flotilla under the protection of Denmark ... All sailors and soldiers, caught in the ranks of the Red Guards with weapons in their hands, were rigorously shot. In Tammerfors alone, the number of people executed was 350. Here, according to newspaper reports, several Russian officers were also shot. In Vyborg, after its capture by the White Guards, in addition to the direct participants in the struggle, several dozen Russian officers, as well as pupils of Russian educational institutions, who did not take part in the defense of Vyborg by the Red Guards, died. Russian citizens were forced to leave Finland as soon as possible not only with open repressions of the authorities, but also with a boycott, public insults, newspaper bullying and living conditions close to complete lawlessness. Due to their haste, they lost all their property, which was sold for nothing
        .Civil War. Fighting on the seas, river and lake systems. T. 2 / Ed. I. Egorova, E. Schwede. Part 1. Baltic Fleet 1918–1919, Leningrad: Editorial and Publishing Department of the RKKF Naval Forces, 1926. A purely military publication, and until 1991 it was in a secret storage.

        If anyone is not enough to understand WHAT Mannerheim brought, I can provide more. :))) Only Russophobe could become Mannerheim.
        I highly recommend Shirokorad's book "Finland. Through three wars to peace"
  4. ele1285
    ele1285 25 October 2013 10: 31
    All the power in Ukraine is kind of wonderful, they want to bite off a piece that is not something they cannot swallow, and that piece does not fit into their mouth. Like that boob with two balls from the bearing, it will either break or lose
    1. zub46
      zub46 25 October 2013 20: 29
      "Ne zim, so I'll bite!" - an old joke.
  5. Echo
    Echo 25 October 2013 10: 46
    I recommend everyone to regularly watch the program of Grigory Kvasnyuk "Pravda" on the Odessa TV channel ATV. It will immediately become clear where the RUSSIAN city of Odessa is actually striving and how Novorossia relates to the occupation. - вот здесь.

    Friends, join the civic organization Dozor in Odessa, even if you live in the Far East! We ourselves cannot end the Svidomo traitors-separatists and the continued occupation of the Russian land, help us! - загляните сюда!

    The whole history of the so-called. "Ukrainian state" is a complete lie, from beginning to end. For centuries, the West has been hatching aggressive plans to dismember Russia, and above all to tear away the Black Sea region and the Russian Riviera from it! If we do not stop the actions of the enemy today, his success will become final, and the Russians of the distant future, our descendants, will curse us.

    Here is such a small advertisement.
  6. samoletil18
    samoletil18 25 October 2013 12: 54
    The article can be recommended as a preface to Bulgakov's White Guard. Of course, adding the theme of Petliura.
    1. Tyumen
      Tyumen 25 October 2013 15: 33
      Petliura is a separate issue. He concluded an agreement with Pilsudski.
  7. pensioner
    pensioner 25 October 2013 13: 56
    The "empire" lasted only 7 months. And what a move !! And you customs wars, and visits, and all sorts of landings ... Everything is grown-up. Really-Empire. And the fact that the Germans were tethered ... So it is, so, unimportant ...
  8. kaktus
    kaktus 25 October 2013 14: 44
    "Behind the hetman, German generals in helmets with gilded cones were frozen like monuments on black cast-iron horses. Monocles gleamed in the eyes of almost all Germans. Liquid crowds of curious Kievites gathered on the sidewalks.
    The units passed by and shouted "glory!" To the hetman. In response, he only brought the stack to the hat and slightly heated the horse.
    Our regiment decided to hit the hetman. As soon as we caught up with him, the entire regiment struck a dashing song.
    The "Motor Lads" sang especially dashingly - with a whistle and a hopeless dashing "eh!" at the beginning of each verse:
    Oh, our dear, our dear
    Hetman Skoropadsky,
    Hetman Skoropadsky,
    Ataman Bosyatsky.
    The "lads" were angry that we were being sent to the front so soon ... "

    K. Paustovsky. The beginning of an unknown century
  9. ko88
    ko88 25 October 2013 15: 48
    yes it's all right! look comrades on the Internet about the new version of Ukrainian scientists, about the existence of highly developed ancient ukrov, direct ancestors of modern Ukrainians and Russians, in short, this version is now glad to consider history for inclusion in the school subject.
  10. xan
    xan 25 October 2013 16: 28
    When considering the situation in Ukraine at that time, one should not forget that no one took the Bolsheviks who seized power in Russia seriously. But so far there has not been serious anti-Bolshevik power. Here are all sorts of gags and tried to pretend to be power in order to score points before the overthrow of the Bolsheviks.
    Actually, the hetman was not a Ukrainian nationalist. His inner support - the nobility and officers, were with him for lack of an alternative, and he perfectly understood this. The real Ukrainian nationalist was Petlyura, who rebelled against Skoropadsky, which prompted the latter to force negotiations with Denikin, but it was too late.
    It is also noteworthy that the officers in Ukraine did not want to fight for a relative order under Skoropadsky, considering him a temporary worker, which is well shown by Bulgakov in the White Guard. Meanwhile, only a two thousandth White Guard detachment of Denikin’s captured Kiev from a much larger number of Petliur’s, partly disarmed, partly dispersed, and especially zealous interrupted.
    And I would like to troubled Ukrainians, proud of the fighting strength of Father Makhno’s army, to inform the recently deducted from Ukrainian Savchenko in “12 Wars for Ukraine” - “Voroshilov gave Trotsky the famous telegram - Makhno was shattered to pieces. Where Makhno himself is unknown. Pigmen are asking for help and protection from the Soviet Government. ” Denikins were already defeated near Tula and rampant in front of the advancing Reds, and a half-thousand detachment of white Cossacks drove Petliurites almost under the Polish Lions.
    1. pensioner
      pensioner 25 October 2013 18: 10
      Quote: xan
      we must not forget that no one took the Bolsheviks who seized power in Russia seriously.

      I read this phrase and stopped ... I did not read further. And this is after when the overwhelming number of large cities of Russia (there were very few of them, but ...) reported that they recognized the power of the Bolsheviks? And this is not serious ??
      1. xan
        xan 25 October 2013 20: 24
        Quote: retired
        And this is after when the overwhelming number of large cities of Russia (there were very few of them, but ...) reported that they recognized the power of the Bolsheviks? And this is not serious ??

        The Denikin army began with an ice campaign of eight hundred White Guards, not all of whom were military, and Kiev, stuffed with fighters Petliur, was taken not afraid to fight and die white in the amount of about 2 thousand. Petrograd almost took Yudenich with 5,5 thousand bayonets and sabers. This is serious.
        And the gulpans in the stands are not power.
  11. Ulan
    Ulan 25 October 2013 16: 59
    During the time of troubles, during the great revolutionary upheavals, all kinds of temporary territorial formations arise that do not represent any force and are considered legitimate only until order is restored.
    The fate of Skoropadsky and others like him was a foregone conclusion until either red or white won.
    I think he himself understood this, although he swaggered.
    Actually, this is what happened - ending the turmoil of the empire restored the borders.
  12. kafa
    kafa 25 October 2013 18: 30
    “... some young people in Ukrainian costumes in Yalta and in the surrounding towns urged the public to become Ukrainians. Of course, this was not a success, but it did not harm anyone either. ”
  13. kafa
    kafa 25 October 2013 18: 34
    A month later, the hetman fled from his capital to Germany. Then, in December, 1918, left Crimea Sulkevich. He went to Azerbaijan, became chief of the General Staff of the army of this Transcaucasian republic, and turned from Matvey Aleksandrovich to Mamed bek.
    Wai Wai I don’t envy where in Baku there was a good fat ........
  14. buchine
    buchine 27 October 2013 06: 00
    Crimea has nothing to do with Ukraine, as, incidentally, the entire Left Bank of the Dnieper, Donbass and the entire south-west, formerly called Novorossia. All these lands were conquered by Russia from the Poles and Turks in the 18th century. There was no trace of Ukraine at that time. was, and the Right Bank was considered the outskirts of the fragmented Rzeczpospolita, hence the name "Ukraine", as the outskirts, the extreme part of the once whole state. If Bohdan Khmelnytsky did not reunite the "borderlands" with Muscovy, then Ukrainians would live in slaves Poles to this day, and Novorossia and Crimea would belong to Russia. These are the Bolsheviks-Jews led by Lenin after the Civil War in 1922, they dismembered historical Russia, creating a chimera of the USSR, which they destroyed themselves, using the mechanism of "democratic centralism" of the CPSU. Skoropadsky? The country was destroyed by shape-shifting traitors from the CPSU Central Committee Gorbachev, Yeltsin, Kravchuk, Shushkevich and their henchmen, the Russian people were divided into different states and plunged other peoples into tragedy. And no one answered for anything. But God and History will judge them.
  15. kukara4an
    kukara4an 27 October 2013 11: 22
    The UPR is a Masonic project that, apart from Germany, no one supported.
  16. bublic82009
    bublic82009 30 October 2013 16: 37
    sorry that it happened. although history does not like the subjunctive moods. but nonetheless.