October 26, 2013 marks the 75th anniversary of the founding of the Yaroslavl Military Financial School. For seven decades, officers of the financial and economic profile have been trained here for the Armed Forces, internal troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Federal Security Service and other state power structures. In the process of reforming the Armed Forces in 2008–2012, a unique educational institution was liquidated, officer posts of financiers and economists in the army and navy abolished and further training of officers discontinued. Financial authorities at all levels began to be equipped with civilian specialists selected in the labor market. These transformations adversely affected the quality of financial security.
History The Yaroslavl Military Finance School named after General of the Army A. V. Khrulev began with two companies of cadets who began training in the financial specialty at the military school in Yaroslavl in October 1938. Since then, the educational institution 11 has changed its location once and has been reformed twice with the subsequent restoration of the rank of a military financial institution.
Four military years
The formation of the school as an independent structure occurred on the eve of and in the harsh years of the Great Patriotic War. The decision to create it in Kharkov, in view of the aggravation of the international situation, was taken at the beginning of 1941. The necessary administrative and organizational documents were prepared, but the war began, and the formed school headed east. In marching conditions, changing places of deployment, anew, from scratch, an educational, methodical and material-technical base of training and education was created. At the same time, the training process did not stop for a single day, the training of financial officers was constantly increasing in order to meet the growing needs of the Red Army. Over the period 1941 – 1945, thousands of specialists have been released 3,5.
Yaroslavl. The confluence of the Volga and Kotorosl rivers. Monument 1000 anniversary of the founding of the city
Officers who graduated from college during the war years, as a rule, were sent to combat regiments and battalions. They adequately solved the tasks of financial support of the active army, reserve units and military units. Having overcome the difficulties of the first months of the war, in a short time, it was possible to debug the mechanism of paying money allowances not only to servicemen, but also to their families on money certificates, as well as to the wounded and sick in hospitals, partisan units behind the front line. The timely payment of pensions and benefits to military retirees was also provided. During the war years, more than half of the state budget passed through military financiers, they collected 8,4 billion rubles into the defense fund, successfully fulfilled an order of the government to transfer part of the military allowances to deposits, which contributed to the stabilization of money circulation in the country.
Many financial officers had heroically fought on command and other military positions on various fronts, as well as in partisan detachments and formations. In 1944, 1 people were transferred to command positions from among the military financiers of the 330 of the Ukrainian Front, 1 of the Belarusian Front - 273, 2 of the Belarusian Front - 159, 3 of the Belarusian Front - more than 270 people.
Seven graduates of the school and short-term financial courses were awarded the highest distinction of the Motherland for combat exploits during the Great Patriotic War - the title of Hero of the Soviet Union. Among them is the famous sniper Vasily Grigorievich Zaitsev. It is to him that the words that have become the nerve of the Battle of Stalingrad belong: “Beyond the Volga there is no land for us!”, “We have stood and will stand to the death!”. Only in the period from November 10 to December 17 on 1942 in battles for Stalingrad, Zaitsev destroyed 225 enemy soldiers and officers, including eleven snipers.
Aleksey Segorovich Egorov, Chief Financial Officer of the Higher School of the Central Headquarters of the Partisan Movement, courageously fought in partisan detachments. He was an outstanding demolition man, one of those who understood the meaning of the “rail war” and was able to organize sabotage and subversive work in a new way. Egorov prepared more than three hundred miners-bombers and personally participated in sabotage operations. Subsequently, leading a partisan brigade, he actively participated in the Slovak National Uprising. Taking into account the special merits of Egorov, the government of Czechoslovakia established a military award - the sign "Star of Egorov". In 1944 – 1945, thousands of military financiers received more than 17,5 military combat awards. And this is in conditions when, for ideological reasons, it was not very accepted to reward financiers.
First of all, officer
In the postwar years, the school was built in the general direction of the development of military and special education in the country. At first, the training was carried out according to biennial programs, then - according to the programs of a secondary specialized educational institution with a three-year study period and awarding graduates of all-union sample diplomas.
For the first time, its own military campus was provided only in Yaroslavl, where the university relocated from Tambov in 1957 year. Prior to that, separate buildings were allocated, which, as a rule, were used for official, educational and barracks purposes.
For many decades, the place of residence of the financial military school was the historic Nikolomokrinsky military camp founded by Peter I in 1710. By the middle of the 50-s of the XX century, it is outdated both morally and physically. It took systematic and hard work of several generations of leaders, commanders of all levels, civil servants, cadets, so that a modern, well-equipped complex that fully provided the conditions for study and life appeared on the site of 200 buildings built over 200 years ago! and life of cadets. Of course, constant assistance to the school command in this work was provided by the leadership of the main financial structure of the Ministry of Defense.
From the first days of the school’s formation, the command paid close attention to the physical conditioning of the cadets. During the formation of the first training companies, officers responsible for organizing and conducting physical education classes and sports events were introduced to the states. This was the key to future high achievements of students in physical culture and sports. During the existence of the school, four international-class masters of sports, over a hundred masters of sports and about ten thousand first-class athletes have been trained. The state of physical training of cadets and the permanent composition of the school has always been at the highest level.
The Pesochnoye training center played a good service in the training of officers. Starting from the entrance examinations, the young organism of the future officers was tempered in the field conditions, strength and endurance, officer bearing and smartness were developed. The Pesochny worked out practical tasks in military disciplines: tactics, military rear, military topography, fire, drill and physical training. Graduates recall the exceptional intensity of these classes, which miraculously combined with the benevolence of teachers and the ease of their conduct.
Grateful descendants will always be remembered by the organizers and first leaders of the school: Major General M. Ye. Mikhailov, Colonel P. S. Antonov, Colonel N. S. Smolich, Major General M. G. Shpilevsky, Lieutenant General I. E. Raschupkina, as well as many other officers and civilian specialists, for whom the creation and development of the school was a matter of honor, and for some - a matter of a lifetime.
Training officers in the school was carried out in three main areas: to fill the post of chief of financial services - assistant commander for financial and economic work in government units, positions of chief accountants in military construction organizations and industrial enterprises, managers and specialists of field institutions of the State Bank of the USSR and then the Bank of Russia.
However, the command, the faculty always proceeded from the fact that first of all they prepare a professional military officer, and only then a good specialist in the field of economics, finance, and banking. And this approach was maintained throughout the existence of the school.
Among the leading universities
In 1974, the school was transferred to the category of higher educational institutions, training was carried out under programs of higher military-special education with a four-year, and from 1995 with a five-year period of study. More than 35 thousands of officers were trained, including over two thousand graduates with honors. Taking into account the current short-term financial courses and externalities, the primary officer military rank at the university received and tied their fate to the service to the Fatherland in the Armed Forces and other power structures of the state over 70 thousand people. A number of graduates received diplomas in two specialties.
With the transfer to the category of higher schools has become one of the largest and most prestigious military educational institutions in the country and enjoyed exceptional popularity among young people, including girls. The traditional competition for admission was four to five people in place, and the girls - up to ten people. The maximum number of cadets who simultaneously studied at the school is more than 2,8 thousands.
Over the years, the educational process at the university was conducted by 125 doctors of science, more than 560 candidates of science, financial and economic science developed successfully, the dissertation council for receiving candidate and doctoral dissertations was actively working, publishing was carried out.
Textbooks, study guides, developed in the departments (cycles), became the reference books of practical workers in the troops and fleets. The departments took part in the development of complex research projects on the instructions of the General Staff, the main financial structure of the Ministry of Defense. In terms of the quality of training, the Yaroslavl Military Financial University, with the rank of an institute and an academy, ranks with the leading financial and economic universities in Russia.
The school was not deprived of attention by the country's leadership, public figures. In 1996, President of the Russian Federation Boris Yeltsin visited and met with cadets in it. Over the years, he was visited by Russian Prime Ministers Egor Gaidar, Mikhail Kasyanov, defense ministers Sergey Sokolov, Sergey Ivanov. The leaders of the state, the army and the fleet have always noted the achievements of the command, faculty, employees and cadets of the educational institution, stressed the importance of military professional financiers to strengthen the country's defense.
Needed by the whole state
In the early nineties of the last century, when the search began for ways to save defense expenditures, voices were often heard that it was not appropriate to continue training officers of a number of specialties. In particular, it was said about the replacement of civilian specialists and financial officers.
Proposals for the complete elimination of the Yaroslavl Military Finance School to Gaidar’s helpful reformers of the time also presented themselves, but he seriously got into the problem, understood the importance and scope of the tasks solved by military financiers. Convinced of the fallacy of the proposed approach, he made the right government decision. Speaking to the officers of the school in 1992, Yegor Timurovich said bluntly: "You need not only the Armed Forces of Russia, but also the state as a whole." Thus, the problem was removed for many years.
Officers - graduates of the school were intended for military service in all branches of the Armed Forces, combat arms, military districts, fleets, internal troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, FSB, foreign intelligence, Emergency Situations Ministry, structures of the Main Department for the Execution of Punishments of the Ministry of Justice of Russia and other law enforcement agencies. With the creation of the Commonwealth of Independent States, it trained officers of a financial and economic specialty for many of its member countries.
Having consistently completed primary military financial positions and, if necessary, after completing training at the Military Faculty at the IFI (at the Military Finance and Economics University), graduates of the school became heads of the financial and economic bodies of divisions, armies, military districts, fleets, and other financial or regulatory structures. right up to the central apparatuses of the Ministry of Defense, the Federal Security Service, the Interior Ministry, and the Ministry of Emergency Situations. More than 120 graduates are given general military ranks.
Continuing the martial traditions of front-line financiers, graduates in peacetime adequately performed military duty during military conflicts and in the implementation of international military cooperation. Korea, Cuba, Egypt, Vietnam, Angola, Afghanistan, Syria, Bosnia and Herzegovina - this is not a complete list of the countries in which they have been solving financial support for military contingents over the years. Many were awarded state awards for personal courage, unfortunately, there were both wounded and dead.
The contribution of the school to the socio-economic development and cultural life of the city of Yaroslavl and the Yaroslavl region is significant. The implementation of patronage military-patriotic programs, practical assistance in the education of adolescents, participation in agricultural work, in the fight against natural disasters are just some of the tasks that for decades have been selflessly solved by personnel in the interests of their beloved city and region.
The versatility of the education received, the active life position, diligence and perseverance brought up in the learning process allowed the graduates to find a worthy place in life after dismissal from military service. Many of them organized their own business, became state employees, successfully worked and work in the office of the president and the government of the Russian Federation, the government of Moscow, various administrative, military, banking and production structures throughout Russia and in the CIS countries.
For services to the Fatherland, more than 70 military finance economists have been awarded the state award - the honorary title of Honored Economist. Among graduates there are military and political figures, prominent scientists, filmmakers, film artists, honored cultural workers, laureates of the Prize for them. G. K. Zhukova, as well as received many other honorary titles and state awards.
Experience, traditions, memory
In recent years, the status of the Yaroslavl University, mainly due to the inconsistency of the reforms carried out in the Armed Forces, has repeatedly changed. In 1999, the school was transformed into a branch of the Military Finance and Economics University, in 2003 in the Military Finance and Economics Institute, in 2007 in the Military Finance and Economics Academy, in 2009 in the Military Finance and Economics Institute composed Military University Ministry of Defense. In 2010, this educational institution as an independent structure was abolished. The Faculty of Finance and Economics is included in the Military University of the Ministry of Defense as a structural unit. Currently, cadets are being trained at this faculty, which are mostly not intended for the Armed Forces, but for other power ministries and departments.
During the years of activity at the school, many good traditions have been developed, revered by university veterans, graduates and supported by the command. In honor of the 60 anniversary of the school’s foundation, a memorial stele was installed at the expense of the students, which became a symbol of the cadet fraternity. Another tradition is solemn and funny issues, which gathered a large number of relatives and close young officers. Over the years, graduate meetings have been held on the occasion of anniversaries from the date of graduation with a frequency of five years. Meetings are held after the dissolution of the university.
Today, when the school is no longer there, the regional branch of the Council of veterans of the military financial and economic service in the Yaroslavl region, led by reserve colonel V. A. Bychkov, continues to work with veterans. The participants of the Great Patriotic War are surrounded by special care, unfortunately, there are not many of them, they require constant attention and support.
Nostalgia for the Yaroslavl military financial institution does not leave many. A very important and necessary university for ensuring the country's defense, which for many years trained specialists in the military economy, finance and banking devoted to the Fatherland, has been lost.
As part of the activities of the Council of Veterans of the Military Financial and Economic Service and its Yaroslavl branch 22, February 2013, at the entrance to the military camp, where the university was located from 1957 to 2010, a memorial plaque was installed. The school deserved this memory.
Of course, the experience of the Yaroslavl Military Financial School will be in demand, because without organizing their own training of personnel for financial and economic profile, the Armed Forces will not be able to function normally.